Author by : Christopher J. Adams
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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File Size : 40,9 Mb
Description : Clinical experience with missionaries all along the continuum of the missionary career, from student volunteer to retiring after 40 years on the field, has provided evidence that just because people have remained on the mission field for a long period of time does not mean they did so with positive adjustment and effectiveness. Nor do positive adjustment or job satisfaction necessarily led to effectiveness. Although the costs of missionary attrition have been immense, the costs due to lack of effectiveness have likely been sizeable as well in terms of financial resources and inestimable in terms of lost ministry impact. Identification of personality predictors of effectiveness could potentially enhance the ministry of Christian missions by informing selection, placement, and missionary care procedures. The following study was exploratory in nature, and examined personality predictors of missionary effectiveness. A review of missionary, clergy, expatriate, and domestic job performance literature yielded several different markers of "success" including (a) perseverance/completion of a term of service, or attrition, (b) adjustment, (c) job satisfaction, and (d) job performance or "effectiveness." Although these terms have been used interchangeably, adjustment and job satisfaction are likely mediating variables of job performance and attrition, "necessary but not sufficient" for effectiveness. Previous research has established that supervisor ratings are a valid and reliable measure of job performance. However, missionary and clergy effectiveness research has not yielded consistent results, most likely due to the lack of an organizing taxonomy of personality such as the Big Five, as in domestic job performance and expatriate research. Furthermore, although missionary effectiveness is difficult to define and measure, research suggests that clinical scales from the MMPI and 16PF may be predictors of supervisor ratings of missionary effectiveness. Secondary analysis of archival data was conducted utilizing selected personality scales from the 16PF and MMPI and supervisor ratings of missionary effectiveness in a sample of 101 denominational missionaries. Data imputation procedures were utilized to replace missing data. The sample exhibited higher means than norm populations on MMPI Hy, Pd, Ma, Si, and Es scales, as well as 16PF N, G, and Q3 scales, and lower means on 16PF scales F and M. Results indicated that the missionaries in the current study likely deny psychological problems more than the norm, have more situational conflict, have more anxiety, are more creative, and are generally more psychologically healthy than the norm population for the MMPI. Logistic regression analyses indicated that time on the mission field, and the MMPI Ma and Sc (in a reduced model) scales were found to be predictors of supervisor ratings, indicating that missionaries with less experience, less creativity, and more task oriented styles are likely to have more interpersonal problems. Although no personality scales were found to be predictors of supervisor ratings of effectiveness, the MMPI Pt and 16PF N scales exhibited a trend toward significance, indicating that a certain amount of anxiety and forthrightness may be related to higher ratings of missionary effectiveness. Limitations of the study included a small and somewhat homogeneous sample, and outcome measures with possible questionable validity and reliability. Implications for future research were discussed, including use of Five Factor personality taxonomy and theoretical, ecological framework incorporating a mediated model of missionary effectiveness.