Modification Of Treaties By Subsequent Practice

Author by : Irina Buga
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : This book explores the process of treaty modification by subsequent practice, explaining how such practice can significantly revise treaty obligations or even create new ones, allowing evolution of the law.


Treaties And Subsequent Practice

Author by : Georg Nolte
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
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Description : Under the relevant rules of international law, treaties are interpreted in accordance with the ordinary meaning of the language they use, their object and purpose, and the intention of the drafters, but also in light of the subsequent practice of its parties. This subsequent practice can shed light on articles whose meaning is ambiguous and subsequent agreement can even alter the meaning of treaty provisions. At a time when many of the most important international treaties are more than fifty years old, subsequent practice plays an increasingly important role in their interpretation. Treaties and Subsequent Practice discusses the role and relevance of this subsequent practice in the process of dynamic treaty interpretation. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of this topic by eminent commentators, combining contributions which focus on practical cases with chapters examining the theoretical underpinnings of treaty interpretation. The concept of subsequent practice is situated in the more general context of treaty law and international law, looking at different cases and doctrinal questions to assess its policy dimensions. The book addresses the question of whether subsequent practice plays a more or less significant role in different areas of international law, and whether it can be employed as a partial substitute for formal treaty amendments. It also includes two previously unpublished reports issued by the International Law Commission's Study Group on this topic.


Treaties And Subsequent Practice

Author by : Georg Nolte
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : Subsequent practice by states is crucial to the interpretation of treaties. This book examines its potential to serve as a substitute for formal treaty amendments. It combines both practical and theoretical contributions on the subject and includes the reports of the International Law Commission's 'Treaties over Time' programme.


Yearbook Of The International Law Commission 1966 Vol I Part 2

Author by : United Nations International Law Commission
Languange : en
Publisher by : United Nations
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Description : The Yearbook of the International Law Commission Volume I, contains summary records of the International Law Commission sessions on such subjects as: arbitral procedures, diplomatic immunities, Law of the Sea, nationality, Law of Treaties and Rights and Duties of States.


Environmental Protection China And International Trade

Author by : Fengan Jiang
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : This book argues for a balanced approach to ‘greening’ the World Trade Organization (WTO) ban on China’s export duties without opening the floodgates to protectionism. As a result of the China—Raw Materials and China—Rare Earths decisions, China is largely prohibited from using export duties to address environmental problems, including those associated with climate change. This is despite a number of climate studies having suggested that Chinese export duties could be useful for reducing carbon leakage, an issue of international concern. This book puts the case for a more balanced approach. It shows that a harsh ban on China’s export duties constrains its policy space to protect the environment, particularly in the context of climate change. The work presents feasibility tests for various legal solutions that have been discussed for adjusting the ban, and it accordingly proposes a more feasible approach that would allow China to help protect the environment without advancing protectionism. The proposed legal option provides a less protectionist alternative to export duties, namely ‘export duties plus’: export duties in combination with supplementary restrictions on Chinese consumption. This analysis also yields insights regarding ways to correct WTO precedents, which suggests a moderate alternative response to an important issue behind the Appellate Body crisis. The book will be a valuable resource for academics, researchers and policymakers in the areas of International Trade Law, Environmental Law and China.


Evolutionary Interpretation And Other Developments Of The Vienna Convention On The Law Of Treaties

Author by : Laura Sophie Thimm-Braun
Languange : en
Publisher by : GRIN Verlag
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Description : Essay from the year 2019 in the subject Law - European and International Law, Intellectual Properties, grade: 1,0, University of Vienna (Institut für Europa- und Völkerrecht), language: English, abstract: This essay is concerned with the ramifications of the interpretation of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, from now on referred to as VCLT, constitutes the "bible" of international practitioners. Like the United Nations Charter, the widespread clarity and intelligence of its drafting have enabled States to comply with the rules and adapt their practice without distorting or departing from the VCLT. The rules provide an important framework which is flexible enough for States to accommodate alternatives, variations and even developments in their state practice. The provisions of the VCLT leave the states room for individual concretisation. Some commentators say the VCLT has had its day and is incapable of dealing with the challenges of the 21st century. However, the VCLT has proved itself to be a most adaptable tool, as it was able to deal with challenges of the past decades. In order to do so, the provisions of the VCLT were clarified, modified, developed, or amended. This paper aims at discussing the development of several selected provisions of the VCLT as well as analysing the new types of interpretation, such as the evolutionary interpretation. The difference between the original provisions and the present state of the law will be outlined in this paper.


Customary International Law And Treaties

Author by : Mark Eugen Villiger
Languange : en
Publisher by : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
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Description : States often regard themselves bound by treaty rules which have developed under customary international law, even though many of the treaties themselves have not been ratified. The Law of the Sea Convention, for instance, has generated new customary rules which modified the 1958 Geneva Conventions. These & many other issues are dealt with clearly & systematically in this informative handbook on the relations between written & unwritten international law. The conclusions of the first edition of Customary International Law & Treaties were largely confirmed by the International Court of Justice in the Nicaragua Case. This fully revised second edition, while basing itself on the original version, brings the subject up to date.


Article 31 3 C Of The Vienna Convention On The Law Of Treaties And The Principle Of Systemic Integration In International Investment Law And Arbitration

Author by : Daniel Rosentreter
Languange : en
Publisher by : Nomos Verlag
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Description : The treatise gives scholars and practitioners useful guidance for resolving the key issues of contemporary investment law (i.e. how best to balance investor's rights to investment protection and host states' rights to regulate) by applying Article 31(3)(c) VCLT and the so-called 'Principle of Systemic Integration'. It illustrates the potential and limits of harmonious treaty interpretation. For this purpose, it demonstrates the relevance of extraneous rules in the system of international investment law and arbitration, deals extensively with the interpretation of Article 31(3)(c) VCLT, and explains in depth the 'principle of systemic integration'. The author critically analysis – at the example of the FET standard, the prohibition of unlawful expropriation and the various non-discrimination provisions in investment treaties – how investment tribunals and international courts have interpreted investment treaties in the light of extraneous rules of international law.


Interpretation Of Tax Treaties Under International Law

Author by : F. A. Engelen
Languange : en
Publisher by : IBFD
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
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Description : The principal purpose of this study is to analyse and discuss the rules and principles of international law relevant to the interpretation of treaties in general, and their application to tax treaties in particular. The rules of international law enshrined in Articles 31, 32 and 33 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties are discussed in detail. Where appropriate, reference is made to the jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice, and to the law and procedure of other international courts and tribunals. Since tax treaties are not only a source of legal rights and obligations for the contracting States, but can also be invoked by the taxpayers of those States, this book considers the extent to which the relevant rules and principles of international law are binding on domestic courts and taxpayers. The effect of international law in a State's national legal order is largely dependent on its relevant rules of constitutional law, which vary from country to country. In order to address this issue, the book draws upon the example of the Netherlands and provides a number of leading cases decided by the Dutch Supreme Court (Hoge Raad).


Modern Treaty Law And Practice

Author by : Anthony Aust
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : On the publication of its first edition, this textbook was welcomed as the definitive study of treaty law written from the viewpoint of an experienced practitioner. As with the first, this edition aims to provide the student and practitioner with a full understanding of the law and updates existing information and refines previous arguments. New to its scope of examination is the study of the use of memorandums of understanding (MOUs) in litigation, the treaty-making capacity of entities such as the Vatican, Taiwan and Palestine, and the effect of hostilities on treaties. Given their increasing importance, there is also a new chapter on international organisations, including an attempt to explain the sometimes baffling roles in treaty-making played by the European Community and European Union. Students and practitioners alike will find this an invaluable guide to this increasingly important subject.


Conceptual And Contextual Perspectives On The Modern Law Of Treaties

Author by : Michael J. Bowman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : In recent years there has been a flourishing body of work on the Law of Treaties, crucial for all fields within international law. However, scholarship on modern treaty law falls into two distinct strands which have not previously been effectively synthesized. One concerns the investigation of concepts which are fundamental to or inherent in the law of treaties generally - such as consent, object and purpose, breach of obligation and provisional application - while the other focuses upon the application of treaties and of treaty law in particular substantive (e.g. human rights, international humanitarian law, investment protection, environmental regulation) or institutional contexts (including the Security Council, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization and the World Trade Organization). This volume represents the culmination of a series of collaborative explorations by leading experts into the operation, development and effectiveness of the modern law of treaties, as viewed through these contrasting perspectives.


Cynical International Law

Author by : Björnstjern Baade
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Nature
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Description : Analysing international law through the prism of “cynicism” makes it possible to look beyond overt disregard for international law, currently discussed in terms of a backlash or crisis. The concept allows to analyse and criticise structural features and specific uses of international law that seem detrimental to international law in a more subtle way. Unlike its ancient predecessor, cynicism nowadays refers not to a bold critique of power but to uses and abuses of international law that pursue one-sided interests tacitly disregarding the legal structure applied. From this point of view, the contributions critically reflect on the theoretical foundations of international law, in particular its relationship to power, actors such as the International Law Commission and international judges, and specific fields, including international human rights, humanitarian, criminal, tax and investment law.


The Vienna Conventions On The Law Of Treaties

Author by : Olivier Corten
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : The 1969 and 1986 Vienna Conventions on the Law of Treaties are essential components of the contemporary international legal order. They aim at regulating what has become the main source of public international law and a crucial tool in inter-state relations. The Vienna Conventions codify to a significant extent the customary rules that pre-existed in the field, but also put forward innovative concepts, such as jus cogens. In spite of their importance, these two instruments had so far not been the object of a detailed commentary. These volumes fill that gap, by providing both international and national lawyers with an in-depth analysis of each provision of both Conventions. The structure of each commentary is essentially uniform, with the first part dedicated to the exposition of that provision's object and purpose and to the assessment of its customary status. The second part of each commentary deals with the main issues of interpretation raised by the provision in question. Extensive reference is made to the travaux preparatoires of both Conventions, including the work of the UN International Law Commission and the proceedings of the 1969 and 1986 diplomatic conferences, and to practice both prior to and following the adoption of the Conventions. The 90 + authors who contributed to the book come from twenty different countries and include some of the most respected experts in international law.


Treaties In Motion

Author by : Malgosia Fitzmaurice
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 85
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Description : The law of treaties is in constant motion, understood not only as locomotion, but also as motion through time and as change. Thus, kinesis and stasis, two sides of the same concept of 'motion', are the central themes of Treaties in Motion. The concept of motion adopted in this book is based on the philosophy of Aristotle. He identified six types of motion: creation (genesis), increase (auxesis), diminution (meiosis), alteration (alloiosis), destruction (phthora), and change of place (kata topon metabole), which has been amended by the authors to change in space-time (kata topon kai chronon metavole) to reflect our modern scientific understanding of time as a dimension through which motion and change occurs. Each chapter's analysis proceeds by focusing on a specific area of a treaty's 'life-cycle', where each type of motion shines through and is described through three different frames of reference: treaties, the Vienna Convention of the Law of Treaties, and customary law.


San Diego Law Review

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 52
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Definitions For The Law Of The Sea

Author by : George K. Walker
Languange : en
Publisher by : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 23
Total Download : 140
File Size : 49,6 Mb
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Description : Definitions for the Law of the Sea elucidates undefined terms and phrases used in The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) itself, as well as terms used in its analysis. Based on nearly a decade of work by the American Branch of the International Law Association’s Law of the Sea Committee, the volume provides clear definitions based on usage in the Convention, rather than geographical or geological concepts.


Official Records

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 39
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United Nations Juridical Yearbook

Author by : United Nations
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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The Amendment Of The Constitutive Instruments Of The United Nations And Specialized Agencies

Author by : Ralph Zacklin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Legal Aspects of International
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Total Read : 55
Total Download : 150
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Description : 'The amendment of international treaties raises problems which are closely linked to the issue of stability and development in the international juridical order. The author of the present work successfully relates these problems, which are of crucial importance in all juridical systems, to the more particular problems connected with the constitutions of international organizations of universal scope. As the effectiveness and continuity of international organizations depend to no small extent on their ability to adapt themselves constantly to a rapidly evolving world, the necessary flexibility must be ensured by provisions included in the constitutions of the organizations. The juridical tool used to meet these needs is an amendment clause incorporated in the constitutive instrument.' The above-mentioned text from the Foreword by Paul Guggenheim written in 1967 is still as valid today in the light of the reform proposals emerging from the work of the High-Level Panel and the Report of the Secretary General 'In Larger Freedom' which are currently the subject of intense negotiations around the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular Articles 108 and 109. This reprinted edition will be of great value to those involved in the reform negotiations as well as to those studying international organizations.


Detention In Non International Armed Conflict

Author by : Lawrence Hill-Cawthorne
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : International law has long differentiated between international and non-international armed conflicts, traditionally regulating the former far more comprehensively than the latter. This is particularly stark in the case of detention, where the law of non-international armed conflict contains no rules on who may be detained, what processes must be provided to review their detention, and when they must be released. Given that non-international armed conflicts are now the most common form of conflict, this is especially worrying, and the consequences of this have been seen in the detention practices of states such as the US and UK in Iraq and Afghanistan. This book provides a comprehensive examination of the procedural rules that apply to detention in non-international armed conflict, with the focus on preventive security detention, or 'internment'. All relevant areas of international law, most notably international humanitarian law and international human rights law, are analysed in detail and the interaction between them explored. The book gives an original account of the relationship between the relevant rules of IHL and IHRL, which is firmly grounded in general international law scholarship, treating the issue as a matter of treaty interpretation. With that in mind, and with reference to State practice in specific non-international armed conflicts - including those in Sri Lanka, Colombia, Nepal, Afghanistan, and Iraq - it is demonstrated that the customary and treaty obligations of States under human rights law continue, absent derogation, to apply to detention in non-international armed conflicts. The practical operation of those rules is then explored in detail. The volume ends with a set of concrete proposals for developing the law in this area, in a manner that builds upon, rather than replaces, the existing obligations of States and non-State armed groups.


Non Proliferation Law As A Special Regime

Author by : Daniel H. Joyner
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Total Read : 56
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Description : The fragmentation of international law is an undeniable phenomenon and one that has met with increasing academic interest. This fragmentation is the result of the progressive expansion of both international legal activity and the subject-matter of international law. This expansion brings with it the risk of conflicting rules, principles and institutions. Non-Proliferation Law as a Special Regime focuses on weapons of mass destruction and aims to identify whether there are specific rules applying to this field that depart from the general rules of international law and the rules of other special regimes, in particular with regard to the law of treaties and the law of state responsibility. In providing a systematic analysis of a substantive area of international law and applying the theory of fragmentation and special regimes, the book contributes to the ongoing debate concerning one of the most topical issues in international law.