Description : Create your own natural language training corpus for machine learning. Whether you’re working with English, Chinese, or any other natural language, this hands-on book guides you through a proven annotation development cycle—the process of adding metadata to your training corpus to help ML algorithms work more efficiently. You don’t need any programming or linguistics experience to get started. Using detailed examples at every step, you’ll learn how the MATTER Annotation Development Process helps you Model, Annotate, Train, Test, Evaluate, and Revise your training corpus. You also get a complete walkthrough of a real-world annotation project. Define a clear annotation goal before collecting your dataset (corpus) Learn tools for analyzing the linguistic content of your corpus Build a model and specification for your annotation project Examine the different annotation formats, from basic XML to the Linguistic Annotation Framework Create a gold standard corpus that can be used to train and test ML algorithms Select the ML algorithms that will process your annotated data Evaluate the test results and revise your annotation task Learn how to use lightweight software for annotating texts and adjudicating the annotations This book is a perfect companion to O’Reilly’s Natural Language Processing with Python.
Description : This book presents a unique opportunity for constructing a consistent image of collaborative manual annotation for Natural Language Processing (NLP). NLP has witnessed two major evolutions in the past 25 years: firstly, the extraordinary success of machine learning, which is now, for better or for worse, overwhelmingly dominant in the field, and secondly, the multiplication of evaluation campaigns or shared tasks. Both involve manually annotated corpora, for the training and evaluation of the systems. These corpora have progressively become the hidden pillars of our domain, providing food for our hungry machine learning algorithms and reference for evaluation. Annotation is now the place where linguistics hides in NLP. However, manual annotation has largely been ignored for some time, and it has taken a while even for annotation guidelines to be recognized as essential. Although some efforts have been made lately to address some of the issues presented by manual annotation, there has still been little research done on the subject. This book aims to provide some useful insights into the subject. Manual corpus annotation is now at the heart of NLP, and is still largely unexplored. There is a need for manual annotation engineering (in the sense of a precisely formalized process), and this book aims to provide a first step towards a holistic methodology, with a global view on annotation.
Description : This handbook offers a thorough treatment of the science of linguistic annotation. Leaders in the field guide the reader through the process of modeling, creating an annotation language, building a corpus and evaluating it for correctness. Essential reading for both computer scientists and linguistic researchers.Linguistic annotation is an increasingly important activity in the field of computational linguistics because of its critical role in the development of language models for natural language processing applications. Part one of this book covers all phases of the linguistic annotation process, from annotation scheme design and choice of representation format through both the manual and automatic annotation process, evaluation, and iterative improvement of annotation accuracy. The second part of the book includes case studies of annotation projects across the spectrum of linguistic annotation types, including morpho-syntactic tagging, syntactic analyses, a range of semantic analyses (semantic roles, named entities, sentiment and opinion), time and event and spatial analyses, and discourse level analyses including discourse structure, co-reference, etc. Each case study addresses the various phases and processes discussed in the chapters of part one.
Description : Language—that is, oral or written content that references abstract concepts in subtle ways—is what sets us apart as a species, and in an age defined by such content, language has become both the fuel and the currency of our modern information society. This has posed a vexing new challenge for linguists and engineers working in the field of language-processing: how do we parse and process not just language itself, but language in vast, overwhelming quantities? Modern Computational Models of Semantic Discovery in Natural Language compiles and reviews the most prominent linguistic theories into a single source that serves as an essential reference for future solutions to one of the most important challenges of our age. This comprehensive publication benefits an audience of students and professionals, researchers, and practitioners of linguistics and language discovery. This book includes a comprehensive range of topics and chapters covering digital media, social interaction in online environments, text and data mining, language processing and translation, and contextual documentation, among others.
Description : The Handbook of Natural Language Processing, Second Edition presents practical tools and techniques for implementing natural language processing in computer systems. Along with removing outdated material, this edition updates every chapter and expands the content to include emerging areas, such as sentiment analysis.New to the Second EditionGreater
Description : A survey of computational methods for understanding, generating, and manipulating human language, which offers a synthesis of classical representations and algorithms with contemporary machine learning techniques. This textbook provides a technical perspective on natural language processing—methods for building computer software that understands, generates, and manipulates human language. It emphasizes contemporary data-driven approaches, focusing on techniques from supervised and unsupervised machine learning. The first section establishes a foundation in machine learning by building a set of tools that will be used throughout the book and applying them to word-based textual analysis. The second section introduces structured representations of language, including sequences, trees, and graphs. The third section explores different approaches to the representation and analysis of linguistic meaning, ranging from formal logic to neural word embeddings. The final section offers chapter-length treatments of three transformative applications of natural language processing: information extraction, machine translation, and text generation. End-of-chapter exercises include both paper-and-pencil analysis and software implementation. The text synthesizes and distills a broad and diverse research literature, linking contemporary machine learning techniques with the field's linguistic and computational foundations. It is suitable for use in advanced undergraduate and graduate-level courses and as a reference for software engineers and data scientists. Readers should have a background in computer programming and college-level mathematics. After mastering the material presented, students will have the technical skill to build and analyze novel natural language processing systems and to understand the latest research in the field.
Description : This comprehensive reference work provides an overview of the concepts, methodologies, and applications in computational linguistics and natural language processing (NLP). Features contributions by the top researchers in the field, reflecting the work that is driving the discipline forward Includes an introduction to the major theoretical issues in these fields, as well as the central engineering applications that the work has produced Presents the major developments in an accessible way, explaining the close connection between scientific understanding of the computational properties of natural language and the creation of effective language technologies Serves as an invaluable state-of-the-art reference source for computational linguists and software engineers developing NLP applications in industrial research and development labs of software companies
Description : This book brings together scientists, researchers, practitioners, and students from academia and industry to present recent and ongoing research activities concerning the latest advances, techniques, and applications of natural language processing systems, and to promote the exchange of new ideas and lessons learned. Taken together, the chapters of this book provide a collection of high-quality research works that address broad challenges in both theoretical and applied aspects of intelligent natural language processing. The book presents the state-of-the-art in research on natural language processing, computational linguistics, applied Arabic linguistics and related areas. New trends in natural language processing systems are rapidly emerging – and finding application in various domains including education, travel and tourism, and healthcare, among others. Many issues encountered during the development of these applications can be resolved by incorporating language technology solutions. The topics covered by the book include: Character and Speech Recognition; Morphological, Syntactic, and Semantic Processing; Information Extraction; Information Retrieval and Question Answering; Text Classification and Text Mining; Text Summarization; Sentiment Analysis; Machine Translation Building and Evaluating Linguistic Resources; and Intelligent Language Tutoring Systems.
Description : Natural Language Processing and Text Mining not only discusses applications of Natural Language Processing techniques to certain Text Mining tasks, but also the converse, the use of Text Mining to assist NLP. It assembles a diverse views from internationally recognized researchers and emphasizes caveats in the attempt to apply Natural Language Processing to text mining. This state-of-the-art survey is a must-have for advanced students, professionals, and researchers.
Description : This book offers a highly accessible introduction to natural language processing, the field that supports a variety of language technologies, from predictive text and email filtering to automatic summarization and translation. With it, you'll learn how to write Python programs that work with large collections of unstructured text. You'll access richly annotated datasets using a comprehensive range of linguistic data structures, and you'll understand the main algorithms for analyzing the content and structure of written communication. Packed with examples and exercises, Natural Language Processing with Python will help you: Extract information from unstructured text, either to guess the topic or identify "named entities" Analyze linguistic structure in text, including parsing and semantic analysis Access popular linguistic databases, including WordNet and treebanks Integrate techniques drawn from fields as diverse as linguistics and artificial intelligence This book will help you gain practical skills in natural language processing using the Python programming language and the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) open source library. If you're interested in developing web applications, analyzing multilingual news sources, or documenting endangered languages -- or if you're simply curious to have a programmer's perspective on how human language works -- you'll find Natural Language Processing with Python both fascinating and immensely useful.