NMR Spectroscopy in Pharmaceutical Analysis

NMR Spectroscopy in Pharmaceutical Analysis
Author: Ulrike Holzgrabe,Iwona Wawer,Bernd Diehl
Publsiher: Elsevier Science Limited
Total Pages: 501
Release: 2008-10-21
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

NMR Spectroscopy in Pharmaceutical Analysis Book Excerpt:

"This book explains the fundamentals and demonstrates the power of quantitative NMR (qNMR) spectroscopy. Writing for advanced students and practitioners, the authors highlight significant advances in qNMR that have contributed to its impact on drug analysis in recent years. Coverage also includes future applications of qNMR in drug identification, impurity profiling, and assays."--BOOK JACKET.

NMR Spectroscopy in Pharmaceutical Analysis

NMR Spectroscopy in Pharmaceutical Analysis
Author: Iwona Wawer,Bernd Diehl
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 528
Release: 2017-07-07
ISBN: 008095152X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

NMR Spectroscopy in Pharmaceutical Analysis Book Excerpt:

For almost a decade, quantitative NMR spectroscopy (qNMR) has been established as valuable tool in drug analysis. In all disciplines, i. e. drug identification, impurity profiling and assay, qNMR can be utilized. Separation techniques such as high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, super fluid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis techniques, govern the purity evaluation of drugs. However, these techniques are not always able to solve the analytical problems often resulting in insufficient methods. Nevertheless such methods find their way into international pharmacopoeias. Thus, the aim of the book is to describe the possibilities of qNMR in pharmaceutical analysis. Beside the introduction to the physical fundamentals and techniques the principles of the application in drug analysis are described: quality evaluation of drugs, polymer characterization, natural products and corresponding reference compounds, metabolism, and solid phase NMR spectroscopy for the characterization drug substances, e.g. the water content, polymorphism, and drug formulations, e.g. tablets, powders. This part is accompanied by more special chapters dealing with representative examples. They give more detailed information by means of concrete examples. Combines theory, techniques, and concrete applications—all of which closely resemble the laboratory experience Considers international pharmacopoeias, addressing the concern for licensing Features the work of academics and researchers, appealing to a broad readership

Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy

Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy
Author: Graham A. Webb
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 448
Release: 2013-09-27
ISBN: 0124079040
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy Book Excerpt:

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an analytical tool used by chemists and physicists to study the structure and dynamics of molecules. In recent years, no other technique has gained such significance as NMR spectroscopy. It is used in all branches of science in which precise structural determination is required and in which the nature of interactions and reactions in solution is being studied. Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy has established itself as a premier means for the specialist and non-specialist alike to become familiar with new techniques and applications of NMR spectroscopy. This volume of Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy focuses on the analytical tool used by chemists and physicists and inlcudes topics such as Profiling of Food Samples, Recent Advances in Solution NMR Studies and Magic Angle Spinning NMR Studies of Protein Assemblies

Handbook of Modern Pharmaceutical Analysis

Handbook of Modern Pharmaceutical Analysis
Author: Satinder Ahuja,Stephen Scypinski
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 598
Release: 2010-11-11
ISBN: 9780123759818
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Modern Pharmaceutical Analysis Book Excerpt:

Handbook of Modern Pharmaceutical Analysis, Second Edition, synthesizes the complex research and recent changes in the field, while covering the techniques and technology required for today's laboratories. The work integrates strategy, case studies, methodologies, and implications of new regulatory structures, providing complete coverage of quality assurance from the point of discovery to the point of use. Treats pharmaceutical analysis (PA) as an integral partner to the drug development process rather than as a service to it Covers method development, validation, selection, testing, modeling, and simulation studies combined with advanced exploration of assays, impurity testing, biomolecules, and chiral separations Features detailed coverage of QA, ethics, and regulatory guidance (quality by design, good manufacturing practice), as well as high-tech methodologies and technologies from "lab-on-a-chip" to LC-MS, LC-NMR, and LC-NMR-MS

Essentials of Pharmaceutical Analysis

Essentials of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Author: Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash,Kanwal Rehman
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2019-12-17
ISBN: 9811515476
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Essentials of Pharmaceutical Analysis Book Excerpt:

Recent advances in the pharmaceutical sciences and biotechnology have facilitated the production, design, formulation and use of various types of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals. This book provides detailed information on the background, basic principles, and components of techniques used for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals. Focusing on those analytical techniques that are most frequently used for pharmaceuticals, it classifies them into three major sections and 19 chapters, each of which discusses a respective technique in detail. Chiefly intended for graduate students in the pharmaceutical sciences, the book will familiarize them with the components, working principles and practical applications of these indispensable analytical techniques.

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmaceutical Analysis
Author: David C Lee,Michael L. Webb
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2009-02-12
ISBN: 1405172991
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pharmaceutical Analysis Book Excerpt:

The use of analytical sciences in the discovery, development andmanufacture of pharmaceuticals is wide-ranging. From the analysisof minute amounts of complex biological materials to the qualitycontrol of the final dosage form, the use of analytical technologycovers an immense range of techniques and disciplines. This book concentrates on the analytical aspects of drugdevelopment and manufacture, focusing on the analysis of the activeingredient or drug substance. It provides those joining theindustry or other areas of pharmaceutical research with a source ofreference to a broad range of techniques and their applications,allowing them to choose the most appropriate analytical techniquefor a particular purpose. The volume is directed at analytical chemists, industrialpharmacists, organic chemists, pharmaceutical chemists andbiochemists.

NMR in Pharmaceutical Science

NMR in Pharmaceutical Science
Author: Jeremy R. Everett,Robin K. Harris,John C. Lindon,Ian D. Wilson
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 506
Release: 2015-09-28
ISBN: 1118660250
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

NMR in Pharmaceutical Science Book Excerpt:

NMR in Pharmaceutical Sciences is intended to be a comprehensive source of information for the many individuals that utilize MR in studies of relevance to the pharmaceutical sector. The book is intended to educate and inform those who develop and apply MR approaches within the wider pharmaceutical environment, emphasizing the toolbox that is available to spectroscopists and radiologists. This book is structured on the key processes in drug discovery, development and manufacture, but underpinned by an understanding of fundamental NMR principles and the unique contribution that NMR (including MRI) can provide. After an introductory chapter, which constitutes an overview, the content is organised into five sections. The first section is on the basics of NMR theory and relevant experimental methods. The rest follow a sequence based on the chronology of drug discovery and development, firstly 'Idea to Lead' then 'Lead to Drug Candidate', followed by 'Clinical Development', and finally 'Drug Manufacture'. The thirty one chapters cover a vast range of topics from analytical chemistry, including aspects involved in regulatory matters and in the prevention of fraud, to clinical imaging studies. Whilst this comprehensive volume will be essential reading for many scientists based in pharmaceutical and related industries, it should also be of considerable value to a much wider range of academic scientists whose research is related to the various aspects of pharmaceutical R&D; for them it will supply vital understanding of pharmaceutical industrial concerns and the basis of key decision making processes. About eMagRes Handbooks eMagRes (formerly the Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance) publishes a wide range of online articles on all aspects of magnetic resonance in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. The existence of this large number of articles, written by experts in various fields, is enabling the publication of a series of eMagRes Handbooks on specific areas of NMR and MRI. The chapters of each of these handbooks will comprise a carefully chosen selection of eMagRes articles. In consultation with the eMagRes Editorial Board, the eMagRes handbooks are coherently planned in advance by specially-selected Editors, and new articles are written to give appropriate complete coverage. The handbooks are intended to be of value and interest to research students, postdoctoral fellows and other researchers learning about the scientific area in question and undertaking relevant experiments, whether in academia or industry. Have the content of this handbook and the complete content of eMagRes at your fingertips! Visit: www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/ref/eMagRes

Coupling of Capillary Electrophoresis with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for the Analysis of Pharmaceutical and Environmental Relevant Compounds

Coupling of Capillary Electrophoresis with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for the Analysis of Pharmaceutical and Environmental Relevant Compounds
Author: Joana Diekmann
Publsiher: GRIN Verlag
Total Pages: 107
Release: 2011-03-21
ISBN: 3640873394
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Coupling of Capillary Electrophoresis with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for the Analysis of Pharmaceutical and Environmental Relevant Compounds Book Excerpt:

Master's Thesis from the year 2009 in the subject Chemistry - Analytical Chemistry, grade: 1,0, University of Hannover (Anorganische Chemie), language: English, abstract: Separation and identification of mass-limited chemical samples is the key to understand the complex nature of pharmaceutical and environmental systems. High efficiency separation techniques, such as capillary electrophoresis (CE), coupled to a non-destructive, information-rich detection, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, have revolutionized the ability to separate and identify components in small sample volumes. Using this hyphenated system, structure elucidation of analytes separated during an electrophoretic process can be performed using NMR as an on-line detector. Although sensitivity remains an issue for on-line NMR detection, capillary NMR spectroscopy using microcoils has emerged as a major breakthrough for increasing the mass-sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy, because the limit of detection is proportional to the coil diameter. A further development is the miniaturization of the magnet enabling the possibility of a truly portable NMR system. This portable, low-cost NMR sensor, coupled to the rapid CE separation system could enable high-throughput and on-site identification of nanoliter amounts of solution. Furthermore, CE can provide on-line pre-concentration via electrokinetic injection or other stacking techniques to increase the sample concentration. In this research, coupling CE to a laboratory-scale NMR and to a portable NMR system are investigated, with the emphasis on the development of the miniaturized system. For the experiments with the large-scale 1H NMR system, a group of selected uric acids and xan- thines are studied since those compounds are representative of various classes of therapeutical drugs. The portable NMR instrument incorporates lithographically patterned microcoils and a small 1.8 T permanent magnet to measure 19F NMR spectra for the analysis of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and longer chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Our results demonstrate that coupling CE to a portable NMR system is feasible and can provide a low cost method to obtain structural information about the samples of interest. The results confirm that it was possible to acquire congruent sample data using the ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) detector of the CE and the 19F NMR detector. To obtain data, CE and NMR conditions were optimized and different modes of data acquisition were investigated.

Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis

Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Author: Ashutosh Kar
Publsiher: New Age International
Total Pages: 558
Release: 2005-12
ISBN: 9788122415827
Category: Drugs
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis Book Excerpt:

About the Book: During the past two decades, there have been magnificent and significant advances in both analytical instrumentation and computerized data handling devices across the globe. In this specific context the remarkable proliferation of windows

Spectroscopic Analyses

Spectroscopic Analyses
Author: Eram Sharmin,Fahmina Zafar
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 242
Release: 2017-12-06
ISBN: 9535136275
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spectroscopic Analyses Book Excerpt:

The book presents developments and applications of these methods, such as NMR, mass, and others, including their applications in pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. The book is divided into two sections. The first section covers spectroscopic methods, their applications, and their significance as characterization tools; the second section is dedicated to the applications of spectrophotometric methods in pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. This book would be useful for students, scholars, and scientists engaged in synthesis, analyses, and applications of materials/polymers.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Author: G. A. Webb,Krystyna Kamienska-Trela
Publsiher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2010-03
ISBN: 1847550606
Category: Reference
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Book Excerpt:

As a spectroscopic method, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has seen spectacular growth, both as a technique and in its applications. Today's applications of NMR span a wide range of scientific disciplines, from physics to biology to medicine. Each volume of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance comprises a combination of annual and biennial reports which together provide comprehensive coverage of the literature on this topic. This Specialist Periodical Report reflects the growing volume of published work involving NMR techniques and applications, in particular NMR of natural macromolecules, which is covered in two reports: NMR of Proteins and Nucleic Acids and NMR of Carbohydrates, Lipids and Membranes. For those wanting to become rapidly aquainted with specific areas of NMR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance provides unrivalled scope of coverage. Seasoned practitioners of NMR will find this an invaluable source of current methods and applications.

Structure activity Relationship Studies in Drug Development by NMR Spectroscopy

Structure activity Relationship Studies in Drug Development by NMR Spectroscopy
Author: Atta-ur- Rahman,M. Iqbal Choudhary
Publsiher: Bentham Science Publishers
Total Pages: 221
Release: 2011
ISBN: 1608051641
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Structure activity Relationship Studies in Drug Development by NMR Spectroscopy Book Excerpt:

"NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) Spectroscopy has found significant applications in drug discovery based on its capacity to map molecular interactions at the atomic level. Chemical shifts, cross relaxation, and exchange of protons are among the NMR parame"

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy
Author: Atta-ur-Rahman,M. Iqbal Choudhary
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2015-12-11
ISBN: 1608059626
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy Book Excerpt:

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy, Volume 1, originally published by Bentham and now distributed by Elsevier, presents the latest developments in the field of NMR spectroscopy, including the analysis of edible oils and lipid content in foods, the role of NMR spectroscopy in the human metabolomics and the diagnosis of autism-related disorders, protein-protein interactions, and NMR spectroscopy of chiral molecules. The fully illustrated chapters contain comprehensive references to the recent literature. The applications presented cover a wide range of the field, such as drug development, medical imaging and diagnostics, food science, mining, petrochemical, process control, materials science, and chemical engineering, making this resource a multi-disciplinary reference with broad applications. The content is ideal for readers who are seeking reviews and updates, as it consolidates scientific articles of a diverse nature into a single volume. Sections are organized based on disciplines, such as food science and medical diagnostics. Each chapter is written by eminent experts in the field. Consolidates the latest developments in NMR spectroscopy into a single volume Authored and edited by world-leading experts in spectroscopy Features comprehensive references to the most recent related literature More than 75 illustrations aid in the retention of key concepts

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy
Author: Atta-ur-Rahman,M. Iqbal Choudhary
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2015-12-11
ISBN: 1681080621
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy Book Excerpt:

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy, Volume 3 presents the latest developments in the field of NMR spectroscopy, including the analysis of the structure-property relationship of polyphenols, breast cancer diagnosis, drug discovery and formulation, protein confirmation analysis using Fluorine NMR, and enaminone studies. The well-illustrated chapters contain comprehensive references to the recent literature. The content is ideal for readers who are seeking reviews and updates, as it consolidates scientific articles of a diverse nature into a single volume. The book is organized into sections based on disciplines such as food science and medical diagnostics, with each chapter written by eminent experts in the field. The applications presented cover a wide range of the field, such as drug development, medical imaging and diagnostics, food science, mining, petrochemical, process control, materials science, and chemical engineering, making this resource a multi-disciplinary reference. Consolidates the latest developments in NMR spectroscopy into a single volume Authored and edited by world-leading experts in spectroscopy Features comprehensive references to the most recent related literature More than 75 illustrations aid in the retention of key concepts

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy Volume 9

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy  Volume 9
Author: Atta-ur-Rahman,M. Iqbal Choudhary
Publsiher: Bentham Science Publishers
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2021-12-29
ISBN: 9815039369
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy Volume 9 Book Excerpt:

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy is a book series devoted to publishing the latest advances in the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in various fields of organic chemistry, biochemistry, health and agriculture. The ninth volume of the series features reviews that highlight NMR spectroscopic techniques in microbiology, food science, pharmaceutical analysis and cancer diagnosis. The reviews in this volume are: - NMR spectroscopy for the characterization of photoprotective compounds in cyanobacteria - Coffee assessment using 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis: a review - Evaluation of structure-property relationship of coconut shell lignins by NMR spectroscopy: from biorefinery to high-added value products - Application of NMR spectroscopy in chiral recognition of drugs - NMR-based metabolomics: general aspects and applications in cancer diagnosis

Handbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis

Handbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Author: Lena Ohannesian,Anthony Streeter
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 605
Release: 2001-11-09
ISBN: 0824741943
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis Book Excerpt:

Exploring the analysis of pharmaceuticals, including polymorphic forms, this book discusses regulatory requirements in pharmaceutical product development and pharmaceutical testing. It covers methods of drug separation and procedures such as capillary electrophoresis for chromatographic separation of molecules. Additional topics include drug formulation analysis using vibrational and magnetic resonance spectroscopy and identification of drug metabolites and decomposition products using such techniques as mass spectrometry. The book provides more than 300 tables, equations, drawings, and photographs, and convenient, easy-to-use indices, facilitating quick access to each topic.

LC NMR

LC NMR
Author: Nina C. Gonnella
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 314
Release: 2020-01-15
ISBN: 1351023721
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

LC NMR Book Excerpt:

The isolation and structural characterization of substances present at very low concentrations, as is necessary to satisfy regulatory requirements for pharmaceutical drug degradants and impurities, can present scientific challenges. The coupling of HPLC with NMR spectroscopy has been at the forefront of cutting-edge technologies to address these issues. LC-NMR: Expanding the Limits of Structure Elucidation presents a comprehensive overview of key concepts in HPLC and NMR that are required to achieve definitive structure elucidation with very low levels of analytes. Because skill sets from both of these highly established disciplines are involved in LC-NMR, the author provides introductory background to facilitate readers’ proficiency in both areas, including an entire chapter on NMR theory. The much-anticipated second edition provides guidance in setting up LC-NMR systems, discussion of LC methods that are compatible with NMR, and an update on recent hardware and software advances for system performance, such as improvements in magnet design, probe technology, and solvent suppression techniques that enable unprecedented mass sensitivity in NMR. This edition features methods to quantify concentration and assess purity of isolated metabolites on the micro scale and incorporates computational approaches to accelerate the structure elucidation process. The author also includes implementation and application of qNMR and automated and practical use of computational chemistry combined with QM and DFT to predict highly accurate NMR chemical shifts. The text focuses on current developments in chromatographic-NMR integration, with particular emphasis on utility in the pharmaceutical industry. Applications include trace analysis, analysis of mixtures, and structural characterization of degradation products, impurities, metabolites, peptides, and more. The text discusses novel uses and emerging technologies that challenge detection limits as well future directions for this important technique. This book is a practical primary resource for NMR structure determination—including theory and application—that guides the reader through the steps required for isolation and NMR structure elucidation on the micro scale.

Recent Trends in Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry

Recent Trends in Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry
Author: Constantinos K. Zacharis
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 166
Release: 2021-09-01
ISBN: 3036507981
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Recent Trends in Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Book Excerpt:

This book covers the most recent research trends and applications of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry. The included topics range from the adulteration of dietary supplements, to the determination of drugs in biological samples with the aim to investigate their pharmacokinetic properties.

Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry

Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 11021
Release: 2010-02-24
ISBN: 012374413X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry Book Excerpt:

The Second Edition of the Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry pulls key information into a single source for quick access to answers and/or in-depth examination of topics. "SPEC-2" covers theory, methods, and applications for researchers, students, and professionals—combining proven techniques and new insights for comprehensive coverage of the field. The content is available in print and online via ScienceDirect, the latter of which offers optimal flexibility, accessibility, and usability through anytime, anywhere access for multiple users and superior search functionality. No other work gives analytical and physical (bio)chemists such unprecedented access to the literature. With 30% new content, SPEC-2 maintains the "authoritative, balanced coverage" of the original work while also breaking new ground in spectroscopic research. Incorporates more than 150 color figures, 5,000 references, and 300 articles (30% of which are new), for a thorough examination of the field Highlights new research and promotes innovation in applied areas ranging from food science and forensics to biomedicine and health Features a new co-editor: David Koppenaal of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Washington, USA, whose work in atomic mass spectrometry has been recognized internationally

Process Analytical Technology

Process Analytical Technology
Author: Katherine A. Bakeev
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2010-04-01
ISBN: 0470689609
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Process Analytical Technology Book Excerpt:

Process Analytical Technology explores the concepts of PAT and its application in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry from the point of view of the analytical chemist. In this new edition all of the original chapters have been updated and revised, and new chapters covering the important topics of sampling, NMR, fluorescence, and acoustic chemometrics have been added. Coverage includes: Implementation of Process Analytical Technologies UV-Visible Spectroscopy for On-line Analysis Infrared Spectroscopy for Process Analytical Applications Process Raman Spectroscopy Process NMR Spectrscopy: Technology and On-line Applications Fluorescent Sensing and Process Analytical Applications Chemometrics in Process Analytical Technology (PAT) On-Line PAT Applications of Spectroscopy in the Pharmaceutical Industry Future Trends for PAT for Increased Process Understanding and Growing Applications in Biomanufacturing NIR Chemical Imaging This volume is an important starting point for anyone wanting to implement PAT and is intended not only to assist a newcomer to the field but also to provide up-to-date information for those who practice process analytical chemistry and PAT. It is relevant for chemists, chemical and process engineers, and analytical chemists working on process development, scale-up and production in the pharmaceutical, fine and specialty chemicals industries, as well as for academic chemistry, chemical engineering, chemometrics and pharmaceutical science research groups focussing on PAT. Review from the First Edition “The book provides an excellent first port of call for anyone seeking material and discussions to understand the area better. It deserves to be found in every library that serves those who are active in the field of Process Analytical Technology.”—Current Engineering Practice