Description : This Research Topic is dedicated to Raja Parasuraman who unexpectedly passed on March 22nd 2015. Raja Parasuraman’s pioneering work led the emergence of Neuroergonomics as a new scientific field. He combined his research interests in the field of Neuroergonomics which he defined as the study of the human brain in relation to performance at work and everyday settings. Raja Parasuraman was a pioneer, a truly exceptional researcher and an extraordinary person. He made significant contributions to a number of disciplines, from human factors to cognitive neuroscience. His advice to young researchers was to be passionate in order to develop theory and knowledge that can guide the design of technologies and environments for people. His legacy, the field of Neuroergonomics, will live on in countless faculties and students whom he advised and inspired with unmatched humility throughout the whole of his distinguished career. Raja Parasuraman was an impressive human being, a very kind person, and an absolutely inspiring individual who will be remembered by everyone who had the chance to meet him. About this Research Topic Since the advent of neuroergonomics, significant progress has been made with respect to methodology and tools for the investigation of the brain and behavior at work. This is especially the case for neuroscientific methods where the availability of ambulatory hardware, wearable sensors and advanced data analyses allow for imaging of brain dynamics in humans in applied environments. Methods such as: electroencephalography (EEG), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), and stimulation approaches like transcranial direct-currrent stimulation (tDCS) have made significant progress in both recording and altering brain activity while allowing full body movements outside laboratory environments. For neuroergonomics, the application of brain imaging in real-world scenarios is highly relevant. Traditionally, brain imaging experiments in human factors research tend to avoid active behavior for fear of artifacts and a contaminated data set that would provide limited insight into brain dynamics in real working environments. To overcome these problems new analyses approaches have to be developed that identify artifacts resulting from hostile recording environments and movement-related non-brain activity stemming from eye-, head, and full-body movements. The application of methodology from the field of Brain-Computer Interfacing (BCI) for neuroergonomics is one approach that has significant potential to enhance ambulatory monitoring and applied testing. Passive BCIs allow for assessing aspects of the user state online, such that systems can automatically adapt to their user. This neuroadaptive technology could lead to highly efficient working environments, to auto-adaptive experimental paradigms and to a continuous tracking of cognitive and affective aspects of the user state. Hence, deployment of portable neuroimaging technologies to real time settings could help assess cognitive and motivational states of personnel assigned to perform critical tasks. This Research Topic gathers submissions that cover new approaches in neuroergonomics. Different article type cover advanced neuroscience methods and neuroergonomics techniques as well as analysis approaches to investigate brain dynamics in working environments. The selection of papers provides insights into new neuroergonomic research approaches that demonstrate significant advances in brain imaging technologies that become more and more mobile, Moreover, a strong trend for new analyses approaches and paradigms investigating real work settings can be seen. Together, this unique collection of latest research papers provides a comprehensive overview on the latest developments in neuroergonomics.
Description : Vibrios are Gram-negative bacilli that occur naturally in marine, estuarine, and freshwater systems. Some species include human and animal pathogens capable of causing gastroenteritis, wound infections, cholera, and fatal septicemia. Over the past decades, cutting edge research on Vibrio genomics has promoted a tremendous advance in our knowledge of these pathogens. Significant developments include the discovery of emerging epidemic clones, tracking the spread of new strain variants, and an intensified appreciation of the role of mobile genetic elements in antibiotic resistance spread as well as pathogenesis. Furthermore, improved understanding of the interaction of Vibrios with a variety of living organisms in the aquatic environment has documented the significant role of environmental reservoirs in their seasonal cycle favoring persistence of the pathogen during inter-epidemic periods and enhancing disease transmission. This Research Topic is dedicated to our current understanding in these areas and will bring together leading experts in the field to provide a deep overview of Vibrios ecology and evolution, and will suggest the pathway of future research in this field.
Description : Evidence continues to build showing our information infrastructure is vulnerable to threats not just from nation states but also from individuals and small groups who seek to do us harm or who wish to exploit our weaknesses for personal gain. A critical element of a robust cybersecurity strategy is having the right people at every level to identify, build and staff the defenses and responses. And that is, by many accounts, the area where we are the weakest.
Description : The astonishing development of resistance is one of the most worrisome problems of the last 20 years. In particular, the accumulation of resistance determinants that are able to destroy different antibiotic families at the same time bringing about multi-drug resistant (MDR) or pan-drug resistant (PDR) phenotypes, is a phenomenon almost exclusively known in clinical practice, in which resistance is maintained even under a strong selective pressure. Mutations, acquisition of resistance genes by lateral gene transfer (LTG), and selection of intrinsically resistant species are at the basis of this diffused problem. Many studies have characterized resistant bacteria, genes, mechanisms of resistance and transfer in clinical settings, as well as clarifying the role of antibiotics (both naturally produced by microorganisms and by completely synthetic processes) in driving the resistant selection, the evolution of new mechanisms and the emergence new resistant species. However, other data, until now reported in a rather sporadic way, are emerging on the possible role of animals and some specific environmental hot-spots (ground water, soil, etc) in which resistance can develop thanks to an efficient organization in clusters of genes that are then able to be selected and spread, ultimately functioning as a reservoir for further transmission to humans. Origin of resistance genes that we now know to belong to the so-called mobilome, and their mechanism of transferability among species and in different microbiota, has to be considered a real challenge for the future evolution and antibiotic resistance in both pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria. This Research Topic has the aim of collecting contributions from different experts in the antibiotic resistance field, covering aspects of resistance in specific microorganisms and in diverse environments.
Description : Electronic Media connects the traditional world of broadcasting with the contemporary universe of digital electronic media. It provides a synopsis of the beginnings of electronic media in broadcasting, and the subsequent advancements into digital media. Underlying the structure of the book is a "See It Then, See It Now, See It Later approach that focuses on how past innovations lay the groundwork for changing trends in technology, providing the opportunity and demand for change in both broadcasting and digital media. FYI and Zoom-In boxes point to further information, tying together the immediate and long-ranging issues surrounding electronic media. Career Tracks feature the experiences of industry experts and share tips in how to approach this challenging industry. Check out the companion website at http://www.routledge.com/cw/medoff-9780240812564/ for materials for both students and instructors.
Description : Discusses the evolution of WHOIS and how policy changes will affect WHOIS’ place in IT today and in the future This book provides a comprehensive overview of WHOIS. The text begins with an introduction to WHOIS and an in-depth coverage of its forty-year history. Afterwards it examines how to use WHOIS and how WHOIS fits in the overall structure of the Domain Name System (DNS). Other technical topics covered include WHOIS query code and WHOIS server details. The book also discusses current policy developments and implementations, reviews critical policy documents, and explains how they will affect the future of the Internet and WHOIS. Additional resources and content updates will be provided through a supplementary website. Includes an appendix with information on current and authoritative WHOIS services around the world Provides illustrations of actual WHOIS records and screenshots of web-based WHOIS query interfaces with instructions for navigating them Explains network dependencies and processes related to WHOIS utilizing flowcharts Contains advanced coding for programmers Visit the book's companion website http://whois.knujon.com for technical and policy documents concerning WHOIS, WHOIS code examples, internet locations for WHOIS databases and more. WHOIS Running the Internet: Protocol, Policy, and Privacy is written primarily for internet developers, policy developers, industry professionals in law enforcement, digital forensic investigators, and intellectual property attorneys. Garth O. Bruen is an Internet policy and security researcher whose work has been published in the Wall Street Journal and the Washington Post. Since 2012 Garth Bruen has served as the North American At-Large Chair to the Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). In 2003 Bruen created KnujOn.com with his late father, Dr. Robert Bruen, to process and investigate Internet abuse complaints (SPAM) from consumers. Bruen has trained and advised law enforcement at the federal and local levels on malicious use of the Domain Name System in the way it relates to the WHOIS record system. He has presented multiple times to the High Technology Crime Investigation Association (HTCIA) as well as other cybercrime venues including the Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) and the National Center for Justice and the Rule of Law at The University of Mississippi School of Law. Bruen also teaches the Fisher College Criminal Justice School in Boston where he develops new approaches to digital crime.