Numerical Methods in Environmental Data Analysis

Numerical Methods in Environmental Data Analysis
Author: Moses Eterigho Emetere
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2022-07-17
ISBN: 012818972X
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Numerical Methods in Environmental Data Analysis Book Excerpt:

Numerical Methods in Environmental Data Analysis introduces environmental scientists to the numerical methods available to help answer research questions through data analysis. One challenge in data analysis is misrepresentation of datasets that are relevant directly or indirectly to the research. This book illustrates new ways of screening dataset or images for maximum utilization, introducing environmental modeling, numerical methods, and computations techniques in data analysis. Throughout the book, the author includes case studies that provide guidance on how to translate research questions into appropriate models. Individuals working with data sets or images generated from environmental monitoring centers or satellites will find this book to be a concise guide for analyzing and interpreting their data. Bridges the theoretical underpinnings of modeling to research Illustrates the computational resolution of environmental issues alongside the use of open-source software Provides information on the use of analogue versus digital data treatment processes

Environmental Data Analysis

Environmental Data Analysis
Author: Zhihua Zhang
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 334
Release: 2016-11-21
ISBN: 3110424983
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Data Analysis Book Excerpt:

Most environmental data involve a large degree of complexity and uncertainty. Environmental Data Analysis is created to provide modern quantitative tools and techniques designed specifically to meet the needs of environmental sciences and related fields. This book has an impressive coverage of the scope. Main techniques described in this book are models for linear and nonlinear environmental systems, statistical & numerical methods, data envelopment analysis, risk assessments and life cycle assessments. These state-of-the-art techniques have attracted significant attention over the past decades in environmental monitoring, modeling and decision making. Environmental Data Analysis explains carefully various data analysis procedures and techniques in a clear, concise, and straightforward language and is written in a self-contained way that is accessible to researchers and advanced students in science and engineering. This is an excellent reference for scientists and engineers who wish to analyze, interpret and model data from various sources, and is also an ideal graduate-level textbook for courses in environmental sciences and related fields. Contents: Preface Time series analysis Chaos and dynamical systems Approximation Interpolation Statistical methods Numerical methods Optimization Data envelopment analysis Risk assessments Life cycle assessments Index

Introduction to Environmental Data Analysis and Modeling

Introduction to Environmental Data Analysis and Modeling
Author: Moses Eterigho Emetere,Esther Titilayo Akinlabi
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 233
Release: 2020-01-03
ISBN: 3030362078
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to Environmental Data Analysis and Modeling Book Excerpt:

This book introduces numerical methods for processing datasets which may be of any form, illustrating adequately computational resolution of environmental alongside the use of open source libraries. This book solves the challenges of misrepresentation of datasets that are relevant directly or indirectly to the research. It illustrates new ways of screening datasets or images for maximum utilization. The adoption of various numerical methods in dataset treatment would certainly create a new scientific approach. The book enlightens researchers on how to analyse measurements to ensure 100% utilization. It introduces new ways of data treatment that are based on a sound mathematical and computational approach.

Methods of Environmental Data Analysis

Methods of Environmental Data Analysis
Author: C. N. Hewitt
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 309
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 9401129207
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Methods of Environmental Data Analysis Book Excerpt:

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SERIES The current expansion of both public and scientific interest in environ mental issues has not been accompanied by a commensurate production of adequate books, and those which are available are widely variable in approach and depth. The Environmental Management Series has been established with a view to co-ordinating a series of volumes dealing with each topic within the field in some depth. It is hoped that this Series will provide a uniform and quality coverage and that, over a period of years, it will build up to form a library of reference books covering most of the major topics within this diverse field. It is envisaged that the books will be of single, or dual authorship, or edited volumes as appropriate for respective topics. The level of presentation will be advanced, the books being aimed primarily at a research/consultancy readership. The coverage will include all aspects of environmental science and engineering pertinent to manage ment and monitoring of the natural and man-modified environment, as well as topics dealing with the political. t:conomic, legal and social con siderations pertaining to environmental management.

Numerical Methods in Environmental Data Analysis

Numerical Methods in Environmental Data Analysis
Author: Moses Eterigho Emetere
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2022-07-19
ISBN: 0128189711
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Numerical Methods in Environmental Data Analysis Book Excerpt:

Numerical Methods in Environmental Data Analysis introduces environmental scientists to the numerical methods available to help answer research questions through data analysis. One challenge in data analysis is misrepresentation of datasets that are relevant directly or indirectly to the research. This book illustrates new ways of screening dataset or images for maximum utilization, introducing environmental modeling, numerical methods, and computations techniques in data analysis. Throughout the book, the author includes case studies that provide guidance on how to translate research questions into appropriate models. Individuals working with data sets or images generated from environmental monitoring centers or satellites will find this book to be a concise guide for analyzing and interpreting their data. Bridges the theoretical underpinnings of modeling to research Illustrates the computational resolution of environmental issues alongside the use of open-source software Provides information on the use of analogue versus digital data treatment processes

Computational Methods for Next Generation Sequencing Data Analysis

Computational Methods for Next Generation Sequencing Data Analysis
Author: Ion Mandoiu,Alexander Zelikovsky
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2016-09-12
ISBN: 1119272165
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computational Methods for Next Generation Sequencing Data Analysis Book Excerpt:

Introduces readers to core algorithmic techniques for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data analysis and discusses a wide range of computational techniques and applications This book provides an in-depth survey of some of the recent developments in NGS and discusses mathematical and computational challenges in various application areas of NGS technologies. The 18 chapters featured in this book have been authored by bioinformatics experts and represent the latest work in leading labs actively contributing to the fast-growing field of NGS. The book is divided into four parts: Part I focuses on computing and experimental infrastructure for NGS analysis, including chapters on cloud computing, modular pipelines for metabolic pathway reconstruction, pooling strategies for massive viral sequencing, and high-fidelity sequencing protocols. Part II concentrates on analysis of DNA sequencing data, covering the classic scaffolding problem, detection of genomic variants, including insertions and deletions, and analysis of DNA methylation sequencing data. Part III is devoted to analysis of RNA-seq data. This part discusses algorithms and compares software tools for transcriptome assembly along with methods for detection of alternative splicing and tools for transcriptome quantification and differential expression analysis. Part IV explores computational tools for NGS applications in microbiomics, including a discussion on error correction of NGS reads from viral populations, methods for viral quasispecies reconstruction, and a survey of state-of-the-art methods and future trends in microbiome analysis. Computational Methods for Next Generation Sequencing Data Analysis: Reviews computational techniques such as new combinatorial optimization methods, data structures, high performance computing, machine learning, and inference algorithms Discusses the mathematical and computational challenges in NGS technologies Covers NGS error correction, de novo genome transcriptome assembly, variant detection from NGS reads, and more This text is a reference for biomedical professionals interested in expanding their knowledge of computational techniques for NGS data analysis. The book is also useful for graduate and post-graduate students in bioinformatics.

The Diatoms

The Diatoms
Author: John P. Smol,Eugene F. Stoermer
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2010-09-30
ISBN: 1139492624
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Diatoms Book Excerpt:

This much revised and expanded edition provides a valuable and detailed summary of the many uses of diatoms in a wide range of applications in the environmental and earth sciences. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of diatoms in analysing ecological problems related to climate change, acidification, eutrophication, and other pollution issues. The chapters are divided into sections for easy reference, with separate sections covering indicators in different aquatic environments. A final section explores diatom use in other fields of study such as forensics, oil and gas exploration, nanotechnology, and archaeology. Sixteen new chapters have been added since the first edition, including introductory chapters on diatom biology and the numerical approaches used by diatomists. The extensive glossary has also been expanded and now includes over 1,000 detailed entries, which will help non-specialists to use the book effectively.

Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments

Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments
Author: H. John B. Birks,André F. Lotter,Steve Juggins,John P. Smol
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 745
Release: 2012-04-06
ISBN: 9400727453
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments Book Excerpt:

Numerical and statistical methods have rapidly become part of a palaeolimnologist’s tool-kit. They are used to explore and summarise complex data, reconstruct past environmental variables from fossil assemblages, and test competing hypotheses about the causes of observed changes in lake biota through history. This book brings together a wide array of numerical and statistical techniques currently available for use in palaeolimnology and other branches of palaeoecology. ​ Visit http://extras.springer.com the Springer's Extras website to view data-sets, figures, software, and R scripts used or mentioned in this book.

Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments

Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments
Author: John B.H. Birks,André F. Lotter,Steve Juggins,John P. Smol
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 751
Release: 2012-04-08
ISBN: 9400727445
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments Book Excerpt:

Numerical and statistical methods have rapidly become part of a palaeolimnologist’s tool-kit. They are used to explore and summarise complex data, reconstruct past environmental variables from fossil assemblages, and test competing hypotheses about the causes of observed changes in lake biota through history. This book brings together a wide array of numerical and statistical techniques currently available for use in palaeolimnology and other branches of palaeoecology. ​ Visit http://extras.springer.com the Springer's Extras website to view data-sets, figures, software, and R scripts used or mentioned in this book.

Statistical Methods for Evaluating Safety in Medical Product Development

Statistical Methods for Evaluating Safety in Medical Product Development
Author: A. Lawrence Gould
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 392
Release: 2014-12-08
ISBN: 1118763106
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Statistical Methods for Evaluating Safety in Medical Product Development Book Excerpt:

This book gives professionals in clinical research valuable information on the challenging issues of the design, execution, and management of clinical trials, and how to resolve these issues effectively. It also provides understanding and practical guidance on the application of contemporary statistical methods to contemporary issues in safety evaluation during medical product development. Each chapter provides sufficient detail to the reader to undertake the design and analysis of experiments at various stages of product development, including comprehensive references to the relevant literature. Provides a guide to statistical methods and application in medical product development Assists readers in undertaking design and analysis of experiments at various stages of product development Features case studies throughout the book, as well as, SAS and R code

Bayesian Networks for Probabilistic Inference and Decision Analysis in Forensic Science

Bayesian Networks for Probabilistic Inference and Decision Analysis in Forensic Science
Author: Franco Taroni,Alex Biedermann,Silvia Bozza,Paolo Garbolino,Colin Aitken
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 472
Release: 2014-07-21
ISBN: 1118914740
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bayesian Networks for Probabilistic Inference and Decision Analysis in Forensic Science Book Excerpt:

"This book should have a place on the bookshelf of every forensic scientist who cares about the science of evidence interpretation" Dr. Ian Evett, Principal Forensic Services Ltd, London, UK Continuing developments in science and technology mean that the amounts of information forensic scientists are able to provide for criminal investigations is ever increasing. The commensurate increase in complexity creates difficulties for scientists and lawyers with regard to evaluation and interpretation, notably with respect to issues of inference and decision. Probability theory, implemented through graphical methods, and specifically Bayesian networks, provides powerful methods to deal with this complexity. Extensions of these methods to elements of decision theory provide further support and assistance to the judicial system. Bayesian Networks for Probabilistic Inference and Decision Analysis in Forensic Science provides a unique and comprehensive introduction to the use of Bayesian decision networks for the evaluation and interpretation of scientific findings in forensic science, and for the support of decision-makers in their scientific and legal tasks. • Includes self-contained introductions to probability and decision theory. • Develops the characteristics of Bayesian networks, object-oriented Bayesian networks and their extension to decision models. • Features implementation of the methodology with reference to commercial and academically available software. • Presents standard networks and their extensions that can be easily implemented and that can assist in the reader’s own analysis of real cases. • Provides a technique for structuring problems and organizing data based on methods and principles of scientific reasoning. • Contains a method for the construction of coherent and defensible arguments for the analysis and evaluation of scientific findings and for decisions based on them. • Is written in a lucid style, suitable for forensic scientists and lawyers with minimal mathematical background. • Includes a foreword by Ian Evett. The clear and accessible style of this second edition makes this book ideal for all forensic scientists, applied statisticians and graduate students wishing to evaluate forensic findings from the perspective of probability and decision analysis. It will also appeal to lawyers and other scientists and professionals interested in the evaluation and interpretation of forensic findings, including decision making based on scientific information.

How to Design Analyse and Report Cluster Randomised Trials in Medicine and Health Related Research

How to Design  Analyse and Report Cluster Randomised Trials in Medicine and Health Related Research
Author: Michael J. Campbell,Stephen J. Walters
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2014-03-28
ISBN: 1118763602
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

How to Design Analyse and Report Cluster Randomised Trials in Medicine and Health Related Research Book Excerpt:

A complete guide to understanding cluster randomised trials Written by two researchers with extensive experience in the field, this book presents a complete guide to the design, analysis and reporting of cluster randomised trials. It spans a wide range of applications: trials in developing countries, trials in primary care, trials in the health services. A key feature is the use of R code and code from other popular packages to plan and analyse cluster trials, using data from actual trials. The book contains clear technical descriptions of the models used, and considers in detail the ethics involved in such trials and the problems in planning them. For readers and students who do not intend to run a trial but wish to be a critical reader of the literature, there are sections on the CONSORT statement, and exercises in reading published trials. Written in a clear, accessible style Features real examples taken from the authors’ extensive practitioner experience of designing and analysing clinical trials Demonstrates the use of R, Stata and SPSS for statistical analysis Includes computer code so the reader can replicate all the analyses Discusses neglected areas such as ethics and practical issues in running cluster randomised trials How to Design, Analyse and Report Cluster Randomised Trials in Medicine and Health Related Research provides an excellent reference tool and can be read with profit by statisticians, health services researchers, systematic reviewers and critical readers of cluster randomised trials.

Advanced Numerical Methods for Complex Environmental Models Needs and Availability

Advanced Numerical Methods for Complex Environmental Models  Needs and Availability
Author: István Faragó,Ágnes Havasi,Zahari Zlatev
Publsiher: Bentham Science Publishers
Total Pages: 437
Release: 2013-12-10
ISBN: 160805778X
Category: Nature
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Numerical Methods for Complex Environmental Models Needs and Availability Book Excerpt:

High air pollution levels pose a significant threat to plants, animals and human beings. Efforts by researchers are directed towards keeping air pollution levels below well defined ‘critical‘ levels in order to maintain a sustainable atmosphere and environmental system. The application of advanced mathematical models is important for researchers to achieve this goal as efficiently as possible. Mathematical models can be used to predict answers to many important questions about the environment. This application comes with several complex theoretical and practical obstacles which need to be resolved. A successfully applicable mathematical model needs to enable researchers to • Mathematically describe all important physical and chemical processes. • Apply fast and sufficiently accurate numerical methods. • Ensure that the model runs efficiently on modern high speed computers. • Use high quality input data, both meteorological data and emission inventories, in the runs. • Verify the model results by comparing them with reliable measurements taken in different parts of the spatial domain of the model. • Carry out long series of sensitivity experiments to check the response of the model to changes of different key parameters. • Visualize and animate the output results in order to make them easily understandable even to non-specialists. This monograph thoroughly describes mathematical methods useful for various situations in environmental modeling - including finite difference methods, splitting methods, parallel computation, etc. - and provides a framework for resolving problems posed in relation to the points listed above. Chapters are written by well-known specialists making this book a handy reference for researchers, university teachers and students working and studying in the areas of air pollution, meteorology, applied mathematics and computer science.

Applied Mixed Models in Medicine

Applied Mixed Models in Medicine
Author: Helen Brown,Robin Prescott
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 536
Release: 2014-12-12
ISBN: 1118778243
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applied Mixed Models in Medicine Book Excerpt:

A fully updated edition of this key text on mixed models, focusing on applications in medical research The application of mixed models is an increasingly popular way of analysing medical data, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry. A mixed model allows the incorporation of both fixed and random variables within a statistical analysis, enabling efficient inferences and more information to be gained from the data. There have been many recent advances in mixed modelling, particularly regarding the software and applications. This third edition of Brown and Prescott’s groundbreaking text provides an update on the latest developments, and includes guidance on the use of current SAS techniques across a wide range of applications. Presents an overview of the theory and applications of mixed models in medical research, including the latest developments and new sections on incomplete block designs and the analysis of bilateral data. Easily accessible to practitioners in any area where mixed models are used, including medical statisticians and economists. Includes numerous examples using real data from medical and health research, and epidemiology, illustrated with SAS code and output. Features the new version of SAS, including new graphics for model diagnostics and the procedure PROC MCMC. Supported by a website featuring computer code, data sets, and further material. This third edition will appeal to applied statisticians working in medical research and the pharmaceutical industry, as well as teachers and students of statistics courses in mixed models. The book will also be of great value to a broad range of scientists, particularly those working in the medical and pharmaceutical areas.

Environmental Archaeology

Environmental Archaeology
Author: Chris Turney,Matthew Canti,Nick Branch,Peter Clark
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2014-05-12
ISBN: 1444119265
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Archaeology Book Excerpt:

Environmental Archaeology: Theoretical and Practical Approaches outlines and assesses the various methods used to reconstruct and explain the past interaction between people and their environment. Emphasising the importance of a highly scientific approach to the subject, the book combines geoarchaeological, bioarchaeological (archaeobotany and zooarchaeology) and geochronological information and examines how these various aspects of archaeology may be used to enhance our knowledge and understanding of past human environments. Drawing from both the practical experiences of the authors and cutting-edge research, Environmental Archaeology: Theoretical and Practical Approaches is a valuable contribution to the subject. It will be essential reading for students and professionals in archaeology, geography and anthropology.

Time Series Modelling of Water Resources and Environmental Systems

Time Series Modelling of Water Resources and Environmental Systems
Author: K.W. Hipel,A.I McLeod
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 1012
Release: 1994-04-07
ISBN: 9780080870366
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Time Series Modelling of Water Resources and Environmental Systems Book Excerpt:

This is a comprehensive presentation of the theory and practice of time series modelling of environmental systems. A variety of time series models are explained and illustrated, including ARMA (autoregressive-moving average), nonstationary, long memory, three families of seasonal, multiple input-single output, intervention and multivariate ARMA models. Other topics in environmetrics covered in this book include time series analysis in decision making, estimating missing observations, simulation, the Hurst phenomenon, forecasting experiments and causality. Professionals working in fields overlapping with environmetrics - such as water resources engineers, environmental scientists, hydrologists, geophysicists, geographers, earth scientists and planners - will find this book a valuable resource. Equally, environmetrics, systems scientists, economists, mechanical engineers, chemical engineers, and management scientists will find the time series methods presented in this book useful.

Environmental Systems Volume II

Environmental Systems   Volume II
Author: Achim Sydow
Publsiher: EOLSS Publications
Total Pages: 356
Release: 2010-09-27
ISBN: 1848262116
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Systems Volume II Book Excerpt:

Environmental Systems is a component of Encyclopedia of Environmental and Ecological Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. Environmental Systems is something about data handling, modeling and decision making in the field of environmental systems. It includes related basic knowledge on measurement techniques, modeling techniques and models and their applications for decisions making. Environmental engineering / research are based on measurement techniques and related knowledge of natural and life sciences. Developed mathematical and numerical simulation models are tools and strictly purpose oriented, that means suitable for decision making. The three volumes on Environmental Systems are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences

MATLAB   Recipes for Earth Sciences
Author: Martin H. Trauth
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 526
Release: 2020-12-02
ISBN: 3030384411
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences Book Excerpt:

MATLAB® is used in a wide range of geoscientific applications, e.g. for image processing in remote sensing, for creating and processing digital elevation models, and for analyzing time series. This book introduces readers to MATLAB-based data analysis methods used in the geosciences, including basic statistics for univariate, bivariate and multivariate datasets, time-series analysis, signal processing, the analysis of spatial and directional data, and image analysis. The revised and updated Fifth Edition includes seven new sections, and the majority of the chapters have been rewritten and significantly expanded. New sections include error analysis, the problem of classical linear regression of log-transformed data, aligning stratigraphic sequences, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Aitchison’s log-ratio transformation, graphical representation of spherical data, and statistics of spherical data. The book also includes numerous examples demonstrating how MATLAB can be used on datasets from the earth sciences. The supplementary electronic material (available online through SpringerLink) contains recipes that include all the MATLAB commands featured in the book and the sample data.

Weight of Evidence for Forensic DNA Profiles

Weight of Evidence for Forensic DNA Profiles
Author: David J. Balding,Christopher D. Steele
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2015-05-18
ISBN: 1118814541
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Weight of Evidence for Forensic DNA Profiles Book Excerpt:

DNA evidence is widely used in the modern justice system. Statistical methodology plays a key role in ensuring that this evidence is collected, interpreted, analysed and presented correctly. This book is a guide to assessing DNA evidence and presenting that evidence in a courtroom setting. It offers practical guidance to forensic scientists with little dependence on mathematical ability, and provides the scientist with the understanding they require to apply the methods in their work. Since the publication of the first edition of this book in 2005 there have been many incremental changes, and one dramatic change which is the emergence of low template DNA (LTDNA) profiles. This second edition is edited and expanded to cover the basics of LTDNA technology. The author's own open-source R code likeLTD is described and used for worked examples in the book. Commercial and free software are also covered.

Environmental Forensics

Environmental Forensics
Author: Robert D. Morrison,Brian L. Murphy
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2010-08-04
ISBN: 0080494781
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Forensics Book Excerpt:

Environmental forensics is the application of scientific techniques for the purpose of identifying the source and age of a contaminant. Over the past several years, this study has been expanding as a course of study in academia, government and commercial markets. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) are among the governmental agencies that utilize the study of environmental forensics to ensure national security and to ensure that companies are complying with standards. Even the International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (INECE), a group supported by the European Commission and the World Bank, utilizes the study of environmental forensics as it applies to terror threats. This title is a hands-on guide for environmental scientists, engineers, consultants and industrial scientists to identify the origin and age of a contaminant in the environment and the issues involved in the process. An expansion of the authors’ first title with Academic Press, Introduction to Environmental Forensics, this is a state-of-the-art reference for those exploring the scientific techniques available. Up-to-date compendium for referencing forensic techniques unique to particular contaminants. International scientific unit system Contributors from around the world providing international examples and case studies.