Ocean Mixing

Ocean Mixing
Author: Michael Meredith,Alberto Naveira Garabato
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2021-09-16
ISBN: 0128215135
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ocean Mixing Book Excerpt:

Ocean Mixing: Drivers, Mechanisms and Impacts presents a broad panorama of one of the most rapidly-developing areas of marine science. It highlights the state-of-the-art concerning knowledge of the causes of ocean mixing, and a perspective on the implications for ocean circulation, climate, biogeochemistry and the marine ecosystem. This edited volume places a particular emphasis on elucidating the key future questions relating to ocean mixing, and emerging ideas and activities to address them, including innovative technology developments and advances in methodology. Ocean Mixing is a key reference for those entering the field, and for those seeking a comprehensive overview of how the key current issues are being addressed and what the priorities for future research are. Each chapter is written by established leaders in ocean mixing research; the volume is thus suitable for those seeking specific detailed information on sub-topics, as well as those seeking a broad synopsis of current understanding. It provides useful ammunition for those pursuing funding for specific future research campaigns, by being an authoritative source concerning key scientific goals in the short, medium and long term. Additionally, the chapters contain bespoke and informative graphics that can be used in teaching and science communication to convey the complex concepts and phenomena in easily accessible ways. • Presents a coherent overview of the state-of-the-art research concerning ocean mixing • Provides an in-depth discussion of how ocean mixing impacts all scales of the planetary system • Includes elucidation of the grand challenges in ocean mixing, and how they might be addressed

Ocean Mixing

Ocean Mixing
Author: Michael C. Gregg
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021-01-31
ISBN: 1316800415
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ocean Mixing Book Excerpt:

The stratified ocean mixes episodically in small patches where energy is dissipated and density smoothed over scales of centimeters. The net effect of these countless events effects the shape of the ocean's thermocline, how heat is transported from the sea surface to the interior, and how dense bottom water is lifted into the global overturning circulation. This book explores the primary factors affecting mixing, beginning with the thermodynamics of seawater, how they vary in the ocean and how they depend on the physical properties of seawater. Turbulence and double diffusion are then discussed, which determines how mixing evolves and the different impacts it has on velocity, temperature, and salinity. It reviews insights from both laboratory studies and numerical modelling, emphasising the assumptions and limitations of these methods. This is an excellent reference for researchers and graduate students working to advance our understanding of mixing, including oceanographers, atmospheric scientists and limnologists.

Small Scale Turbulence and Mixing in the Ocean

Small Scale Turbulence and Mixing in the Ocean
Author: J.C.J. Nihoul,B.M. Jamart
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 540
Release: 1988-05-01
ISBN: 9780080870847
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Small Scale Turbulence and Mixing in the Ocean Book Excerpt:

This volume contains the proceedings of the 19th International Liège Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics, the programme of which focused on the relationships between small-scale mixing and large-scale features, transports and processes. The presentation of papers on various methods of parameterization of small-scale turbulent mixing for numerical ocean models was particularly encouraged and this resulted in more than a third of the papers presented at the Colloquium dealing in one way or another with the parameterization problems; many of these papers demonstrate the direct results of modelling. These proportions are well reflected in this volume of proceedings and thus emphasize once more the importance of small-scale turbulence research for such vital practical applications as ocean modelling and forecasting.

Breaking and Dissipation of Ocean Surface Waves

Breaking and Dissipation of Ocean Surface Waves
Author: Alexander Babanin
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2011-05-19
ISBN: 1139502727
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Breaking and Dissipation of Ocean Surface Waves Book Excerpt:

Wave breaking represents one of the most interesting and challenging problems for fluid mechanics and physical oceanography. Over the last 15 years our understanding has undergone a dramatic leap forward, and wave breaking has emerged as a process whose physics is clarified and quantified. Ocean wave breaking plays the primary role in the air-sea exchange of momentum, mass and heat, and it is of significant importance for ocean remote sensing, coastal and ocean engineering, navigation and other practical applications. This book outlines the state of the art in our understanding of wave breaking and presents the main outstanding problems. It is a valuable resource for anyone interested in this topic: researchers, modellers, forecasters, engineers and graduate students in physical oceanography, meteorology and ocean engineering.

Ocean Sciences at the New Millennium

Ocean Sciences at the New Millennium
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2001
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Oceanography
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ocean Sciences at the New Millennium Book Excerpt:

Ocean Challenge

Ocean Challenge
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1999
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Oceanography
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ocean Challenge Book Excerpt:

Draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS for Proposed North Atlantic Incineration Site Designation

Draft Environmental Impact Statement  EIS  for Proposed North Atlantic Incineration Site Designation
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 360
Release: 1980
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Hazardous wastes
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS for Proposed North Atlantic Incineration Site Designation Book Excerpt:

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics II

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics II
Author: Emin Özsoy
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 332
Release: 2021-08-13
ISBN: 3030749347
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics II Book Excerpt:

This book develops a fundamental understanding of geophysical fluid dynamics based on a mathematical description of the flows of inhomogeneous fluids. It covers these topics: 1. development of the equations of motion for an inhomogeneous fluid 2. review of thermodynamics 3. thermodynamic and kinetic energy equations 4. equations of state for the atmosphere and the ocean, salt, and moisture effects 5. concepts of potential temperature and potential density 6. Boussinesq and quasi-geostrophic approximations 7. conservation equations for vorticity, mechanical and thermal energy instability theories, internal waves, mixing, convection, double-diffusion, stratified turbulence, fronts, intrusions, gravity currents Graduate students will be able to learn and apply the basic theory of geophysical fluid dynamics of inhomogeneous fluids on a rotating earth, including: 1. derivation of the governing equations for a stratified fluid starting from basic principles of physics 2. review of thermodynamics, equations of state, isothermal, adiabatic, isentropic changes 3. scaling of the equations, Boussinesq approximation, applied to the ocean and the atmosphere 4. examples of stratified flows at geophysical scales, steady and unsteady motions, inertia-gravity internal waves, quasi-geostrophic theory 5. vorticity and energy conservation in stratified fluids 6.boundary layer convection in stratified containers and basins

Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins

Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins
Author: Kon-Kee Liu,Larry Atkinson,Renato Quiñones,Liana Talaue-McManus
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 741
Release: 2010-02-11
ISBN: 3540927352
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins Book Excerpt:

This book is a product of the joint JGOFS (Joint Global Ocean Flux Study)/LOICZ (Land–Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone) Continental Margins Task Team which was established to facilitate continental margins research in the two projects. It contains signi cant information on the physical, biogeochemical, and ecosystems of continental margins nationally and regionally and provides a very valuable synthesis of this information and the physical, biogeochemical and ecosystem processes which occur on continental margins. The publication of this book is timely as it provides a very strong foundation for the development of the joint IMBER (Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystems Research)/LOICZ Science Plan and Implemen- tion Strategy for biogeochemical and ecosystems research in the continental margins and the impacts of global change on these systems. This initiative will move forward integrated biogeochemical and ecosystems research in the continental margins. We thank all the contributors to this volume and especially Kon-Kee Liu who has dedicated a great deal of time to ensuring a high-quality book is published. IMBER Scienti c Steering Committee Julie Hall LOICZ Scienti c Steering Committee Jozef Pacyna v 1 Preface In general, interfaces between the Earth’s larger material reservoirs (i. e. , the land, atmosphere, ocean, and sediments) are important in the control of the biogeoche- cal dynamics and cycling of the major bio-essential elements, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and silicon (Si), found in organic matter and the inorganic skeletons, shells, and tests of benthic and marine organisms.

Failures of Meteorology Unable to Prevent Climate Change and World Wars

Failures of Meteorology  Unable to Prevent Climate Change and World Wars
Author: Arnd Bernaerts
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 234
Release: 2012
ISBN: 3844812849
Category: Climatic changes
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Failures of Meteorology Unable to Prevent Climate Change and World Wars Book Excerpt:

The Second World War stands for the criminal madness of German Nazi government. Less known is their responsibility for the only climatic shift from warm to cold in an otherwise constantly warming world over the last 150 years. Not knowing the reason for the biggest climatic shift since industrialization, which started in winter 1939/40, rectifies to speak about failures of meteorology. Only four months into Second World War Northern Europe experienced the coldest winter in 100 years. The reason: plain physics! Naval war in Northern European seas released the summer heat too quickly. Polar air got free access to Europe. The same applies to the second and third war winter. Europe was back in the Little Ice Age. After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7th, 1941 naval war became a global affair. In close conformity with naval war in European seas, and subsequently in the Pacific, a pronounced global cooling took place, which lasted until about the mid 1970s. Furthermore, a thorough research of strong warming in the Northern Hemisphere from winter 1918/19 to winter 1939/40 would have revealed a convincing link to naval war in Europe from 1914 to 1918. But climatology does not care! The connection between two naval wars and two climatic changes within 25 years has not yet been investigated and explained. If they had warned governments about the threat of climate change, as their successors currently do with the "greenhouse effect", naval activities in two World Wars may have been prevented, or at least been limited. Claims to understand climate should be regarded as a failure as long as meteorology is unable to explain the two most pronounced climatic shifts during the last century and the role two world wars had in this game. These two events would show that the oceans have a dominate role in the climate system, and man is able to change its direction by intensive activities in the marine environment. It took four months to generate the extreme regional winter 19

Oceanography an Earth Science Perspective

Oceanography  an Earth Science Perspective
Author: Dr Andy Cundy,Andy Cundy,Steve Kershaw
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2013-05-13
ISBN: 1134983360
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oceanography an Earth Science Perspective Book Excerpt:

This work provides a wide perspective of the oceans by examining their places in the earth sciences, drawing together all the key strands of ocean study and presenting a holistic view of ocean processes, ancient and modern.

The Federal Ocean Program

The Federal Ocean Program
Author: United States. President
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1975
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Marine resources
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Federal Ocean Program Book Excerpt:

Report to the Congress on Ocean Pollution Overfishing and Offshore Development

Report to the Congress on Ocean Pollution  Overfishing  and Offshore Development
Author: United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 116
Release: 1974
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Fisheries
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Report to the Congress on Ocean Pollution Overfishing and Offshore Development Book Excerpt:

Buoyancy Driven Flows

Buoyancy Driven Flows
Author: Eric Chassignet,Claudia Cenedese,Jacques Verron
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2012-03-05
ISBN: 1107079993
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Buoyancy Driven Flows Book Excerpt:

Buoyancy is one of the main forces driving flows on our planet, especially in the oceans and atmosphere. These flows range from buoyant coastal currents to dense overflows in the ocean, and from avalanches to volcanic pyroclastic flows on the Earth's surface. This book brings together contributions by leading world scientists to summarize our present theoretical, observational, experimental and modeling understanding of buoyancy-driven flows. Buoyancy-driven currents play a key role in the global ocean circulation and in climate variability through their impact on deep-water formation. Buoyancy-driven currents are also primarily responsible for the redistribution of fresh water throughout the world's oceans. This book is an invaluable resource for advanced students and researchers in oceanography, geophysical fluid dynamics, atmospheric science and the wider Earth sciences who need a state-of-the-art reference on buoyancy-driven flows.

Comprehensive Remote Sensing

Comprehensive Remote Sensing
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 3134
Release: 2017-11-08
ISBN: 0128032219
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Comprehensive Remote Sensing Book Excerpt:

Comprehensive Remote Sensing covers all aspects of the topic, with each volume edited by well-known scientists and contributed to by frontier researchers. It is a comprehensive resource that will benefit both students and researchers who want to further their understanding in this discipline. The field of remote sensing has quadrupled in size in the past two decades, and increasingly draws in individuals working in a diverse set of disciplines ranging from geographers, oceanographers, and meteorologists, to physicists and computer scientists. Researchers from a variety of backgrounds are now accessing remote sensing data, creating an urgent need for a one-stop reference work that can comprehensively document the development of remote sensing, from the basic principles, modeling and practical algorithms, to various applications. Fully comprehensive coverage of this rapidly growing discipline, giving readers a detailed overview of all aspects of Remote Sensing principles and applications Contains ‘Layered content’, with each article beginning with the basics and then moving on to more complex concepts Ideal for advanced undergraduates and academic researchers Includes case studies that illustrate the practical application of remote sensing principles, further enhancing understanding

Atlantic Water in the Nordic Seas

Atlantic Water in the Nordic Seas
Author: Waldemar Walczowski
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 174
Release: 2013-11-19
ISBN: 3319012797
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Atlantic Water in the Nordic Seas Book Excerpt:

The book presents a wide description of hydrographic conditions in the studied area of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Variability of the Atlantic Water properties have been presented on the basis of time series obtained from oceanographic measurements performed each summer from 2000 to 2007 by the Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences. The warming observed in that period has been described in detail as well as cooling of the Atlantic Water flowing towards the Fram Strait in 2007. Furthermore, concepts regarding multi-branch structure of the West Spitsbergen Current have been presented, types of flows in individual branches as well as variability of the flows. Description of the structure, transports and variability of the sea currents is based mostly on hydrographic measurements and baroclinic calculations. The results confirm a leading role of the ocean in climate shaping and acknowledges the importance of the Thermohaline Circulation for the climate.

Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change

Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 342
Release: 1997-01-01
ISBN: 0309058767
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change Book Excerpt:

Oceanography Invited Lectures Presented at the International Oceanographic Congress Held in New York 31 August 12 September 1959

Oceanography  Invited Lectures Presented at the International Oceanographic Congress Held in New York  31 August 12 September 1959
Author: Mary Sears
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 678
Release: 1961
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Oceanography
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oceanography Invited Lectures Presented at the International Oceanographic Congress Held in New York 31 August 12 September 1959 Book Excerpt:

Proceedings of the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference February 20 22 1978 Miami Beach Flordia Sections 1 III

Proceedings of the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference  February 20 22  1978  Miami Beach  Flordia  Sections 1 III
Author: Abrahim Lavi,T. Nejat Veziroğlu
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1978
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Ocean thermal power plants
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proceedings of the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference February 20 22 1978 Miami Beach Flordia Sections 1 III Book Excerpt:

The Changing Carbon Cycle

The Changing Carbon Cycle
Author: John R. Trabalka,David E. Reichle
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 592
Release: 2013-03-09
ISBN: 1475719159
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Changing Carbon Cycle Book Excerpt:

The United States Government, cognizant of its responsibilities to future generations, has been sponsoring research for nine years into the causes, effects, and potential impacts of increased concentrations of carbon dioxide (C0 ) in the atmosphere. Agencies such as the National Science Foun 2 dation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cooperatively spent about $100 million from FY 1978 through FY 1984 directly on the study of CO • The DOE, as the 2 lead government agency for coordinating the government' s research ef forts, has been responsible for about 60% of these research efforts. William James succinctly defined our purpose when he stated science must be based upon " ... irreducible and stubborn facts." Scientific knowledge can and will reduce the present significant uncertainty sur rounding our understanding of the causes, effects, and potential impacts of increasing atmospheric CO2• We have come far during the past seven years in resolving some underlyinig doubts and in narrowing the ranges of disagreement. Basic concepts have become less murky. Yet, much more must be accomplished; more irreducible and stubborn facts are needed to reduce the uncertainties so that we can improve our knowledge base. Uncertainty can never be reduced to zero. However, with a much improved knowledge base, we will be able to learn, under stand, and be in a position to make decisions.