Operation Just Cause

Author by : Thomas Donnelly
Languange : en
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Description : Offers eyewitness accounts of the 1989 U.S. invasion, and looks at its impact on Panama


The U S Invasion Of Panama

Author by : Independent Commission of Inquiry on the U.S. Invasion of Panama
Languange : en
Publisher by : South End Press
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Description : This book counters the media blitz that portrayed the invasion of Panama--dubbed "Operation Just cause" by the Pentagon--as a restoration of democracy and a war against drugs. It details the horrors of the invasion as experienced by the civilian population and documents the "operation's" criminal character, thus providing the truth behind the U.S. invasion of Panama.


Operation Just Cause And The U S Policy Process

Author by : Rebecca L. Grant
Languange : en
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Description : American policy toward Panama has been dominated by the Panama Canal, but the Canal has never been the direct cause of American military interventions in Panama. Since the 19th Century, the United States has on occasion played the role of a policeman in Panama. Most of the U.S. interventions took place before the Canal was completed in 1914. The last of these interventions occurred in 1925, when U.S. forces stationed in Panama subdued riots in Panama City. Operation Just Cause was carried in part for reasons that strongly resembled the earlier justifications for intervention. By the time Manual Noriega became an internationally recognized menace and President Bush decided to intervene, the Canal itself was only a background issue. The Bush administration was far more concerned with ending Noriega's ability to use the Panama Defense Forces to control the country. When Noriega refused to accept the victory of an opposition party in the May 1989 elections, final proof that Panama's economy and its civil society could not function effectively as long as Noriega remained in power.


Operation Just Cause

Author by : Bruce W. Watson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : This book offers one of the first comprehensive academic views on Just Cause, the December 1989 U.S. military intervention in Panama. It presents excellent positions for the reader to consider and give a comprehensive view of all of the factors and events that prompted the operation.


Operation Just Cause

Author by : Ronald H. Cole
Languange : en
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Operation Just Cause

Author by :
Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Total Read : 75
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Battle For Panama

Author by : E. M. Flanagan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Brassey's Incorporated
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Description : Army general Edward M. Flanagan, Jr., had unequaled access to Just Cause's key planners and to official after-action reports. His sixth book, Battle for Panama contains exciting tales of fierce combat, as told by the troops themselves. Its foreword is by Gen. Maxwell R. Thurman, USA (Ret.), who headed the U.S. Southern Command during the battle, and it has been selected by the Association of the U.S. Army for its distinguished AUSA Book Series.


Soldiers In Panama

Author by :
Languange : en
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Operation Just Cause

Author by : Clarence E. Briggs
Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Description : Who is the enemy? Who is an innocent bystander? When can I use force and how much force should I use? The answers to these questions vary according to the role of the soldier and the rules of engagement under which he is operating at a particular time and in a particular place on the battlefield. We owe the American solder, who for future conflicts must be equally prepared to direct traffic and to close with and destroy the enemy, answers to these questions. But most important, after we determine the answers, we must be willing to train on them.


Night Vision Goggles In Operation Just Cause

Author by : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Investigations
Languange : en
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Total Read : 43
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Operation Just Cause

Author by : Ronald H. Cole
Languange : en
Publisher by : Military Bookshop
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Total Read : 89
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Description : This is a reissue of a study first published in 1995. Written shortly after the completion of Operation JUST CAUSE, this monograph traces the involvement of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Joint Staff in planning and directing combat operations in Panama. The study begins with the initial development of contingency plans in February l988 and concludes with General Manuel Noriega's surrender to U.S. officials on 3 January l990. Relying primarily upon Joint Staff files and interviews with key participants, the author, Dr. Ronald Cole, provides an account of the parts played by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Joint Staff, and the Commander in Chief of U.S. Southern Command in planning for operations in Panama and their roles in the combat operations that followed.


Operation Just Cause

Author by : Jennifer M. Taw
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rand Corporation
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Total Read : 63
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Description : The study of past operations is helpful in defining U.S. Army roles and functions in military operations other than war (OOTW) and in assessing the range of missions and requirements the Army is likely to face in the future. Operation Just Cause (OJC) can be distinguished from subsequent OOTW--in Kuwait, Iraq, Bangladesh, Bosnia, and Somalia--in part because it was a unilateral effort that did not involve coalition issues or problems. Nor did the United States have to coordinate its efforts with nongovernment organizations or humanitarian relief organizations. Nevertheless, OJC offers the Army some practical lessons for current and future OOTW: (1) Army training in military operations on urban terrain (MOUT) is inadequate; (2) electronic intelligence is insufficient in OOTW and must be supplemented by human intelligence and imagery; (3) efforts to streamline joint operations must not overlook service-specific needs, and must take care to maximize the use of special operations forces by employing them in the specialized tasks for which they were trained; (4) more emphasis is needed on equipment technology for the special requirements of MOUT; (5) planning for OOTW must not overlook or underemphasize stability operations (as was the case in OJC); and (6) civilian agencies (including the State Department and the U.S. Agency for International Development) must be involved in the planning for most OOTW, but need to develop the capability to offer valuable and timely contributions.


Operation Just Cause

Author by : Jennifer M. Taw
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rand Corporation
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 30
Total Download : 467
File Size : 40,8 Mb
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Description : The study of past operations is helpful in defining U.S. Army roles and functions in military operations other than war (OOTW) and in assessing the range of missions and requirements the Army is likely to face in the future. Operation Just Cause (OJC) can be distinguished from subsequent OOTW--in Kuwait, Iraq, Bangladesh, Bosnia, and Somalia--in part because it was a unilateral effort that did not involve coalition issues or problems. Nor did the United States have to coordinate its efforts with nongovernment organizations or humanitarian relief organizations. Nevertheless, OJC offers the Army some practical lessons for current and future OOTW: (1) Army training in military operations on urban terrain (MOUT) is inadequate; (2) electronic intelligence is insufficient in OOTW and must be supplemented by human intelligence and imagery; (3) efforts to streamline joint operations must not overlook service-specific needs, and must take care to maximize the use of special operations forces by employing them in the specialized tasks for which they were trained; (4) more emphasis is needed on equipment technology for the special requirements of MOUT; (5) planning for OOTW must not overlook or underemphasize stability operations (as was the case in OJC); and (6) civilian agencies (including the State Department and the U.S. Agency for International Development) must be involved in the planning for most OOTW, but need to develop the capability to offer valuable and timely contributions.


The Mosquito And The Colossus

Author by : U. S. Military
Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Description : Panama began its modern history as a semi-colonial appendage of the United States (US). Since gaining independence in 1903, Panama witnessed both elitist quasi-democratic governments and authoritarian populist governments. The oligarchic system in place throughout much of Panama's history was a significant hindrance to real democracy taking hold within the country. Democracy was further set back by the inordinate power exerted by US presence on the isthmus throughout the twentieth century. Many Panamanian leaders would practice duplicity over US and Panamanian relations that benefited their interests when necessary but would also denounce them in the same breath when it fit their local political interests. Through time, many Panamanians felt it created an imperial relationship that the people of Panama saw as overbearing and obtrusive. Today, Iraqis have the same concern as they feel that US intervention was due to imperialistic ambitions over oil. In the summer and fall of 1989, while the United States had their eyes fixated on the events in Eastern Europe that ended the Cold War, a different kind of storm was brewing in Panama. Noriega's conflict with the US escalated from one crisis to another, gaining him some victories that strengthened his position inside Panama and motivated him to challenge the US even further. From 1988 to 1989 Noriega supported a regime that harassed American citizens in Panama and hindered full implementation of America's rights under the 1977 Panama Canal treaties. As a result, the U.S. launched Operation Just Cause on December 20, 1989. Operation Just Cause served as a harbinger of the changes to future conflicts that dawned from the post-Cold War era. The change that came about is the criticality of gaining understanding and knowledge of a region through the study of local interpretations regarding history, politics, and social issues. Initial research shows that very little literature available to American service members presents an adequate Panamanian narrative of the events surrounding Operation Just Cause. In this case, the insights of the crisis from General Noriega's vantage point. General Noriega's perspectives provide information for critical analysis of the motivations and interests behind the actions of foreign leaders. This study argues that the world's complexity beckons for an understanding achievable only through the study of the local interpretation of historical events. As a result, it is vital to have General Noriega's view of Operation Just Cause in order to balance the historical narrative and provide the unique and necessary insights that only General Noriega can provide. INTRODUCTION * Background * Research Question * Hypothesis * Methodology * Theoretical Framework * Ottaway - Authoritarian and Semi-Authoritarian Rule * HISTORY OF PANAMA * Pre-Independence * Panama's Annus Mirabilis * Political Setting * Nacionalismo y Personalismo * The Maelstrom * GENERAL OMAR TORRIJOS * The Manifestation of Ideas * A Coup Like No Other * Bonapartism * The Torrijos-Carter Treaties * Torrijos' Invisible Hand * GENERAL MANUEL ANTONIO NORIEGA * Ego Sum Qui Sum * Ascension to Power * The Road to Perdition * Barletta Must Go * Hell Hath No Fury as a Potential Dictator Scorned * Drug Indictments Initiate Military Planning * Elections Nullified * The Failed Coup * An Offer He Could Not Refuse * The Invasion * CONCLUSION * Noriega's Final Assessment * Implications * APPENDICES * Appendix A * Appendix B


The U S Military Intervention In Panama Operation Just Cause December 1989 January 1990

Author by : Lawrence A. Yates
Languange : en
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Description : Examines how American military power was employed during Operation Just Cause, including the planning process and joint efforts of the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps during major combat operations. Also details post-combat stability and nation-building operations.


Operation Just Cause

Author by : United States. Southern Command
Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Total Read : 54
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Citizen Airmen

Author by : Gerald T. Cantwell
Languange : en
Publisher by : Air Force History & Museums Program
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Total Read : 91
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Citizen Airman

Author by :
Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Total Read : 66
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Operation Just Cause

Author by : Samuel M. Katz
Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Global Media Perspectives On The Crisis In Panama

Author by : Professor Howard M Hensel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
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Total Read : 74
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Description : Operation Just Cause, the United States' incursion into Panama, was the culmination of a gradually escalating confrontation between the United States and the Noriega dominated government of Panama that extended from June, 1987 until early January, 1990. Applying diverse methodological approaches, this volume examines the various ways representative examples of the global media covered the developing crisis and the eventual US incursion into Panama. The volume: – sets the stage for this analysis by delineating the chronological development of the escalating confrontation, as well as by examining the confrontation from the perspective of the US government – analyzes the crisis from the perspective of the US, Soviet, Canadian, French, Portuguese, Arab, and the People's Republic of China media – exposes the challenges for public affairs officers operating within the context of the global media response to international crises, and provides an assessment of the implications of the crisis for inter-American and international relations. This analysis and evaluation of a variety of global media perspectives on the escalating US-Panamanian confrontation will serve to better illuminate and further enrich our understanding of a major international event - indeed, one of the final events of the Cold War era.


Post Cold War

Author by : Stephen Alan Bourque
Languange : en
Publisher by : Greenwood
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 93
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Description : Examines soldiers' lives at the end of the Cold War era, beginning with President George H.W. Bush's administration.


International Law Studies

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Languange : en
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Total Read : 91
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The 3d Battalion 27th Infantry In Operation Just Cause

Author by : David S. Hutchison
Languange : en
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Description : I commanded the 3d Battalion 27th Infantry (3-27), Wolfhounds, of the 7th Infantry Division (Light) during Operation Just Cause. My battalion was in the 2d Brigade of the 7th Division which was the Division Ready Brigade (DRB-l) for the deployment to Panama. My battalion was the Division Ready Force (DRF-l) and in early December of 1989 the Battalion was deployed to Camp Pendleton, California on an emergency deployment readiness exercise (EDRE). We were still in the process of redeploying from the EDRE to Camp Pendleton when the alert for Just Cause was received. It is the purpose of this paper to relate some of my experiences with the Battalion during its alert and deployment to Panama, as well as one particular type of operation that the Battalion executed several times during Just Cause. It is not the purpose of this paper to develop a unit history from my point of view. This paper will not be that complete. I will try to focus on a few particular experiences which I believe have some value, and that other commanders can learn from. I will offer recommendations with that purpose in mind.


The United States Army In Operation Iraqi Freedom May 2003 January 2005

Author by : Donald R. Wright
Languange : en
Publisher by : U.S. Government Printing Office
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Description : NOW AVAILABLE! On Point II is a comprehensive study of the US Army in Operation IRAQI FREEDOM (OIF) from May 2003 to January 2005. Based on primary sources including hundreds of interviews with participants, the study examines how after May 2003 American Soldiers made the transition to a new type of campaign that featured information operations, intelligence, reconstruction, and governance rather than conventional combat. On Point II documents the US Army's execution of Full Spectrum Operations in the early stages of this conflict.


My Operation Just Cause

Author by : Harvey Carroll, Jr.
Languange : en
Publisher by : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
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Description : "Operation Just Cause" My suggestion for the United States invasion of Panama By Harvey Carroll, Jr. I'm a former U.S. Army Military Policeman/Investigator, whom has seen shocking drug related deaths, and investigators bloody shot-out brains laying on their car seats... This view led me to believe in the need for a real "War on Drugs" the result "Operation Just Cause" the Invasion of Panama... I now hold a Bachelors of Business Administration Degree specializing in Real Estate and Finance, and three partial Masters in Business, Public Administration as well as Diplomacy and International Commerce... I've been considered the most influential international political figure in Kentucky-US, and some would say that perhaps in the World at one time. I have dealt with Governors, Senators, Presidents and Foreign Heads of State; and in the process I have saved millions of lives, and affected the economic fate of nations... Yet, I have made mistakes, and even cost lives and often ponder if the "End Justified the Means." It has always been quite easy for me to deal with complex U.S. National and International Policy. From a young age I dealt with local, state, national and international policy that includes Latin America i.e. "Panama," Middle East (Iraq, Libya, Syria, Israel, Iran), Africa, and even coming to the AID after the collapse of the Soviet Union to protect U.S. and Global Security by suggesting buying out the nuclear weapons to prevent them from ending up on the Black Market for Terrorism, as well as preventing the former fifteen Soviet States against each other. I also suggested financial bailouts, and another financial AID via the IFC/World Bank for Ukraine that saved seventy-five banks a few years ago (a similar plan presented to the U.S. House and Senate Financial Services Committee "Frank and Dodd" to bailout the American Economy to assist 2/3rds of the American States and Top Banks from Collapse. More recently, I have shared suggestions to have the OSCE get between the separatist and the Ukrainian Army to the Ukrainian Presidents people tasked to negotiate the Minsk Agreements that may have prevented Ukraine from turning into another Syria... In the process I have noticed that Russian President Putin sent Troops "Little Green Men" into Crimea much like my suggestions for the "Panama Invasion, ." which you're about to read...


American Foreign Policy

Author by :
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U S Presidents And Latin American Interventions

Author by : Michael Grow
Languange : en
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Description : Reveals how Cold War U.S. presidents intervened in Latin America not, as the official argument stated, to protect economic interests or war off perceived national security threats, but rather as a way of responding to questions about strength and credibility both globally and at home.