Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Xi Chen,Abdullah Al Amin,An Li,William Shieh
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060808
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

In this chapter, we present an overview of multicarrier transmission and its application to optical communication. Specifically, we first introduce the historical perspectives in the development of optical multicarrier technologies. We then present different variants of optical multicarrier transmission. We also highlight the problem of fiber nonlinearity in optical multicarrier transmission systems and present an analysis of fiber capacity under nonlinear impairments. Furthermore, we discuss applications of multicarrier techniques to long-haul systems, access networks, and free-space optical communication systems. Finally, we summarize with some possible research directions in implementing multicarrier technologies in optical transmission.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Keang-Po Ho,Joseph M. Kahn
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060832
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

Mode coupling is a key to overcoming challenges in mode-division-multiplexed transmission systems in multimode fiber. This chapter provides an in-depth description of mode coupling, including its physical origins, its effect on modal dispersion (MD) and mode-dependent loss or gain (MDL), and the resulting impact on system performance and implementation complexity. Strong mode coupling reduces the group delay spread from MD, minimizing the complexity of digital signal processing used for compensating MD and separating multiplexed signals. Likewise, strong mode coupling reduces the variations of MDL arising from transmission fibers and inline optical amplifiers, maximizing average channel capacity. When combined with MD, strong mode coupling creates frequency diversity, which reduces the probability of outage caused by MDL and enables the outage capacity to approach the average capacity. The statistics of strongly coupled MD and MDL depend only on the number of modes and the variances of MD or MDL, and can be derived from the eigenvalue distributions of certain random matrices.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Masataka Nakazawa,Toshihiko Hirooka,Masato Yoshida,Keisuke Kasai
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060794
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

We provide on overview of fundamental technologies and recent challenges on extremely higher-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) such as 256–1024 levels, toward the realization of an ultrahigh spectral efficiency approaching the Shannon limit. Key components required for such a higher-order QAM transmission are described in detail, including a coherent light source, an optical phase-locked loop, an IQ modulator, and a digital demodulator. We also present recent demonstrations of single-carrier 1024 QAM, 256 QAM-OFDM, and OTDM-RZ/32 QAM transmissions realized with these fundamental technologies.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Loukas Paraschis
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060905
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

The increasingly important role of Internet-based, “cloud” service delivery is motivating the evolution of the Internet to a flatter hierarchy of more densely interconnecting networks that shall cost-effectively scale to Zettabytes of bandwidth with improved operational efficiency, under increased traffic variability, and forecast unpredictability. This chapter reviews the implications of this evolution in its underlying metro regional and core transport network architectures, and evaluates the most important innovations in photonics, optical transport, routing, and traffic engineering technologies enabling it. Most notably, 1) a new generation of coherent DWDM systems with more than 2 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency is scaling the existing fiber infrastructure, albeit at a significantly higher proportion, typically more than 50%, of the total transport network cost, while 2) the convergence of IP/MPLS with flexible DWDM promises the most cost-efficient transport evolution, in open architectures that combine advancements in photonics, routing, multi-layer control-plane and management coordination, with interoperability, to improve operation, automate provisioning and restoration, and may optimize network utilization.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Peter J. Winzer,Roland Ryf,Sebastian Randel
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060824
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

At the beginning of an exciting new era in optical communications, we review fundamentals as well as practical experimental aspects of MIMO-SDM: we discuss the importance of selectively addressing all modes of a coupled-mode SDM channel at transmitter and receiver in order to achieve reliable capacity gains and show that reasonable levels of mode-dependent loss (MDL) are acceptable without much loss of channel capacity. We then introduce MIMO-DSP techniques as an extension of familiar algorithms used in polarization-division multiplexed (PDM) digital coherent receivers and discuss their functionality and scalability. Finally, we review the design of mode multiplexers (MMUXs) that allow for the mapping of the individual transmission signals onto an orthogonal basis of waveguide mode, and discuss their performance in experimental demonstrations.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: René-Jean Essiambre,Robert W. Tkach,Roland Ryf
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060735
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

This chapter starts by providing some statistics on traffic demand in optical networks and the capacity scaling over time of commercial optical communication systems. Next there is a brief review of the basic results of information theory. We then describe the stochastic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (SNSE), the equation that governs nonlinear propagation in SMFs. This is followed by calculations of nonlinear capacity limit estimates for the SSMF, and advanced fibers with improved transmission characteristics are then presented along with an analytical formula of nonlinear capacity. We then introduce a set of coupled partial differential equations (PDEs) describing nonlinear propagation of polarization-division multiplexed (PDM) signals in SMFs along with nonlinear capacity estimates for these systems. This followed by a focus on multimode fibers (MMFs) and multicore fibers (MCFs). The rest of the chapter then focuses on nonlinear effects in MMFs and MCFs, with an emphasis on MMFs and FMFs. The chapter concludes by reporting experimental observations of two important effects involving nonlinear effects between spatial modes: inter-modal cross-phase modulation (IM-XPM) and inter-modal four-wave mixing (IM-FWM).

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Frank Effenberger
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060948
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

This chapter aims to describe the current state of the PON technology, including both “state-of-the-art” systems that are currently under research in the laboratory and “standardized” systems that have been or soon will be described as an industry norm. A short introduction to the PON topic will be given, to set the scene and provide the basic motivation for why PON is so important to fiber access. Then, each of the major technologies will be reviewed, including TDM, Video overlay, WDM, FDM, and Hybrid multiplexing. The focus of each review will be at a system level and will not dive into the details (those will be handled via references to published works). Rather, the intention is to present the wide view of the whole range, so as to compare and contrast them.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Daniel C. Kilper,Rodney S. Tucker
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060891
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

For many years, the prime drivers behind advances in telecommunications have been the need for increased capacity and reduced cost. But recently, concerns about the rising energy use of telecommunications networks have brought the issue of energy efficiency into the mix, both for equipment vendors and for network operators. In this chapter, we provide an overview of energy consumption in telecommunications networks. We identify the key contributors to energy consumption and identify trends in the growth of energy consumption. We compare the performance of state-of-the-art equipment with theoretical lower bounds on energy consumption and point to opportunities for improving the energy efficiency of core metro and access networks. We show that there is potential for significant improvements in energy efficiency.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Polina Bayvel,Carsten Behrens,David S. Millar
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060778
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

The key question of current optical communications research is: how to maximize both capacity and transmission distance in future optical transmission networks by using spectrally-efficient modulation formats with coherent detection, and how can digital signal processing aid in this quest? There is a clear trade-off between spectral efficiency and transmission distance, since the more spectrally-efficient modulation formats are also more susceptible to optical fiber nonlinearities. This chapter illustrates the application of nonlinear backpropagation to mitigate for both linear and nonlinear transmission impairments for a range of modulation formats, at varying symbol-rates and wavelength spacings, and also by varying the signal bandwidth which is backpropagated. The basics of coherent receiver structure and DSP algorithms for chromatic dispersion compensation, equalization and phase recovery of PDM-BPSK, PS-QPSK, PDM-QPSK, PDM-8PSK, PDM-8QAM, and PDM-16QAM are reviewed and the effectiveness of the nonlinearity compensating DSP based on digital backpropagation is explored. This chapter includes a comprehensive literature review of the key experimental demonstrations of nonlinearity-compensating DSP.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Juerg Leuthold,Wolfgang Freude
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060816
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

New pulse-shaping techniques allow for optical multiplexing with highest spectral efficiencies. We introduce the general theory of orthogonal pulse-shaping and then discuss with more emphasis the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and Nyquist frequency division multiplexing schemes. Subsequently, we show that rectangularly shaped pulses as used for OFDM can mathematically be treated by the Fourier transform. This leads us to the theory of the time-discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and to a discussion of practical implementations of the DFT and its inverse in the optical domain. The chapter is concluded with exemplary implementations of OFDM transceivers that relay either on direct pulse-shaping or the DFT approaches.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Hamid Hemmati,David Caplan
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 012806076X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

Satellite-based communication systems of today are increasingly capacity limited. Based on radio frequency or microwave (generically RF) technologies, current state-of-the-art satellite communications (satcom) are often constrained by hardware and spectrum allocation limitations. Consequently, mobile payload sensors and instruments (on satellite or aircraft) are often implemented with restricted capacity to better match that of the host platform. Such limitations are expected to worsen as future interplanetary, deep-space, and manned missions use more sophisticated data-intensive sensors and as the demand for information—and a bigger return on the space-exploration investment—continues to increase.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications Volume VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications Volume VIB
Author: Ivan Kaminow,Tingye Li,Alan E. Willner
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 012397237X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications Volume VIB Book Excerpt:

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and students, network operators, and investors. Volume A is devoted to components and subsystems, including photonic integrated circuits, multicore and few-mode fibers, photonic crystals, silicon photonics, signal processing, and optical interconnections. Volume B is devoted to systems and networks, including advanced modulation formats, coherent detection, Tb/s channels, space-division multiplexing, reconfigurable networks, broadband access, undersea cable, satellite communications, and microwave photonics. All the latest technologies and techniques for developing future components and systems Edited by two winners of the highly prestigious OSA/IEEE John Tyndal award and a President of IEEE's Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (7,000 members) Written by leading experts in the field, it is the most authoritative and comprehensive reference on optical engineering on the market

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Ivan B. Djordjevic
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060786
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

This chapter represents an overview of advanced coding techniques for optical communication. Topics include: codes on graphs, coded modulation, rate-adaptive coded modulation, and turbo equalization. The main objectives of this chapter are: (i) to describe different classes of codes on graphs of interest for optical communications, (ii) to describe how to combine multilevel modulation and channel coding, (iii) to describe how to perform equalization and soft-decoding jointly, and (iv) to demonstrate efficiency of joint de-modulation, decoding, and equalization in dealing with various channel impairments simultaneously. Codes on graphs of interest for next-generation FEC for high-speed optical transport include turbo codes, turbo-product codes and low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. We describe both binary and nonbinary LDPC codes, their design and decoding algorithms. We also discuss an FPGA implementation of decoders for binary LDPC codes. We demonstrate that an LDPC-coded turbo equalizer is an excellent candidate to simultaneously mitigate uncompensated chromatic dispersion, PMD, fiber nonlinearities and I/Q-imbalance. For completeness of presentation, we also provide the information capacity study of optical channels with memory.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: S. Chandrasekhar,Xiang Liu
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060751
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

Optical superchannel transmission has recently attracted much research and development effort, aiming to increase the capacity and cost-effectiveness of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) systems. The use of superchannels avoids the electronic bottleneck via optical parallelism, and provides high per-channel data rate and better spectral utilization, especially in transparent mesh optical networks. This chapter reviews recent advances in the generation, detection, and transmission of optical superchannels with channel data rates on the order of Terabits/s. Multiplexing schemes such as optical orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (O-OFDM) and Nyquist WDM are described, in conjunction with modulation schemes such as OFDM and Nyquist-filtered single-carrier modulation. Superchannel transmission performance is discussed. Finally, networking implications brought by the use of superchannels, such as flexible-grid WDM, are also discussed.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Jian Wang,Miles J. Padgett,Siddharth Ramachandran,Martin P.J. Lavery,Hao Huang,Yang Yue,Yan Yan,Nenad Bozinovic,Steven E. Golowich,Alan E. Willner
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060840
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive review of multimode communications using OAM. The fundamentals of OAM are introduced first followed by the techniques for OAM generation, multiplexing/demultiplexing, and detection. We then present recent research efforts to free-space communication links and fiber-based transmission links using OAM multiplexing together with optical signal processing using OAM (data exchange, add/drop, multicasting, monitoring, and compensation). Future challenges of OAM communications are discussed at the end.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Gee-Kung Chang,Yu-Ting Hsueh,Shu-Hao Fan
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 012806093X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

Radio-over-fiber (RoF) link technology has been developed to support multiple wireless signals over optical fiber applications such as mobile backhaul networks and WLANs. Given that conventional wireless networks use packet-switch links between the central office and remote base stations, the cost and complexity of the high-speed wireless networks for data and video transmission increase exponentially while the area of effective coverage decreases. These wireless systems become more inefficient as the data rates and the carrier frequencies required for delivering multi-gigabit wireless services climb higher. However, radio-over-fiber link systems utilizing lightwave to carry multiple analog RF signals through optical fibers can greatly extend the cellular sizes while transparent to the bit rates, modulation formats, and protocols. As a result, the complexity of wireless system to deliver multi-band, multi-gigabit wireless services can be simplified by taking advantages of microwave photonics in optical wireless network design and system integration. The end-to-end RoF systems, from the generation schemes of 1–100 GHz optical wireless signals in the central office to the design of transceivers for base stations and radio access units, are reviewed and investigated in this chapter. Various radio-over-fiber link technologies and the optical wireless interface specifications required to build a converged multi-service, gigabit wireless access network are introduced. The system impairment and its mitigation of radio-over-fiber link transmission will be investigated and analyzed.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Jin-xing Cai,Katya Golovchenko,Georg Mohs
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060972
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

The increasing demand for capacity has driven the telecommunications community to focus on transmission studies with higher data rates and increasing spectral efficiency. However, high data rates and high SE are particularly challenging for transoceanic cable systems due to their extremely long transmission distances. With the advent of digital coherent receivers, the channel data rate has increased from 40Gb/s to 100Gb/s and beyond; the spectral efficiency has increased from 80% (0.8bits/s/Hz) to the most recent 600% (6bits/s/Hz); and the total capacity has increased from 6Tb/s to the most recent 30Tb/s. This chapter gives an overview of the most recent advances in undersea transmission technology since the last edition of Optical Fiber Telecommunications in 2007 focusing on coherent technology and 100Gb/s transmission.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Kristin Rauschenbach,Cesar Santivanez
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060883
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

Rapidly increasing network demand based on unpredictable services has driven research into methods to provide intelligent provisioning, efficient restoration and recovery from failures, and effective management schemes that reduce the amount of “hands-on” activity to plan and run the network. Integrating the service-oriented IP layer together with the efficient transport capabilities of the optical layer is a cornerstone of this research. Converged IP-optical networks are being demonstrated in large multi-carrier and multi-vendor venues. Research is continuing on making this convergence more efficient, flexible, and scalable. In this chapter, we review the current key technologies that contribute to the convergence of IP and optical networks, describing control and management plane technologies, techniques and standards in some detail. We also illustrate current research challenges, and discuss future directions for research.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Ori Gerstel,Masahiko Jinno
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060867
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

This chapter introduces elastic optical networking, which is a new paradigm for the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) layer, based on a much more flexible use of the spectrum without a rigid wavelength grid, transponders that can be programmed for different modulation formats, tightly packed channels in a so called “superchannel” and impairment-aware control planes that tie the client layer and the optical layer together. We start by reviewing the changes in network usage patterns that require an overhaul of the network architecture. We then survey the enabling technologies, including flexible spectrum reconfigurable add/drop multiplexers (FlexSpectrum ROADMs), bit rate variable transponders (also known as software defined), and control plane capabilities. We provide a vision of the resulting architecture, including how to decide on the connection bit rate and other properties and how to manage the spectrum, and compare it to today’s WDM systems. We finish by surveying progress in standards for this technology.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB
Author: Y.C. Chung,Y. Takushima
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 1148
Release: 2013-05-11
ISBN: 0128060956
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB Book Excerpt:

Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM PON) has long been considered as an ultimate solution for the future optical access network capable of providing practically unlimited bandwidth to each subscriber. On the other hand, it is still considered to be too expensive for the massive deployment. To solve this problem and meet the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, there have been numerous efforts to improve the competitiveness of WDM PON. This chapter reviews the current status and future direction of these WDM PON technologies. We first review various colorless light sources, which are critical for the cost-effective implementation of the optical network units (ONUs), and several representative network architectures proposed for WDM PONs. We then review the recent research activities for the realization of high-speed (>10Gb/s) and long-reach WDM PONs. Various fault-monitoring and protection techniques are also reviewed as they can be increasingly important in the future high-capacity WDM PONs.