Optical and Wireless Convergence for 5G Networks

Optical and Wireless Convergence for 5G Networks
Author: Abdelgader M. Abdalla,Jonathan Rodriguez,Issa Elfergani,Antonio Teixeira
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2019-08-05
ISBN: 1119491606
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical and Wireless Convergence for 5G Networks Book Excerpt:

The mobile market has experienced unprecedented growth over the last few decades. Consumer trends have shifted towards mobile internet services supported by 3G and 4G networks worldwide. Inherent to existing networks are problems such as lack of spectrum, high energy consumption, and inter-cell interference. These limitations have led to the emergence of 5G technology. It is clear that any 5G system will integrate optical communications, which is already a mainstay of wide area networks. Using an optical core to route 5G data raises significant questions of how wireless and optical can coexist in synergy to provide smooth, end-to-end communication pathways. Optical and Wireless Convergence for 5G Networks explores new emerging technologies, concepts, and approaches for seamlessly integrating optical-wireless for 5G and beyond. Considering both fronthaul and backhaul perspectives, this timely book provides insights on managing an ecosystem of mixed and multiple access network communications focused on optical-wireless convergence. Topics include Fiber–Wireless (FiWi), Hybrid Fiber-Wireless (HFW), Visible Light Communication (VLC), 5G optical sensing technologies, approaches to real-time IoT applications, Tactile Internet, Fog Computing (FC), Network Functions Virtualization (NFV), Software-Defined Networking (SDN), and many others. This book aims to provide an inclusive survey of 5G optical-wireless requirements, architecture developments, and technological solutions.

Optical Communications in the 5G Era

Optical Communications in the 5G Era
Author: Xiang Liu
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 376
Release: 2021-11-15
ISBN: 0128216271
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Communications in the 5G Era Book Excerpt:

Optical Communications in the 5G Era provides an up-to-date overview of the emerging optical communication technologies for 5G next-generation wireless networks. It outlines the emerging applications of optical networks in future wireless networks, state-of-the-art optical communication technologies, and explores new R&D opportunities in the field of converged fixed-mobile networks. Optical Communications in the 5G Era is an ideal reference for university researchers, graduate students, and industry R&D engineers in optical communications, photonics, and mobile and wireless communications who need an understanding of modern optical communication technologies that are fundamental to the 5th-generation (5G) wireless network. Describes 5G wireless trends and technologies such as cloud radio access networks (C-RAN), massive multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO), and coordinated multipoint (CoMP) Gives an insight into recent advances on the common public radio interface (CPRI), the Ethernet-based CPRI (eCPRI), and the next-generation fronthaul interface (NGFI) Presents X-haul technologies and how transport technologies can satisfy the mobile network needs Identifies promising applications of optical communication technologies in future 5G wireless networks Describes key optical communication technologies such as 100+Gb/s coherent transmission, low-cost direct-detection systems, and associated digital signal processing (DSP) techniques for high-throughput and low-latency wireless fronthaul and backhaul networks Gives various network architectures and designs of optical transport and access systems for better converged fiber/wireless networks Discusses emerging optical technologies such as optical sensing, optical ranging, optical face recognition, and optical signal processing

5th EAI International Conference on Management of Manufacturing Systems

5th EAI International Conference on Management of Manufacturing Systems
Author: Lucia Knapčíková,Dragan Peraković,Annamária Behúnová,Marko Periša
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 505
Release: 2021-08-02
ISBN: 3030672417
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

5th EAI International Conference on Management of Manufacturing Systems Book Excerpt:

The book presents the proceedings of the 5th EAI International Conference on Management of Manufacturing Systems (MMS 2020), which took place online on October 27-29, 2020. The conference covers the management of manufacturing systems with support for Industry 4.0, logistics and intelligent manufacturing systems and applications, cooperation management, and its effective applications. Topics include RFID applications, economic impacts in logistics, ICT support for Industry 4.0, industrial and smart Logistics, intelligent manufacturing systems and applications, and much more. The topic is of interest to researchers, practitioners, students, and academics in manufacturing and communications engineering.

Laser Communication with Constellation Satellites UAVs HAPs and Balloons

Laser Communication with Constellation Satellites  UAVs  HAPs and Balloons
Author: Arun K. Majumdar
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 270
Release: 2022-06-24
ISBN: 3031039726
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Laser Communication with Constellation Satellites UAVs HAPs and Balloons Book Excerpt:

This book presents posits a solution to the current limitations in global connectivity by introducing a global laser/optical communication system using constellation satellites, UAVs, HAPs and Balloons. The author outlines how this will help to satisfy the tremendous increasing demand for data exchange and information between end-users worldwide including in remote locations. The book provides both fundamentals and the advanced technology development in establishing worldwide communication and global connectivity using, (I) All-Optical technology, and (ii) Laser/Optical Communication Constellation Satellites (of different types, sizes and at different orbits), UAVs, HAPs (High Altitude Platforms) and Balloons. The book discusses step-by-step methods to develop a satellite backbone in order to interconnect a number of ground nodes clustered within a few SD-WAN (software-defined networking) in a wide area network (WAN) around the world in order to provide a fully-meshed communication network. This book pertains to anyone in optical communications, telecommunications, and system engineers, as well as technical managers in the aerospace industry and the graduate students, and researchers in academia and research laboratory. Proposed a solution to the limitations in global connectivity through a global laser/optical communication system using constellation satellites, UAVs, HAPs and Balloons; Provides both fundamentals and the advanced technology development in establishing global communication connectivity using optical technology and communication constellation satellites; Includes in-depth coverage of the basics of laser/optical communication constellation satellites.

Telecommunication Systems

Telecommunication Systems
Author: Isiaka Alimi,Paulo P. Monteiro,António L. Teixeira
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 238
Release: 2019-10-30
ISBN: 178984293X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Telecommunication Systems Book Excerpt:

This book is based on both industrial and academic research efforts in which a number of recent advancements and rare insights into telecommunication systems are well presented. The volume is organized into four parts: "Telecommunication Protocol, Optimization, and Security Frameworks", "Next-Generation Optical Access Technologies", "Convergence of Wireless-Optical Networks" and "Advanced Relay and Antenna Systems for Smart Networks." Chapters within these parts are self-contained and cross-referenced to facilitate further study.

Key Technologies for 5G Wireless Systems

Key Technologies for 5G Wireless Systems
Author: Vincent W. S. Wong,Robert Schober,Derrick Wing Kwan Ng,Li-Chun Wang
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 552
Release: 2017-03-02
ISBN: 1107172411
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Key Technologies for 5G Wireless Systems Book Excerpt:

Get up to speed with the protocols, network architectures and techniques for 5G wireless networks with this comprehensive guide.

Optical Modulation

Optical Modulation
Author: Le Nguyen Binh
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 656
Release: 2017-11-22
ISBN: 1498745245
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Modulation Book Excerpt:

This books aims to present fundamental aspects of optical communication techniques and advanced modulation techniques and extensive applications of optical communications systems and networks employing single-mode optical fibers as the transmission system. New digital techqniues such as chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion, nonlinear phase distortion effects, etc. will be discussed. Practical models for practice and understanding the behavior and dynamics of the devices and systems will be included.

Smart Grids and Their Communication Systems

Smart Grids and Their Communication Systems
Author: Ersan Kabalci,Yasin Kabalci
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 644
Release: 2018-09-01
ISBN: 9811317682
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Grids and Their Communication Systems Book Excerpt:

The book presents a broad overview of emerging smart grid technologies and communication systems, offering a helpful guide for future research in the field of electrical engineering and communication engineering. It explores recent advances in several computing technologies and their performance evaluation, and addresses a wide range of topics, such as the essentials of smart grids for fifth generation (5G) communication systems. It also elaborates the role of emerging communication systems such as 5G, internet of things (IoT), IEEE 802.15.4 and cognitive radio networks in smart grids. The book includes detailed surveys and case studies on current trends in smart grid systems and communications for smart metering and monitoring, smart grid energy storage systems, modulations and waveforms for 5G networks. As such, it will be of interest to practitioners and researchers in the field of smart grid and communication infrastructures alike.

Optical and Wireless Technologies

Optical and Wireless Technologies
Author: Vijay Janyani,Ghanshyam Singh,Manish Tiwari,Tawfik Ismail
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2020-06-02
ISBN: 9811529264
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical and Wireless Technologies Book Excerpt:

This volume presents selected papers from the 3rd International Conference on Optical and Wireless Technologies, conducted from 16th to 17th March, 2019. It focuses on extending the limits of currently used systems encompassing optical and wireless domains, and explores the latest developments in applications like photonics, high speed communication systems and networks, visible light communication, nano-photonics, wireless, and MIMO systems. The proceedings contain high quality scholarly articles, giving insight into the analytical, experimental, and developmental aspects of systems, techniques, and devices in these spheres. This volume will prove useful to researchers and professionals alike.

Optical Network Design and Modeling

Optical Network Design and Modeling
Author: Anna Tzanakaki,Manos Varvarigos,Raul Muñoz,Reza Nejabati,Noboru Yoshikane,Markos Anastasopoulos,Johann Marquez-Barja
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 661
Release: 2020-02-15
ISBN: 3030380858
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optical Network Design and Modeling Book Excerpt:

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 23rd International IFIP conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, ONDM 2019, held in Athens, Greece, in May 2019. The 39 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 87 submissions. The papers focus on cutting-edge research in established areas of optical networking as well as their adoption in support of a wide variety of new services and applications. This involves the most recent trends in networking including 5G and beyond, big data and network data analytics, cloud/edge computing, autonomic networking, artificial intelligence assisted networks, secure and resilient networks, that drive the need for increased capacity, efficiency, exibility and adaptability in the functions that the network can perform. In this context new disaggregated optical network architectures were discussed, exploiting and integrating novel multidimensional photonic technology solutions as well as adopting open hardware and software platforms relying on software defined networking (SDN), and network function virtualization (NFV) to allow support of new business models and opportunities.

5G Explained

5G Explained
Author: Jyrki T. J. Penttinen
Publsiher: Wiley
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2019-05-13
ISBN: 1119275687
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

5G Explained Book Excerpt:

Practical Guide Provides Students and Industry Professionals with Latest Information on 5G Mobile Networks Continuing the tradition established in his previous publications, Jyrki Penttinen offers 5G Explained as a thorough yet concise introduction to recent advancements and growing trends in mobile telecommunications. In this case, Penttinen focuses on the development and employment of 5G mobile networks and, more specifically, the challenges inherent in adjusting to new global standardization requirements and in maintaining a high level of security even as mobile technology expands to new horizons. The text discusses, for example, the Internet of Things (IoT) and how to keep networks reliable and secure when they are constantly accessed by many different devices with varying levels of user involvement and competence. 5G Explained is primarily designed for specialists who need rapid acclimation to the possibilities and concerns presented by 5G adoption. Therefore, it assumes some prior knowledge of mobile communications. However, earlier chapters are structured so that even relative newcomers will gain useful information. Other notable features include: Three modules each consisting of three chapters: Introduction, Technical Network Description and Planning of Security and Deployment Comprehensive coverage of topics such as technical requirements for 5G, network architecture, radio and core networks and services/applications Discussion of specific security techniques in addition to common-sense guidelines for planning, deploying, managing and optimizing 5G networks 5G Explained offers crucial updates for anyone involved in designing, deploying or working with 5G networks. It should prove a valuable guide for operators, equipment manufacturers and other professionals in mobile equipment engineering and security, network planning and optimization, and mobile application development, or anyone looking to break into these fields.

Wired and Wireless Seamless Access Systems for Public Infrastructure

Wired and Wireless Seamless Access Systems for Public Infrastructure
Author: Tetsuya Kawanishi
Publsiher: Artech House
Total Pages: 330
Release: 2020-11-30
ISBN: 1630817414
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wired and Wireless Seamless Access Systems for Public Infrastructure Book Excerpt:

This innovative resource presents comprehensive and detailed information on wired and wireless seamless access systems consisting of various types of transmission media including microwave, millimeter-wave, THz wave, and lightwave in fibers. This book explains heterogenous networks consisting of various transmission media with many media converters. Applications of seamless access networks for public infrastructure such as airports, railways and information and communications systems are described. The book focuses on two important features of seamless access systems, including high-capacity transmission capacity limitation due to economics as well as physics, and low-latency transmission. Latency has significant impact on applications including financial transactions and online gaming. Low-latency data is very important for self-driving cars as well. This book presents the concept of sensor-over-fiber, where many antenna units are connected through optical fibers to gather sensor responses coherently. This book provides possible scenarios of future mobile networks which have many antenna units and opto-electric device technologies. Readers will learn about basic and state-of-the-art signal estimation techniques and concludes with exploration of social issues on future information and communication (ICT) infrastructure.

Advances in Wireless Communications and Applications

Advances in Wireless Communications and Applications
Author: Roumen Kountchev,Aniket Mahanti,Shen Chong,Srikanta Patnaik,Margarita Favorskaya
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 235
Release: 2020-07-28
ISBN: 9811558795
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Wireless Communications and Applications Book Excerpt:

This book gathers selected papers presented at the 3rd International Conference on Wireless Communications and Applications (ICWCA 2019), held at Hainan University, China. It covers up-to-date smart theories and approaches, as reflected in contemporary technical achievements in the area. The topics covered include: software-defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV), future data center networks, 5G/6G mobile networks, QoS/QoE support in future networks, future Internet of things (IoT) networks, network fault management and service availability, and many others.

6G Mobile Wireless Networks

6G Mobile Wireless Networks
Author: Yulei Wu,Sukhdeep Singh,Tarik Taleb,Abhishek Roy,Harpreet S. Dhillon,Madhan Raj Kanagarathinam,Aloknath De
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 472
Release: 2021-08-24
ISBN: 3030727777
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

6G Mobile Wireless Networks Book Excerpt:

This book is the world’s first book on 6G Mobile Wireless Networks that aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of key drivers, use cases, research requirements, challenges and open issues that are expected to drive 6G research. In this book, we have invited world-renowned experts from industry and academia to share their thoughts on different aspects of 6G research. Specifically, this book covers the following topics: 6G Use Cases, Requirements, Metrics and Enabling Technologies, PHY Technologies for 6G Wireless, Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface for 6G Wireless Networks, Millimeter-wave and Terahertz Spectrum for 6G Wireless, Challenges in Transport Layer for Tbit/s Communications, High-capacity Backhaul Connectivity for 6G Wireless, Cloud Native Approach for 6G Wireless Networks, Machine Type Communications in 6G, Edge Intelligence and Pervasive AI in 6G, Blockchain: Foundations and Role in 6G, Role of Open-source Platforms in 6G, and Quantum Computing and 6G Wireless. The overarching aim of this book is to explore the evolution from current 5G networks towards the future 6G networks from a service, air interface and network perspective, thereby laying out a vision for 6G networks. This book not only discusses the potential 6G use cases, requirements, metrics and enabling technologies, but also discusses the emerging technologies and topics such as 6G PHY technologies, reconfigurable intelligent surface, millimeter-wave and THz communications, visible light communications, transport layer for Tbit/s communications, high-capacity backhaul connectivity, cloud native approach, machine-type communications, edge intelligence and pervasive AI, network security and blockchain, and the role of open-source platform in 6G. This book provides a systematic treatment of the state-of-the-art in these emerging topics and their role in supporting a wide variety of verticals in the future. As such, it provides a comprehensive overview of the expected applications of 6G with a detailed discussion of their requirements and possible enabling technologies. This book also outlines the possible challenges and research directions to facilitate the future research and development of 6G mobile wireless networks.

Fundamental and Supportive Technologies for 5G Mobile Networks

Fundamental and Supportive Technologies for 5G Mobile Networks
Author: El-Kader, Sherine Mohamed Abd,Hussein, Hanan
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2019-11-29
ISBN: 1799811549
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamental and Supportive Technologies for 5G Mobile Networks Book Excerpt:

Mobile wireless communication systems have affected every aspect of life. By providing seamless connectivity, these systems enable almost all the smart devices in the world to communicate with high speed throughput and extremely low latency. The next generation of cellular mobile communications, 5G, aims to support the tremendous growth of interconnected things/devices (i.e., internet of things [IoT]) using the current technologies and extending them to be used in higher frequencies to cope with the huge number of different devices. In addition, 5G will provide massive capacity, high throughput, lower end-to-end delay, green communication, cost reduction, and extended coverage area. Fundamental and Supportive Technologies for 5G Mobile Networks provides detailed research on technologies used in 5G, their benefits, practical designs, and recent challenges and focuses on future applications that could exploit 5G network benefits. The content within this publication examines cellular communication, data transmission, and high-speed communication. It is designed for network analysts, IT specialists, industry professionals, software engineers, researchers, academicians, students, and scientists.

Selected Topics on Optical Fiber Technologies and Applications

Selected Topics on Optical Fiber Technologies and Applications
Author: Fei Xu,Chengbo Mou
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 250
Release: 2018-02-14
ISBN: 9535138138
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Selected Topics on Optical Fiber Technologies and Applications Book Excerpt:

This book is a collection of contributions by selected active researchers in the optical fiber fields highlighting the design, fabrication, and application of optical fibers and fiber systems and covering various topics such as microstructured optical fibers, polymer fibers, nonlinear effects, optical tweezers, and gyroscopic systems. The goal of the book is to provide an updated overview of the current research trends in the optical fiber fields, serving as a general reference for the recent development in optical fiber technologies, though inevitably many topics are not covered.

Futuristic Communication and Network Technologies

Futuristic Communication and Network Technologies
Author: A. Sivasubramanian,Prasad N. Shastry,Pua Chang Hong
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 1061
Release: 2021-10-11
ISBN: 9811646252
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Futuristic Communication and Network Technologies Book Excerpt:

This book presents select proceedings of the International Conference on Futuristic Communication and Network Technologies (CFCNT 2020) conducted at Vellore Institute of Technology, Chennai. It covers various domains in communication engineering and networking technologies. This volume comprises of recent research in areas like optical communication, optical networks, optics and optical computing, emerging trends in photonics, MEMS and sensors, active and passive RF components and devices, antenna systems and applications, RF devices and antennas for microwave emerging technologies, wireless communication for future networks, signal and image processing, machine learning/AI for networks, internet of intelligent things, network security and blockchain technologies. This book will be useful for researchers, professionals, and engineers working in the core areas of electronics and communication.

Cryptography

Cryptography
Author: Riccardo Bernardini
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2021-08-18
ISBN: 1839625651
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cryptography Book Excerpt:

Despite being 2000 years old, cryptography is still a very active field of research. New needs and application fields, like privacy, the Internet of Things (IoT), physically unclonable functions (PUFs), post-quantum cryptography, and quantum key distribution, will keep fueling the work in this field. This book discusses quantum cryptography, lightweight cryptography for IoT, PUFs, cryptanalysis, and more. It provides a snapshot of some recent research results in the field, providing readers with some useful tools and stimulating new ideas and applications for future investigation.

Proceedings of 2021 International Top Level Forum on Engineering Science and Technology Development Strategy

Proceedings of 2021 International Top Level Forum on Engineering Science and Technology Development Strategy
Author: Yusheng Xue,Yuping Zheng,Damir Novosel
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN: 9811671567
Category: Electric power distribution
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proceedings of 2021 International Top Level Forum on Engineering Science and Technology Development Strategy Book Excerpt:

This book includes original, peer-reviewed research papers from the 2021 International Top-Level Forum on Engineering Science and Technology Development Strategy -- the 6th PURPLE MOUNTAIN FORUM on Smart Grid Protection and Control (PMF2021), held in Nanjing, China, on August 14-22, 2021. The accepted papers cover the following topics: 1. Advanced power transmission technology 2. AC/DC hybrid power grid technology 3. Power Internet of Things Technology and Application 4. Operation, control and protection of smart grid 5. Active distribution network technology 6. Power electronic technology and application 7. New technology of substation automation 8. Energy storage technology and application 9. Application of new technologies such as artificial intelligence, blockchain, and big data 10. Application of Information and Communication Technology 11. Low-carbon energy planning and security 12. Low-carbon operation of the power system 13. Low-carbon energy comprehensive utilization technology 14. Carbon trading and power market 15. Carbon emission stream and carbon capture technology 16. Energy saving and smart energy technology 17. Analysis and evaluation of low-carbon efficiency of power system 18. Carbon flow modelling in power system operation The papers included in this proceeding share the latest research results and practical application examples on the methodologies and algorithms in these areas, which makes the book a valuable reference for researchers, engineers, and university students.

The Future Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Securing and Optimizing Services of 5G Over Optical Transport Network

The Future Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Securing and Optimizing Services of 5G Over Optical Transport Network
Author: Ayman Elmaasarawy
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 116
Release: 2021-04-21
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Future Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Securing and Optimizing Services of 5G Over Optical Transport Network Book Excerpt:

The existing challenges in the backhaul of the 4G networks and the Optical Transport Networks (OTN) affect the performance, the flexibility, and the cost of building the next generation of the communication network in Egypt. At the same time, the solutions to these challenges will lead to the evolution of the 5G mobile networks, which are characterized by an increasing number of wireless devices, service complexity, and the high demands to access more mobile services. The thesis discusses the impact of the implementations of the new technologies such software-defined network and machine learning in the core optical network on the flexible functionality of the access networks and how the centralized controller in the heterogeneous networks could improve the capacity and the resilience of the 4G services. There are many challenges of the LTE network in the backhaul section and the core OTN, such as the integration between the different heterogamous optical networks, synchronization of the network, the security of the customer data over the core optical network, and the available capacity of the backhaul LTE network. One of these changes is the security of the mobile customers over the backbone optical network such as OTN. The proposed security model in this thesis is implemented on the basis of protecting the vital client signals only over the optical layers by passing these signals into extra layer called security layer, this done by adding a new card in the Network Element (NE) to perform this job and by using the concept of the software-defined network (SDN) of the centralized controller with the help of the machine learning technology to perform the automatic detection of any intrusions over the optical layers. Another challenge in building the 4G network in Egypt is the high cost of the leased lines over the core optical network, which is used to connect the 4G sites between the different regions in the country. In this thesis, for the first time an Intelligent Universal Platform (IUF) is proposed to manage and optimize the operational tasks in the optical network. Use cases in two situations As-Is and To-Be are studied, the cases are about the energy consumptions, the fault locations, the circuit creations and finally the variation in the signal to noise ratio. The results show that by using the machine learning (ML) in our platform the time of the fault location, the efforts to create one circuit, the number of the complaints, and the response time to the customer complaints are enhanced by significant percentages, this indicates that the machine learning techniques will play a significant role in monitoring, detecting, localizing the faults, and finally optimizing the resources of optical core network, all without human interventions in the near future. There are many other difficulties in the OTN, such the expensive cost of the multilayer services planning, the quality of the services, and the quality of the resilience, all of these difficulties must be recovered first to cope with the changes in the new generations of the access communication networks. The needs to overcome many of these difficulties become vital nowadays, and depend on many factors in the OTN, such the status of the optical cables, the flexibility, the responsive, and the availability of OTN assets to direct customer control. In this thesis for a new proposed model is introduced by reorganizing the OTN resources to fit the needs of the new generations of the communications market, the model consolidates two promising technologies with each other which are the Software-Defined Network (SDN) and the Machine Learning (ML) to overcome the previous challenges and to reconstruct the control of the traditional OTN to be more smart, virtualized and automated. For the first time, the optical cloud concepts are introduced in the OTN by slicing and virtualizing the various domains with its vendors in the heterogeneous optical network.