Description : The orange juice chain is unique, probably a sui generis commodity. Although several countries produce oranges and juices, two regions in the world are the responsible for around 80% of the production. These are the states of Sao Paulo in Brazil and Florida in the USA. Although the emerging countries are growing in production, the juice consumer is also concentrated in the USA and Europe where more than 90% of consumption takes place. The characteristics of this chain are so unique, that it makes a nice laboratory for academics and business people to exercise strategies, since risk is spread. Orange is a very sensitive plant, and fluctuations in production are notorious. The logistics of this chain are fascinating. The product travels great distances to reach the consumer in a generally safe and efficient way. The industry assets such as vessels and tanks are specific. By reading this book, business people, academics and chain practitioners have an opportunity to understand this chain. and can analyse all of its numbers and economics and exercise strategy building. This is needed since the orange juice market is a stable market in the world, growing only 1% per year, and the production costs of this chain are rising fast, due to structural changes faced by world food and agribusiness companies i.e. labour costs, energy costs, land costs, environmental costs and others. The book will be of interest to all those concerned with agri food chains.
Description : Close to three quarters of U.S. households buy orange juice. Its popularity crosses class, cultural, racial, and regional divides. Why do so many of us drink orange juice? How did it turn from a luxury into a staple in just a few years? More important, how is it that we don’t know the real reasons behind OJ’s popularity or understand the processes by which the juice is produced? In this enlightening book, Alissa Hamilton explores the hidden history of orange juice. She looks at the early forces that propelled orange juice to prominence, including a surplus of oranges that plagued Florida during most of the twentieth century and the army’s need to provide vitamin C to troops overseas during World War II. She tells the stories of the FDA’s decision in the early 1960s to standardize orange juice, and the juice equivalent of the cola wars that followed between Coca-Cola (which owns Minute Maid) and Pepsi (which owns Tropicana). Of particular interest to OJ drinkers will be the revelation that most orange juice comes from Brazil, not Florida, and that even “not from concentrate” orange juice is heated, stripped of flavor, stored for up to a year, and then reflavored before it is packaged and sold. The book concludes with a thought-provoking discussion of why consumers have the right to know how their food is produced.
Description : This book is a succinct overview of the history of US-Brazilian relations over the past two decades. Monica Hirst considers economic relations between the two countries, presenting pertinent statistical information and detailing key economic policy disputes between the two governments (as well as the ongoing negotiations regarding a free trade agreement for the Americas). The book also looks at political issues such as military cooperation, nuclear energy, human rights and democracy, migration, the relative influence of both governments elsewhere in South America, relations in the context of multilateral organizations, drug trafficking, terrorism and the January 2003 transition from the Cardoso to the Lula presidency. It concludes with an essay that situates US-Brazilian relations in a broader analytical and comparative framework. The United States and Brazil will be of interest to students and scholars of economics, geography and politics and international relations in general.