Origin and Evolution of Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Viruses
Author: Esteban Domingo,Colin R. Parrish,John J. Holland
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2008-06-23
ISBN: 9780080564968
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Origin and Evolution of Viruses Book Excerpt:

New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza. These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases. * NEW - methods to establish relationships among viruses and the mechanisms that affect virus evolution * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups * SPECIFIC - Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interation with their hosts

Origin and Evolution of Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Viruses
Author: Esteban Domingo,Colin Ross Parrish,John J. Holland
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 533
Release: 2008
ISBN: 9780123741530
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Origin and Evolution of Viruses Book Excerpt:

New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza.These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases explained by the evolutionary flexibility of the viral agents that circulate in a continuously changing earth environment. * NEW to this edition - chapters on the molecular basis of copying fidelity of viral polymerases, methods to establish phylogenetic relationships among viruses, and the mechanisms of cellular RNA interference and editing functions as they affect virus evolution. * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups. * Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interaction with their hosts.

Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis Viruses
Author: Carla Osiowy,Lilly Yuen
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 131
Release: 2021-10-14
ISBN: 2889714888
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis Viruses Book Excerpt:

Evolution from Cellular to Social Scales

Evolution from Cellular to Social Scales
Author: Arne T. Skjeltorp,Alexander V. Belushkin
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 186
Release: 2008-09-26
ISBN: 1402087616
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Evolution from Cellular to Social Scales Book Excerpt:

Evolution is a critical challenge for many areas of science, technology and development of society. The book reviews general evolutionary facts such as origin of life and evolution of the genome and clues to evolution through simple systems. Emerging areas of science such as "systems biology" and "bio-complexity" are founded on the idea that phenomena need to be understood in the context of highly interactive processes operating at different levels and on different scales. This is where physics meets complexity in nature, and where we must begin to learn about complexity if we are to understand it. Similarly, there is an increasingly urgent need to understand and predict the evolutionary behavior of highly interacting man-made systems, in areas such as communications and transport, which permeate the modern world. The same applies to the evolution of human networks such as social, political and financial systems, where technology has tended to vastly increase both the complexity and speed of interaction, which is sometimes effectively instantaneous. The book contains reviews on such diverse areas as evolution experiments with microorganisms, the origin and evolution of viruses, evolutionary dynamics of genes and environment in cancer development, aging as an evolution-facilitating program, evolution of vision and evolution of financial markets.

The Logic of Chance

The Logic of Chance
Author: Eugene V. Koonin
Publsiher: FT Press
Total Pages: 530
Release: 2011-06-23
ISBN: 013262317X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Logic of Chance Book Excerpt:

The Logic of Chance offers a reappraisal and a new synthesis of theories, concepts, and hypotheses on the key aspects of the evolution of life on earth in light of comparative genomics and systems biology. The author presents many specific examples from systems and comparative genomic analysis to begin to build a new, much more detailed, complex, and realistic picture of evolution. The book examines a broad range of topics in evolutionary biology including the inadequacy of natural selection and adaptation as the only or even the main mode of evolution; the key role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution and the consequent overhaul of the Tree of Life concept; the central, underappreciated evolutionary importance of viruses; the origin of eukaryotes as a result of endosymbiosis; the concomitant origin of cells and viruses on the primordial earth; universal dependences between genomic and molecular-phenomic variables; and the evolving landscape of constraints that shape the evolution of genomes and molecular phenomes. "Koonin's account of viral and pre-eukaryotic evolution is undoubtedly up-to-date. His "mega views" of evolution (given what was said above) and his cosmological musings, on the other hand, are interesting reading." Summing Up: Recommended Reprinted with permission from CHOICE, copyright by the American Library Association.

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses
Author: Edward C. Holmes
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 267
Release: 2009-06-25
ISBN: 0199211124
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses Book Excerpt:

While the study of viral evolution has developed rapidly in the last 30 years, little attention has been directed toward linking the mechanisms of viral evolution to the epidemiological outcomes of these processes. This book intends to fill this gap by considering the patterns and processes of viral evolution at all its spatial and temporal scales.

Viruses

Viruses
Author: Joseph Panno
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2011
ISBN: 9780816068555
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Viruses Book Excerpt:

Learn all about viruses in this New Biology book.

Origin of Group Identity

Origin of Group Identity
Author: Luis P. Villarreal
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 614
Release: 2008-12-10
ISBN: 9780387779980
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Origin of Group Identity Book Excerpt:

A sense of belonging is basic to the human experience. But in this, humans are not unique. Essentially all life, from bacteria to humans, have ways by which it determines which members belong and which do not. This is a basic cooperative nature of life I call group membership which is examined in this book. However, cooperation of living things is not easily accounted for by current theory of evolutionary biology and yet even viruses display group membership. That viruses have this feature would likely seem coincidental or irrelevant to most scientist as having any possible relationship to human group identity. Surely such simple molecular-based relationships between viruses are unrelated to the complex cognitive and emotional nature of human group membership. Yet viruses clearly affect bacterial group membership, which are the most diverse and abundant cellular life form on Earth and from which all life has evolved. Viruses are the most ancient, numerous and adaptable biological entities we know. And we have long recognized them for the harm and disease they can cause, and they have been responsible for the greatest numbers of human deaths. However, with the sequencing of entire genomes and more recently with the shotgun sequencings of habitats, we have come to realize viruses are the black hole of biology; a giant force that has until recently been largely unseen and historically ignored by evolutionary biology. Viruses not only can cause acute disease, but also persist as stable unseen agents in their host.

Virus as Populations

Virus as Populations
Author: Esteban Domingo
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 426
Release: 2019-11-06
ISBN: 0128163321
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Virus as Populations Book Excerpt:

Virus as Composition, Complexity, Quasispecies, Dynamics, and Biological Implications, Second Edition, explains the fundamental concepts surrounding viruses as complex populations during replication in infected hosts. Fundamental phenomena in virus behavior, such as adaptation to changing environments, capacity to produce disease, and the probability to be transmitted or respond to treatment all depend on virus population numbers. Concepts such as quasispecies dynamics, mutations rates, viral fitness, the effect of bottleneck events, population numbers in virus transmission and disease emergence, and new antiviral strategies are included. The book's main concepts are framed by recent observations on general virus diversity derived from metagenomic studies and current views on the origin and role of viruses in the evolution of the biosphere. Features current views on key steps in the origin of life and origins of viruses Includes examples relating ancestral features of viruses with their current adaptive capacity Explains complex phenomena in an organized and coherent fashion that is easy to comprehend and enjoyable to read Considers quasispecies as a framework to understand virus adaptability and disease processes

Desk Encyclopedia of General Virology

Desk Encyclopedia of General Virology
Author: Brian W. J. Mahy,M. H. V. Van Regenmortel
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 644
Release: 2009-09
ISBN: 9780123751461
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Desk Encyclopedia of General Virology Book Excerpt:

Derived from "Encyclopedia of Virology", this title offers an overview of the development of virology over the years. It includes entries that detail the nature, origin, phylogeny and evolution of viruses. It features a summary of our understanding of the structure and assembly of virus particles and describes how this knowledge was obtained.

Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems
Author: Ricard Solé,Santiago F. Elena
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 238
Release: 2018-12-11
ISBN: 0691158843
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems Book Excerpt:

How complex systems theory sheds new light on the adaptive dynamics of viral populations Viruses are everywhere, infecting all sorts of living organisms, from the tiniest bacteria to the largest mammals. Many are harmful parasites, but viruses also play a major role as drivers of our evolution as a species and are essential regulators of the composition and complexity of ecosystems on a global scale. This concise book draws on complex systems theory to provide a fresh look at viral origins, populations, and evolution, and the coevolutionary dynamics of viruses and their hosts. New viruses continue to emerge that threaten people, crops, and farm animals. Viruses constantly evade our immune systems, and antiviral therapies and vaccination campaigns can be powerless against them. These unique characteristics of virus biology are a consequence of their tremendous evolutionary potential, which enables viruses to quickly adapt to any environmental challenge. Ricard Solé and Santiago Elena present a unified framework for understanding viruses as complex adaptive systems. They show how the application of complex systems theory to viral dynamics has provided new insights into the development of AIDS in patients infected with HIV-1, the emergence of new antigenic variants of the influenza A virus, and other cutting-edge advances. Essential reading for biologists, physicists, and mathematicians interested in complexity, Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems also extends the analogy of viruses to the evolution of other replicators such as computer viruses, cancer, and languages.

Mosquito News

Mosquito News
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 916
Release: 1959
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Mosquitoes
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mosquito News Book Excerpt:

Molecular Evolution of Viruses Past and Present

Molecular Evolution of Viruses   Past and Present
Author: Yechiel Becker
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 244
Release: 1996-06-30
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Molecular Evolution of Viruses Past and Present Book Excerpt:

The studies presented in this special issue of VIRUS GENES provide information on the two aspects of virus evolution: the ancient evolution of viruses from the time prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells evolved, and the ongoing process of the current molecular evolution of viruses. The studies of many scientists collected in this issue and many more that were published in other scientific journals provide insight into the molecular evolution of viruses as one of nature's mysteries. The use of computer porograms to study the nucleotide sequences of viral genomes, the amino acid compositions of proteins coded by viral genomes, and searches for regulatory mechanisms in viral nucleic acid replication, as well as identities of motifs in proteins of viruses from all families, will provide additional information on the subject. In future issues that will be devoted to this subject, the origin and evolution of RNA and DNA viruses will be further investigated.

Molecular Basis of Virus Evolution

Molecular Basis of Virus Evolution
Author: Adrian J. Gibbs,Charles H. Calisher,Fernando García-Arenal
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 625
Release: 1995-10-19
ISBN: 0521455332
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Molecular Basis of Virus Evolution Book Excerpt:

This 1995 book covers virus evolution, genetics and interaction with host for virologists and evolutionists.

The Genetic Code and the Origin of Life

The Genetic Code and the Origin of Life
Author: Lluis Ribas de Pouplana
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 254
Release: 2007-04-03
ISBN: 0387268871
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Genetic Code and the Origin of Life Book Excerpt:

Early Thoughts on RNA and the Origin of Life The full impact of the essential role of the nucleic acids in biological systems was forcefully demonstrated by the research community in the 1950s. Although Avery and his collaborators had identified DNA as the genetic material responsible for the transformation of bacteria in 1944, it was not until the early 1950s that the Hershey-Chase experiments provided a more direct demonstration of this role. Finally, the structural DNA double helix proposed by Watson and Crick in 1953 clearly created a structural frame work for the role of DNA as both information carrier and as a molecule that could undergo the necessary replication needed for daughter cells. Research continued by Kornberg and his colleagues in the mid-1950s emphasized the biochemistry and enzymology of DNA replication. At the same time, there was a growing interest in the role of RNA. The 1956 dis covery by David Davies and myself showed that polyadenylic acid and polyuridylic acid could form a double-helical RNA molecule but that it differed somewhat from DN A A large number of experiments were subsequendy carried out with synthetic polyribonucleotides which illustrated that RNA could form even more complicated helical structures in which the specificity of hydrogen bonding was the key element in determining the molecular conformation. Finally, in I960,1 could show that it was possible to make a hybrid helix.

Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms

Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms
Author: National Academy of Sciences
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 354
Release: 2000-11-11
ISBN: 0309070996
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms Book Excerpt:

"The present book is intended as a progress report on [the] synthetic approach to evolution as it applies to the plant kingdom." With this simple statement, G. Ledyard Stebbins formulated the objectives of Variation and Evolution in Plants, published in 1950, setting forth for plants what became known as the "synthetic theory of evolution" or "the modern synthesis." The pervading conceit of the book was the molding of Darwin's evolution by natural selection within the framework of rapidly advancing genetic knowledge. At the time, Variation and Evolution in Plants significantly extended the scope of the science of plants. Plants, with their unique genetic, physiological, and evolutionary features, had all but been left completely out of the synthesis until that point. Fifty years later, the National Academy of Sciences convened a colloquium to update the advances made by Stebbins. This collection of 17 papers marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of Stebbins' classic. Organized into five sections, the book covers: early evolution and the origin of cells, virus and bacterial models, protoctist models, population variation, and trends and patterns in plant evolution.

Encyclopedia of Virology

Encyclopedia of Virology
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 4103
Release: 2020-10-01
ISBN: 0128145161
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encyclopedia of Virology Book Excerpt:

Encyclopedia of Virology, Fourth Edition, builds on the solid foundation laid by the previous editions, expanding its reach with new and timely topics. In five volumes, the work provides comprehensive coverage of the whole virosphere, making this a unique resource. Content explores viruses present in the environment and the pathogenic viruses of humans, animals, plants and microorganisms. Key areas and concepts concerning virus classification, structure, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed, guiding the reader through chapters that are presented at an accessible level, and include further readings for those needing more specific information. More than ever now, with the Covid19 pandemic, we are seeing the huge impact viruses have on our life and society. This encyclopedia is a must-have resource for scientists and practitioners, and a great source of information for the wider public. Offers students and researchers a one-stop shop for information on virology not easily available elsewhere Fills a critical gap of information in a field that has seen significant progress in recent years Authored and edited by recognized experts in the field, with a range of different expertise, thus ensuring a high-quality standard

Comparative Evolution and the Origin of Sexuality

Comparative Evolution and the Origin of Sexuality
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Ardent Media
Total Pages: 28
Release: 2022
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Comparative Evolution and the Origin of Sexuality Book Excerpt:

The Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth

The Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth
Author: David W. Hollar
Publsiher: Magill Bibliographies
Total Pages: 264
Release: 1992
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Evolution (Biology)
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth Book Excerpt:

Covers the major works from the late 1800s to the present. Aimed at anyone interested in the subject, regardless of whether the reader is a layperson, a high school or college student, or a research scientist.

The Evolution and Fossil Record of Parasitism

The Evolution and Fossil Record of Parasitism
Author: Kenneth De Baets,John Warren Huntley
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 565
Release: 2021-05-07
ISBN: 3030424847
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Evolution and Fossil Record of Parasitism Book Excerpt:

This two-volume edited book highlights and reviews the potential of the fossil record to calibrate the origin and evolution of parasitism, and the techniques to understand the development of parasite-host associations and their relationships with environmental and ecological changes. The book deploys a broad and comprehensive approach, aimed at understanding the origins and developments of various parasite groups, in order to provide a wider evolutionary picture of parasitism as part of biodiversity. This is in contrast to most contributions by parasitologists in the literature that focus on circular lines of evidence, such as extrapolating from current host associations or distributions, to estimate constraints on the timing of the origin and evolution of various parasite groups. This approach is narrow and fails to provide the wider evolutionary picture of parasitism on, and as part of, biodiversity. Volume one focuses on identifying parasitism in the fossil record, and sheds light on the distribution and ecological importance of parasite-host interactions over time. In order to better understand the evolutionary history of parasites and their relationship with changes in the environment, emphasis is given to viruses, bacteria, protists and multicellular eukaryotes as parasites. Particular attention is given to fungi and metazoans such as bivalves, cnidarians, crustaceans, gastropods, helminths, insects, mites and ticks as parasites. Researchers, specifically evolutionary (paleo)biologists and parasitologists, interested in the evolutionary history of parasite-host interactions as well as students studying parasitism will find this book appealing.