Description : The book begins with a detailed discussion of two problems that have played an extremely important role in the emergence of theoretical programming as an independent discipline. The principal goals in this book are to explain the line of thought that was followed in solving these problems, demonstrate the workings of the mathematical way of thinking, carefully analyze the different stages of descriptive analysis and problem formulation, and reveal the aesthetic component in the search for solutions - in other words, to try to turn the reader into a true witness of the process of discovering mathematical results. In the first part of the book the author considers the storage minimization packing, or storage problem schemas. The problem of storage packing is treated as an example that illustrates how to solve an application problem by means of mathematical methods. In the second part the author presents the theory of Yanov program schemas, a classical theory generally recognized as having served as a foundation of the mathematical theory of programming. This is analyzed as a methodological example that illustrates how a fully developed theory can be extended to a new class of phenomena and objects: program schemas and configurations of program schemas.
Description : History of Programming Languages presents information pertinent to the technical aspects of the language design and creation. This book provides an understanding of the processes of language design as related to the environment in which languages are developed and the knowledge base available to the originators. Organized into 14 sections encompassing 77 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the programming techniques to use to help the system produce efficient programs. This text then discusses how to use parentheses to help the system identify identical subexpressions within an expression and thereby eliminate their duplicate calculation. Other chapters consider FORTRAN programming techniques needed to produce optimum object programs. This book discusses as well the developments leading to ALGOL 60. The final chapter presents the biography of Adin D. Falkoff. This book is a valuable resource for graduate students, practitioners, historians, statisticians, mathematicians, programmers, as well as computer scientists and specialists.
Description : The Origins of NLP brings together the recollections and thoughts of some of the main protagonists from the very early days of NLP. In 1971 Richard Bandler and Frank Pucelik were students at Kresege College at the University of California Santa Cruz. They had a strong mutual interest in Gestalt Therapy, Frank because of his traumatic time in Vietnam and because he had been working with some disaffected and drug-addicted kids, and Richard because he had been working with Science and Behavior Books on transcribing and editing Fritz Perls' seminal work, The Gestalt Approach and Eyewitness to Therapy. They started a local Gestalt group and ran 2-3 sessions a week collaborating and experimenting with the language of therapy. They started achieving some brilliant results but were having problems transferring their skills to others and so Richard invited one of their college professors, John Grinder, to observe what they were doing in order that he would, hopefully, be able to deconstruct what they were doing that was so effective. John was a professor of Linguistics and was instantly impressed with the work that they were doing. He was able to add more structure and in due course the three of them formalised what is now known as the Meta Model. NLP, or Meta as it was known then, was born.
Description : Why learn F#? This multi-paradigm language not only offers you an enormous productivity boost through functional programming, it also lets you develop applications using your existing object-oriented and imperative programming skills. With Programming F#, you'll quickly discover the many advantages of Microsoft's new language, which includes access to all the great tools and libraries of the .NET platform. Learn how to reap the benefits of functional programming for your next project -- whether it's quantitative computing, large-scale data exploration, or even a pursuit of your own. With this comprehensive guide, F# team member Chris Smith gives you a head start on the fundamentals and advanced concepts of the F# language. Get a clear understanding of functional programming, and how you can use it to simplify code Gain a solid understanding of the language's core syntax, including object-oriented and imperative styles Simplify concurrent and parallel programming with F# Asynchronous Workflows and the Parallel Extensions to .NET Learn advanced F# concepts, such as quotations and computation expressions "This book emphasizes simple, clear explanations of the foundational elements of F#, always with an eye on the enjoyment that comes from programming in general, and programming with F# in particular."Don Syme, Principal Researcher and F# Designer, Microsoft Research
Description : An Annotated Timeline of Operations Research: An Informal History recounts the evolution of Operations Research (OR) as a new science - the science of decision making. Arising from the urgent operational issues of World War II, the philosophy and methodology of OR has permeated the resolution of decision problems in business, industry, and government. The Timeline chronicles the history of OR in the form of self-contained, expository entries. Each entry presents a concise explanation of the events and people under discussion, and provides key sources where further relevant information can be obtained. In addition, books and papers that have influenced the development of OR or helped to educate the first generations of OR academics and practitioners are cited throughout the book. Starting in 1564 with seminal ideas that form the precursors of OR, the Timeline traces the key ideas and events of OR through 2004. The Timeline should interest anyone involved in OR - researchers, practitioners, academics, and, especially, students - who wish to learn how OR came into being. Further, the scope and expository style of the Timeline should make it of value to the general reader interested in the development of science and technology in the last half of the twentieth century.
Description : Cartesian Genetic Programming (CGP) is a highly effective and increasingly popular form of genetic programming. It represents programs in the form of directed graphs, and a particular characteristic is that it has a highly redundant genotype–phenotype mapping, in that genes can be noncoding. It has spawned a number of new forms, each improving on the efficiency, among them modular, or embedded, CGP, and self-modifying CGP. It has been applied to many problems in both computer science and applied sciences. This book contains chapters written by the leading figures in the development and application of CGP, and it will be essential reading for researchers in genetic programming and for engineers and scientists solving applications using these techniques. It will also be useful for advanced undergraduates and postgraduates seeking to understand and utilize a highly efficient form of genetic programming.
Description : Early Life Origins of Health and Disease is a new book which presents and discusses the many factors that may have impact on normal development. In a concise and readable manner, the authors consider both the proven and suggestive evidence that the high prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, obesity and, in some populations, kidney disease, may not be all due to genetics or adult environment alone. There is good evidence that stress and more subtle dietary deficiencies, as well as placental malfunction, may increase the risk that the offspring will develop these problems in later life. Finally, new and emerging evidence for other areas of human health and disease such a motor control and mental health is critically reviewed for the first time. The book is a ‘must’ for all scientists interested in researching these areas, as there is a critical evaluation of the methodology used and suggestions for the ‘optimal’ way in which to investigate these phenomena.
Description : In real-world problems related to finance, business, and management, mathematicians and economists frequently encounter optimization problems. First published in 1963, this classic work looks at a wealth of examples and develops linear programming methods for solutions. Treatments covered include price concepts, transportation problems, matrix methods, and the properties of convex sets and linear vector spaces.
Description : Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and presents a major challenge to policy makers and clinicians alike. Recent research has suggested that obesity has its origins in early life and that early diet can programme a developing fetus’ and young infant’s future susceptibility to obesity. This volume contains recent findings presented at the International Conference on Early Nutrition Programming and Health Outcomes in Later Life: Obesity and Beyond - a satellite meeting of the 15th European Congress on Obesity, held in Budapest in April 2007. Basic scientific research, data from epidemiological studies and clinical trial results were all presented during the programme. This volume includes articles discussing the evidence for an effect of early nutrition programming on later obesity and cardiovascular risk; the growing evidence for an intergenerational cycle of obesity; the role of maternal leptin in programming appetite; possible cellular mechanisms for altered energy balance, including mitochondrial programming and the effects of regulators of metabolism; and how epigenetic changes might be the fundamental underlying mechanism explaining programming effects. Consumer understanding of the concept of early nutrition programming and the extent to which early nutrition programming is taken into account in infant feeding policies are also discussed.