Party System Change In Legislatures Worldwide

Author by : Carol Mershon
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : How much autonomy do elected politicians have to shape and reshape the party system on their own, without the direct involvement of voters in elections?


Party System Change In Legislatures Worldwide

Author by : Carol Mershon
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 17
Total Download : 769
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Description : How much autonomy do elected politicians have to shape and reshape the party system on their own, without the direct involvement of voters in elections?


Party System Change The European Crisis And The State Of Democracy

Author by : Marco Lisi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : Party systems are crucial elements for the functioning of political systems and representative democracies. With several European countries experiencing significant changes recently, it is necessary to update our knowledge. This volume analyses party system changes in Europe in the 21st century by considering several dimensions such as interparty competition, the cleavage structure, electoral volatility and the emergence of new actors. The book describes the principal continuities and changes in party systems in Europe; analyzes the main explanations for these trends; and assesses the impact of the crisis on the patterns observed. By considering a wide range of Western and Eastern European countries, and focusing on the ‘parameters’ of party system change, this book seeks to fill an important gap in the literature through a comparative analysis of the evolution of party systems in Europe over the last decades. This book will be of key interest to scholars and students of political parties, party systems and politics, electoral behavior as well as more broadly to European politics, comparative politics. political representation and the quality of democracies.


The Oxford Handbook Of Italian Politics

Author by : Erik Jones
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : The Oxford Handbook of Italian Politics provides a comprehensive look at the political life of one of Europe's most exciting and turbulent democracies. Under the hegemonic influence of Christian Democracy in the early post-World War II decades, Italy went through a period of rapid growth and political transformation. In part this resulted in tumult and a crisis of governability; however, it also gave rise to innovation in the form of Eurocommunism and new forms of political accommodation. The great strength of Italy lay in its constitution; its great weakness lay in certain legacies of the past. Organized crime—popularly but not exclusively associated with the mafia—is one example. A self-contained and well entrenched 'caste' of political and economic elites is another. These weaknesses became apparent in the breakdown of political order in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This ushered in a combination of populist political mobilization and experimentation with electoral systems design, and the result has been more evolutionary than transformative. Italian politics today is different from what it was during the immediate post-World War II period, but it still shows many of the influences of the past.


From Party Politics To Personalized Politics

Author by : Gideon Rahat
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : What do Beppe Grillo, Silvio Berlusconi, Emmanuel Macron (and also Donald Trump) have in common? They are prime examples of the personalization of politics and the decline of political parties. This volume systematically examines these two prominent developments in contemporary democratic politics and the relationship between them. It presents a cross-national comparative comparison that covers around 50 years in 26 democracies through the use of more than 20 indicators. It offers the most comprehensive comparative cross-national estimation of the variance in the levels and patterns of party change and political personalization among countries to date, using existing works as well injecting fresh cross-national comparative data. In the case of party change, it offers an analysis that extends beyond the dichotomous debate of party decline versus party adaptation. In the matter of political personalization, the emphasis on variance helps in bridging between the high theoretical expectations and disappointing empirical findings. As for the theoretically sound linkage between the two phenomena, not only is this the first study to comprise a comprehensive cross-national examination, but it also proposes a more nuanced understanding of this relationship. Comparative Politics is a series for researchers, teachers, and students of political science that deals with contemporary government and politics. Global in scope, books in the series are characterised by a stress on comparative analysis and strong methodological rigour. The series is published in association with the European Consortium for Political Research. For more information visit: www.ecprnet.eu. The series is edited by Emilie van Haute, Professor of Political Science, Universite libre de Bruxelles; Ferdinand Muller-Rommel, Director of the Center for the Study of Democracy, Leuphana University; and Susan Scarrow, John and Rebecca Moores Professor of Political Science, University of Houston.


The Oxford Handbook Of Legislative Studies

Author by : Shane Martin
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
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Total Read : 53
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Description : Legislatures are political bodies essential to democracy and the rule of law. They present social scientists with numerous intriguing puzzles, with far-reaching implications for our understanding of political institutions. Why, and how, have these ancient assemblies, established in pre-democratic times, survived the transition to mass democracies? How have they adapted? How do they structure such processes as budgeting, legislation, and executive oversight? How do their members get selected, and what consequences flow from differences in these rules? What roles do committees and political parties play in contemporary legislatures? What functions do legislatures perform in autocratic, semi-democratic or recently democratized societies? What explains the similarities and differences in legislative rules, powers and recruitment? What are the policy and other consequences of variation in how legislatures are organized and function? The 33 chapters in The Oxford Handbook of Legislative Studies, written by 47 of the most distinguished legislative scholars, provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description and assessment of the state of the art in legislative studies. Key themes explored include theoretical paradigms and methodological approaches to the study of legislatures, representation and legislative careers, internal organization, the role of parties within legislatures and the role of legislatures in policy making and accountability. The Handbook also explores the emergence of parliaments in historical and contemporary contexts, including new democracies and trans-national institutions.


Why Regional Parties

Author by : Adam Ziegfeld
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Total Read : 24
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Description : The first major study of India's regional parties which discusses why, when, and where they are electorally successful.


Formal Modeling In Social Science

Author by : Carol Mershon
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Michigan Press
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Total Read : 35
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Description : A formal model in the social sciences builds explanations when it structures the reasoning underlying a theoretical argument, opens venues for controlled experimentation, and can lead to hypotheses. Yet more importantly, models evaluate theory, build theory, and enhance conjectures. Formal Modeling in Social Science addresses the varied helpful roles of formal models and goes further to take up more fundamental considerations of epistemology and methodology. The authors integrate the exposition of the epistemology and the methodology of modeling and argue that these two reinforce each other. They illustrate the process of designing an original model suited to the puzzle at hand, using multiple methods in diverse substantive areas of inquiry. The authors also emphasize the crucial, though underappreciated, role of a narrative in the progression from theory to model. Transparency of assumptions and steps in a model means that any analyst will reach equivalent predictions whenever she replicates the argument. Hence, models enable theoretical replication, essential in the accumulation of knowledge. Formal Modeling in Social Science speaks to scholars in different career stages and disciplines and with varying expertise in modeling.


Democracy Federalism The European Revolution And Global Governance

Author by : Andrea Bosco
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
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Description : The European Union is facing today the greatest crisis since its creation. Brexit could mean not only the reversal of its steady enlargement—from 6 to 28 member states—but also the beginning of an inexorable decline leading to its disintegration. However, few today seem to recollect that it was precisely the British who were the first to promulgate the political culture which inspired the European Union’s construction—democracy and federalism—and the first who tried to realise, in June 1940, a European federation on the basis of an Anglo-French union. This volume traces the fundamental stages of the European unification process, placing it in relation to the wider process of world economic and political integration. In particular, it analyses the historical significance of the European Revolution, which is identified in the overcoming of the nation state—namely the modern political formula which institutionalised the political division of mankind—and the birth of the first truly international state. The universal historical significance of the European Revolution lies in its exportability—as for the other great European revolutions—and, therefore, its potential as progressively extensible to all the states of the planet. Europe was indeed the first region of the world where the barriers between national states fell, and a post-national political identity emerged, complementary to national political identities. It is, in fact, in the context of the European Union that democracy beyond the borders of the nation state has first been realized, constituting a guiding principle for global governance.


Coalition Governance In Central Eastern Europe

Author by : Torbjörn Bergman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
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Description : Coalition government among different political parties is the way most European democracies are governed. Traditionally, the study of coalition politics has been focused on Western Europe. Coalition governance in Central Eastern Europe brings the study of the full coalition life-cycle to a region that has undergone tremendous political transformation, but which has not been studied from this perspective. The volume covers Bulgaria, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. It provides information and analyses of the coalition life-cycle, from pre-electoral alliances to coalition formation and portfolio distribution, governing in coalitions, the stages that eventually lead to government termination, and the electoral performance of coalition parties. In Central Eastern Europe, few single-party cabinets form and there have been only a few early elections. The evidence provided shows that coalition partners in the region write formal agreements (coalition agreements) to an extent that is similar to the patterns that we find in Western Europe, but also that they adhere less closely to these contracts. While the research on Western Europe tends to stress that coalition partners emphasize coalition compromise and mutual supervision, there is more evidence of 'ministerial government' by individual ministers and their parties. There are also some systems where coalition governance is heavily dominated by the prime minister. No previous study has covered the full coalition life-cycle in all of the ten countries with as much detail. Systematic information is presented in 10 figures and in more than one hundred tables. Comparative Politics is a series for researchers, teachers, and students of political science that deals with contemporary government and politics. Global in scope, books in the series are characterised by a stress on comparative analysis and strong methodological rigour. The series is published in association with the European Consortium for Political Research. For more information visit: www.ecprnet.eu. The series is edited by Emilie van Haute, Professor of Political Science, Universite libre de Bruxelles; Ferdinand Muller-Rommel, Director of the Center for the Study of Democracy, Leuphana University; and Susan Scarrow, John and Rebecca Moores Professor of Political Science, University of Houston.


The Value Of Comparative Federalism

Author by : Nico Steytler
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
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Description : This book explores new avenues of international research in comparative federal studies. It re-examines the conceptual tools and methodologies for understanding federal systems, and the role of comparative federalism in the dissemination and implementation of federal concepts. It highlights the influence of comparative federalism on constitution-making as well as constitutional reforms. The volume provides innovative and pragmatic perspectives from both the Global North and the Global South, with case studies drawn from established federations such as India, Canada, Australia, and Austria, and emerging federal systems such as Italy and South Africa. Advocating a combined approach that integrates modern and traditional theoretical routes with practical insights and contemporary analyses, it discusses the issues of multilevel elections and federal governance; coalition governments and multiparty democracy in parliamentary federal systems, such as India; minority empowerment; gender budgeting; self-governance; multinational federalism; unitary states; the nation-state; and degenerating federalism. It also breaks new ground by looking at federalism from a gender perspective and deals with tools for measuring fiscal responsibility, and a social and cultural index. A tribute to the intellectual legacy of Ronald L. Watts, this volume will be useful to scholars and researchers of political science, federalism, comparative federal studies, political studies, comparative politics, governance, public administration and law, development studies, South Asian studies, and Global South and North studies as well policymakers, international government bodies, research institutes, development experts, and other organisations working in the area.


Organizing For Policy Influence

Author by : Benjamin Farrer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 45
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Description : In this book, Benjamin Farrer explains how activists can influence the policies they care about, even when they are outnumbered and their issues are ignored. The solution lies in a surprising place: organizational choice. Different types of organizations will be more influential under particular democratic institutions. If they choose the optimal type of organization - given their institutional context - then even minority groups can be influential. Environmentalists are a key example of how small groups can sometimes punch above their weight. Environmentalists in different countries have made different organizational choices. These choices explain whether or not they succeeded in influencing policy. In the empirical chapters that follow, Farrer shows that environmentalists can sometimes be more influential if they form interest groups, but under other institutions, political parties are the optimal organizational choice. Although interest groups are often easier to create, national institutions can sometimes insulate mainstream politicians from niche interest groups. When institutions deny access to interest groups, activists are forced to send the stronger signal of party entry. Using a variety of methods, including a formal model, an experiment, and a wealth of empirical data from a variety of settings, Farrer proves that this theory of organizational choice adds to our understanding of several crucial phenomena. First, it helps explain patterns of political participation, by showing the importance of instrumental, rather than purely expressive, motivations for activism. Second, it provides an important modification to Duverger’s (1954) law, by showing that new party entry is a function not only of electoral rules but also of the rules that govern interest groups. Third, it extends research on the role of institutions in determining policy outputs, by showing that policy outcomes are a function of the interaction between organizational choices and institutional context.


Israel S Governability Crisis

Author by : Maoz Rosenthal
Languange : en
Publisher by : Lexington Books
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Description : This book examines Israeli strategies of adapting to a crisis of governability brought on by institutional stagnation. The book uses a new theory emphasizing the role of policy entrepreneurs in political institutions, and ultimately offers a method of electoral reform to address systemic maladies in the Israeli political system.


The Principles Of Constitutionalism

Author by : N. W. Barber
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Total Read : 55
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Description : In this follow-up volume to the critically acclaimed The Constitutional State, N. W. Barber explores how the principles of constitutionalism structure and influence successful states. Constitutionalism is not exclusively a mechanism to limit state powers. An attractive and satisfying account of constitutionalism, and, by derivation, of the state, can only be reached if the principles of constitutionalism are seen as interlocking parts of a broader doctrine. This holistic study of the relationship between the constitutional state and its central principles - sovereignty; the separation of powers; the rule of law; subsidiarity; democracy; and civil society - casts light on long-standing debates over the meaning and implications of constitutionalism. The book provides a concise introduction to constitutionalism and a detailed account of the nature and implications of each of the principles in question. It concludes with an examination of the importance of constitutional principles to the work of judges, legislators, and others involved in the operation and creation of the constitution. The book is essential reading for those seeking a definitive account of constitutionalism and its benefits.


Italian Democracy

Author by : Gianfranco Pasquino
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 55
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Description : This textbook, from one of Italy’s most eminent scholars, provides broad coverage and critique of Italian politics and society. Providing the readers with the knowledge necessary to understand the working of the Italian political system, it also offers answers to some of the most important challenges facing the country – and other contemporary democracies – today, such as populism, anti-politics and corruption. Critical but underpinned by thorough data and analysis, it presents alternative views alongside the author’s interpretation. Crucially, the book uses a comparative framework to explain Italy’s transformation and evaluate its performance. Comparing the rules, institutions, parties and actors at work in the most important European political systems – France, Germany, Great Britain – with those in Italy, the Italian context is better understood and assessed in contrast. This text will be essential reading for students and scholars of Italian politics and European politics, and more broadly for comparative politics and democracy.


Election Systems And Gerrymandering Worldwide

Author by : Steve Bickerstaff
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Nature
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Total Read : 35
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Description : This book explores the similarities and differences among national election systems around the globe and sheds light on how election systems are susceptible to gerrymandering, which is the process by which an incumbent or a political party attempts to manipulate the boundaries of electoral districts for their own advantage. Presenting research showing that some of the worst electoral-system manipulation occurs in the oldest established democracies, the book explores how nations have modified the form of government to meet local conditions and how democracy is threatened by gerrymandering.


Public Budgeting In Context

Author by : Katherine G. Willoughby
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 83
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Description : Public budgeting structure, process, legal framework and policywith examples from industrialized and developing countries Public Budgeting in Context examines budgeting at alllevels of U.S. government—federal, state, and local—andin a sample of governments around the world. The book assesses thecontext of public budgeting in these governments, especially thelegal foundations for its practice and how the process and finalbudgets are impacted by governance structures, laws, various budgetactors and different branches of government. The author presentsfocused attention on the influences on government budgets of theexecutive, legislative and judicial branches of government, thebureaucracy, the public and the media. In light of worldwide fiscalmalaise, especially during and since the Great Recession, this bookillustrates the heightened complexity of the budgeting environmentthat pervades all governments today—industrialized ordeveloping, large or small. For those who like to dive into the details, the book presentsnumerous examples of public budgeting as practiced and points tothe wealth of data available for analyses of the budgetary contextand process, budget shares and results regarding virtually anygovernment of interest. Chapters cover the constitutional andstatutory provisions for budgeting in selected governments. Budgetand policy agenda setting and executive leadership, legislativebudget powers and the influence of the judiciary on moderngovernment budgets are exposed. Budget execution requirements ofthe bureaucracy, the input of customers, clients and citizens togovernment budgets, and media influences on public budgets andagencies are highlighted. Budget mechanics—budget types,formats, timelines and reforms—are introduced and compared.Taxes and intergovernmental revenues are considered, withpredominant tax choices at every level of government in the UnitedStates and those in a select, developing country represented. Thebook introduces an emerging method for investigating the outcomesof government spending—human rights budget analysis—andincludes as an example the assessment of budget reform and resultsof public health spending in one selected government. Highlights of Public Budgeting in Context Offers a comprehensive text for understanding public budgetingin governments of a variety of contexts and capacities and acrossdifferent levels Written by a noted expert in the field of public budgeting andfinancial management Contains illustrative examples from industrialized anddeveloping countries Guides to innumerable datasets with information aboutgovernments and their budgets Includes a companion website filled with templates for budgetand fiscal analysis Unravel the complex issues of modern public budgeting using thisunique presentation of its practice in a variety of governments inthe U.S. and a select sample from around the world.


Research Handbook On Political Representation

Author by : Maurizio Cotta
Languange : en
Publisher by : Edward Elgar Publishing
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Total Read : 45
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Description : At a time when political representation can be said to be facing its ultimate crisis, this crucial work clarifies the terms of the debate, providing an up-to date analysis of the main conceptual and institutional controversies that have arisen surrounding this topic. Written by leading scholars in the field, contributions focus on how representation is conceptualised and its relation to democracy.


Toward Mexico S Democratization

Author by : Jorge I. Dominguez
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 70
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Description : First Published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.


Party Systems In Latin America

Author by : Scott Mainwaring
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 48
Total Download : 400
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Description : Based on contributions from leading scholars, this study generates a wealth of new empirical information about Latin American party systems. It also contributes richly to major theoretical and comparative debates about the effects of party systems on democratic politics, and about why some party systems are much more stable and predictable than others. Party Systems in Latin America builds on, challenges, and updates Mainwaring and Timothy Scully's seminal Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America (1995), which re-oriented the study of democratic party systems in the developing world. It is essential reading for scholars and students of comparative party systems, democracy, and Latin American politics. It shows that a stable and predictable party system facilitates important democratic processes and outcomes, but that building and maintaining such a party system has been the exception rather than the norm in contemporary Latin America.


Handbook Of Party Politics

Author by : Richard S Katz
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
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Description : The Handbook of Party Politics is the first book to comprehensively map the state-of-the-art in contemporary party politics scholarship. This major new work brings together the world's leading party theorists to provide an unrivalled resource on the role of parties in the pressing contemporary problems of institutional design and democratic governance today.


Parties And Party Systems

Author by : Giovanni Sartori
Languange : en
Publisher by : ECPR Press
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Description : In this broad-ranging volume Sartori outlines a comprehensive and authoritative approach to the classification of party systems. He also offers an extensive review of the concept and rationale of the political party, and develops a sharp critique of various spatial models of party competition.


Diocletian And The Roman Recovery

Author by : Stephen Williams
Languange : en
Publisher by : Psychology Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
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Description : First published in 1997. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.


Reform Processes And Policy Change

Author by : Thomas König
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Total Read : 71
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Description : George Tsebelis’ veto players approach has become a prominent theory to analyze various research questions in political science. Studies that apply veto player theory deal with the impact of institutions and partisan preferences of legislative activity and policy outcomes. It is used to measure the degree of policy change and, thus, reform capacity in national and international political systems. This volume contains the analysis of leading scholars in the field on these topics and more recent developments regarding theoretical and empirical progress in the area of political reform-making. The contributions come from research areas of political science where veto player theory plays a significant role, including, positive political theory, legislative behavior and legislative decision-making in national and supra-national political systems, policy making and government formation. The contributors to this book add to the current scholarly and public debate on the role of veto players, making it of interest to scholars in political science and policy studies as well as policymakers worldwide.


Electoral Engineering

Author by : Pippa Norris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 32
Total Download : 599
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Description : From Kosovo to Kabul, the last decade witnessed growing interest in ?electoral engineering?. Reformers have sought to achieve either greater government accountability through majoritarian arrangements or wider parliamentary diversity through proportional formula. Underlying the normative debates are important claims about the impact and consequences of electoral reform for political representation and voting behavior. The study compares and evaluates two broad schools of thought, each offering contracting expectations. One popular approach claims that formal rules define electoral incentives facing parties, politicians and citizens. By changing these rules, rational choice institutionalism claims that we have the capacity to shape political behavior. Alternative cultural modernization theories differ in their emphasis on the primary motors driving human behavior, their expectations about the pace of change, and also their assumptions about the ability of formal institutional rules to alter, rather than adapt to, deeply embedded and habitual social norms and patterns of human behavior.


The Handbook Of Electoral System Choice

Author by : J. Colomer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 86
Total Download : 604
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Description : The topic of electoral reform is an extremely timely one. The accelerated expansion of the number of new democracies in the world generates increasing demand for advice on the choice of electoral rules; at the same time, a new reformism in well established democracies seeks new formulae favouring both more representative institutions and more accountable rulers. The Handbook of Electoral System Choice addresses the theoretical and comparative issues of electoral reform in relation to democratization, political strategies in established democracies and the relative performance of different electoral systems. Case studies on virtually every major democracy or democratizing country in the world are included.


The Iberian Legislatures In Comparative Perspective

Author by : Jorge M. Fernandes
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 75
Total Download : 436
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Description : This comprehensive book analyses the development of the legislatures in the Iberian countries over the past 40 years, since democracy was introduced, to comparatively understand their role in these political systems and in sustaining their democratic systems. Sharing many historical developments and institutional characteristics, Spain and Portugal also present crucial differences, notably Spain’s pure parliamentary system, a King as Head of State and a quasi-federal structure, and Portugal’s semi-presidential democracy. Starting with a historical and institutional contextualization of these two legislatures, the book examines the most important organizational and behavioural features of legislative life in Iberian legislatures in a comparative perspective. It also shows how new legislatures develop resilience capacity to support lasting democratic systems as fully fledged institutionalized bodies. This book will be of key interest to scholars and students of Spain and Portugal, legislative politics and parliamentarianism, and more broadly to European politics and comparative politics, journalists and practitioners.


Contagious Representation

Author by : Margaret S. Williams
Languange : en
Publisher by : NYU Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 47
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Description : Women’s participation in parliaments, high courts, and executive offices worldwide has reached record high numbers, but this global increase in women’s representation masks significant variation among different democratic political systems. For example, in December of 2009, Rwanda’s legislature contained 56% women, while the U.S. Congress contained only about 17% and the Japanese Diet had only 11%. Since 2000, only twenty-seven women have achieved executive office worldwide. Contagious Representation is a comprehensive look at women’s participation in all aspects of public life in the main democratic political institutions—the executive, the judiciary, the legislature, and within political parties. Moving beyond studies of single countries and institutions, Contagious Representation presents original data from 159 democratic countries spanning 50 years, providing a comprehensive understanding of women in democracies worldwide. The first volume to offer an analysis on all avenues for women’s participation for such a lengthy time period, Contagious Representation examines not only the causes of women’s representation in the main democratic political institutions but also how women’s representation in one institution affects the others. Each chapter contains case studies and examples of the change in women’s participation over time from around the world. Thames and Williams definitively explain the rise, decline, or stagnant levels of women’s political participation, considering how representation is contagious across political institutions and gaining a better understanding of what factors affect women’s political participation.


The Catholic Church And Power Politics In Latin America

Author by : Emelio Betances
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman & Littlefield
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
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Description : The Catholic Church acted as a mediator during social and political change in several Latin American countries from the 1960s through the 1990s: the Dominican Republic, Bolivia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. Although the Catholic clergy was called to mediate in political crises in all five countries, in the Dominican Republic the Church's role as mediator was eventually institutionalized. A historical examination of church-state relations and case study of the Dominican Republic leads into important regional comparisons that broaden our understanding of the Catholic Church in the whole of Latin America.


To Keep Or To Change First Past The Post

Author by : André Blais
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 30
Total Download : 335
File Size : 42,9 Mb
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Description : First past the post is one of the oldest and simplest electoral systems. The logic is simple: the candidate with the most votes wins. It is the system in place in some of the oldest democracies, most especially the United States and the United Kingdom, as well as the largest democracy, India. This is also a system that is hotly debated, and proposals for reform are often advanced. This book addresses the following questions: What fosters or hinders reform of first past the post? When and why does reform emerge on the political agenda? Who proposes and who opposes reform? When and why do reform proposals succeed or fail? What kind of proposal tends to be put on the table? Are some types of proposal more likely to succeed? Why? The first chapter undertakes a comparative analysis of the conditions under which reform is initiated. The following chapters investigate in detail the politics of electoral reform in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and New Zealand, the debates that take place, the proposals that are advanced, and the strategies deployed by the actors. These analyses contribute to a rich and nuanced understanding of why first past the post is often challenged and sometimes replaced.