Identifying The Enemy

Author by : Emily Crawford
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 33
Total Download : 768
File Size : 43,8 Mb
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Description : Over the past twenty-five years, significant changes in the conduct of wars have increasingly placed civilians in traditional military roles - employing civilians to execute drone strikes, the 'targeted killing' of suspected terrorists, the use of private security contractors in combat zones, and the spread of cyber attacks. Under the laws of armed conflict, civilians cannot be targeted unless they take direct part in hostilities. Once civilians take action, they become targets. This book analyses the complex question of how to identify just who those civilians are. Identifying the Enemy examines the history of civilian participation in armed conflict and how the law has responded to such action. It asks the crucial question: what is 'direct participation in hostilities'? The book slices through the attempts to untie this Gordian knot, and shows that the changing nature of warfare has called into question the very foundation of the civilian/military dichotomy that is at the heart of the law of armed conflict.


The War Report

Author by : Annyssa Bellal
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 22
Total Download : 476
File Size : 46,6 Mb
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Description : This War Report provides detailed information on every armed conflict which took place during 2014, offering an unprecedented overview of the nature, range, and impact of these conflicts and the legal issues they created. In Part I the Report describes its criteria for the identification and classification of armed conflicts under international law, and the legal consequences that flow from this classification. It sets out a list of armed conflicts in 2014, categorising each as international, non-international, or a military occupation, with estimates of civilian and military casualties. In Part II, each of these conflicts are examined in more detail, with an overview of the belligerents, means and methods of warfare, the applicable treaties and rules, and any prosecutions for, investigations into, or robust allegations of war crimes. Part III of the Report provides detailed thematic analysis of key legal developments which arose in the context of these conflicts, allowing for a more in-depth reflection on cross-cutting questions and controversies. The Report gives a full and accessible overview of armed conflicts in 2014. It should be the first port of call for everyone working in the field.


Anna Karenina 1

Author by : Leo Tolstoi
Languange : id
Publisher by : Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 43
Total Download : 871
File Size : 54,5 Mb
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Description : “Keluarga bahagia mirip satu dengan lainnya, keluarga tak bahagia tidak bahagia dengan jalannya sendiri-sendiri.” Novel Anna Karenina adalah kisah tentang tiga keluarga, salah satunya keluarga Karenin. Anna, istri Karenin, menyeleweng dengan seorang opsir muda yang mengaguminya, Aleksei Vronskii, dan akhirnya memutuskan tali perkawinan. Bagi Anna, penyelewengan itu merupakan petaka yang tak dapat ditolak dengan segudang alasan. Salah satunya, di mata Anna, Karenin hanyalah sepotong boneka tanpa jiwa dan harga diri meskipun dia seorang pejabat tinggi. “Dia itu bukan laki-laki, bukan manusia, tapi boneka!... Dia itu bukan manusia, tapi mesin kementerian,” kata Anna tentang suaminya.


The Internationalization Of Internal Conflicts

Author by : Amy L. Freedman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 71
Total Download : 479
File Size : 43,8 Mb
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Description : Internal security crises, from environmental disaster, extreme poverty and deprivation, armed conflicts, or ethnic or religious conflict, provide sites of opportunity for those seeking to internationalize conflicts. Domestic conflicts in Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia have started as internal problems, but have taken on regional and international dimensions as parties to the conflict within the country and sympathetic external forces have joined forces with each other for mutual gain. This book examines the international dimension to internal conflicts and asks: under what conditions do domestic conflicts become opportunities for regional or global actors to become involved? Why have some countries been able to successfully deal with this problem while others have not? Who are the actors who seek to internationalize conflicts? Why and with what means do they become involved and how do their agendas get internalized/localized? Cases include: the separatist movements in the Philippines, Southern Thailand, Aceh (Indonesia); and the civil wars in Rwanda/Congo, and Sierra Leone/Liberia, Lebanon, and Iraq. This book finds that a combination of greater democratization internally, coupled with constructive outside mediation efforts, can produce conditions necessary to prevent conflicts from escalating or diffusing, and can facilitate peace-building. Several chapters in this book were originally published as a special issue of Asian Security.


Five Minutes Peace

Author by : Jill Murphy
Languange : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 372
File Size : 52,8 Mb
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Description : One morning, Mrs Large, needing some peace from her boisterous children, decides to take refuge in the bathroom. She fills herself a foamy bubble bath and takes in a tray of her favourite breakfast. But her peace is very short-lived This is a mini-sized gift edition of Jill Murphy's tale.


Peace At The Last

Author by : Robert Atwell
Languange : en
Publisher by : Canterbury Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 75
Total Download : 390
File Size : 43,9 Mb
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Description : Until relatively recently a Church of England funeral was the default option of the majority of the British population. This is no longer the case. Today, in some urban areas, secular or humanist funerals now account for 40% of funerals. The numbers of Anglican funerals are in free-fall. In exploring what makes a good funeral, this practical guide aims to rebuild the confidence of clergy in their funeral ministry and to equip them for transformative, missional pastoral engagement. This book grew out of diocesan consultation with funeral directors who identified three essential qualities that only the church offers: a distinctive understanding of death continuing pastoral care hope, not just empathy. Building on this foundation, Robert Atwell suggests many practical ways in which the church can become better at conducting funerals and engaging with those who seek pastoral support at critical points in their lives.


The Unlikely Peace At Cuchumaquic

Author by : Martín Prechtel
Languange : en
Publisher by : North Atlantic Books
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 316
File Size : 43,7 Mb
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Description : Martín Prechtel’s experiences growing up on a Pueblo Indian reservation, his years of apprenticing to a Guatemalan shaman, and his flight from Guatemala’s brutal civil war to life in the U.S. inform this lyrical blend of memoir, cultural commentary, and spiritual call to arms. The Unlikely Peace at Cuchumaquic is both an epic story and a cry to the heart of humanity based on the author’s realization that human survival depends on keeping alive the seeds of our “original forgotten spiritual excellence.” Prechtel relates our current state of ecological crisis to the rapid disappearance of biodiversity, indigenous cultures, and shared human values. He demonstrates how real human culture is exterminated when real (not genetically modified) seeds are lost. Like plants that become extinct once their required conditions are no longer met, authentic, unmonetized human cultures can no longer survive in the modern world. To “keep the seeds alive”—both literally and metaphorically—they must be planted, harvested, and replanted, just as human culture must become truly engaging and meaningful to the soul, as necessary as food is to the body. The viable seeds of spirituality and culture that lie dormant within us need to “sprout” into broad daylight to create real sets of cultures welcome on Earth. From the Hardcover edition.


Worlds Apart

Author by : Jill Murphy
Languange : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 88
Total Download : 483
File Size : 52,7 Mb
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Description :


Vienna 1814

Author by : David King
Languange : en
Publisher by : Crown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 82
Total Download : 481
File Size : 40,5 Mb
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Description : “Reads like a novel. A fast-paced page-turner, it has everything: sex, wit, humor, and adventures. But it is an impressively researched and important story.” —David Fromkin, author of Europe’s Last Summer Vienna, 1814 is an evocative and brilliantly researched account of the most audacious and extravagant peace conference in modern European history. With the feared Napoleon Bonaparte presumably defeated and exiled to the small island of Elba, heads of some 216 states gathered in Vienna to begin piecing together the ruins of his toppled empire. Major questions loomed: What would be done with France? How were the newly liberated territories to be divided? What type of restitution would be offered to families of the deceased? But this unprecedented gathering of kings, dignitaries, and diplomatic leaders unfurled a seemingly endless stream of personal vendettas, long-simmering feuds, and romantic entanglements that threatened to undermine the crucial work at hand, even as their hard-fought policy decisions shaped the destiny of Europe and led to the longest sustained peace the continent would ever see. Beyond the diplomatic wrangling, however, the Congress of Vienna served as a backdrop for the most spectacular Vanity Fair of its time. Highlighted by such celebrated figures as the elegant but incredibly vain Prince Metternich of Austria, the unflappable and devious Prince Talleyrand of France, and the volatile Tsar Alexander of Russia, as well as appearances by Ludwig van Beethoven and Emilia Bigottini, the sheer star power of the Vienna congress outshone nearly everything else in the public eye. An early incarnation of the cult of celebrity, the congress devolved into a series of debauched parties that continually delayed the progress of peace, until word arrived that Napoleon had escaped, abruptly halting the revelry and shrouding the continent in panic once again. Vienna, 1814 beautifully illuminates the intricate social and political intrigue of this history-defining congress–a glorified party that seemingly valued frivolity over substance but nonetheless managed to drastically reconfigure Europe’s balance of power and usher in the modern age. From the Hardcover edition.


The African Economist

Author by :
Languange : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 36
Total Download : 139
File Size : 43,9 Mb
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Description :