Description : The rules presented in this volume of "Principles of European Law" deal with service contracts. The economic importance of service contracts within the European Union is enormous. The European Commission recently estimated that services account for some 50% of EU GDP and for some 60% of employment in the Union – though an exact figure is hard to determine given that many services are provided by manufacturers of goods. According to the European Commission, many services appear in official statistics as manufacturing activity, meaning that the role of services in the economy is often significantly underestimated.
Description : The book provides rule-by-rule commentaries on European contract law (general contract law, consumer contract law, the law of sale and related services), dealing with its modern manifestations as well as its historical and comparative foundations. After the collapse of the European Commission's plans to codify European contract law it is timely to reflect on what has been achieved over the past three to four decades, and for an assessment of the current situation. In particular, the production of a bewildering number of reference texts has contributed to a complex picture of European contract laws rather than a European contract law. The present book adopts a broad perspective and an integrative approach. All relevant reference texts (from the CISG to the Draft Common European Sales Law) are critically examined and compared with each other. As far as the acquis commun (ie the traditional private law as laid down in the national codifications) is concerned, the Principles of European Contract Law have been chosen as a point of departure. The rules contained in that document have, however, been complemented with some chapters, sections, and individual provisions drawn from other sources, primarily in order to account for the quickly growing acquis communautaire in the field of consumer contract law. In addition, the book ties the discussion concerning the reference texts back to the pertinent historical and comparative background; and it thus investigates whether, and to what extent, these texts can be taken to be genuinely European in nature, ie to constitute a manifestation of a common core of European contract law. Where this is not the case, the question is asked whether, and for what reasons, they should be seen as points of departure for the further development of European contract law.
Description : The subject of this book is to study the porous media and the transport processes occur there. As a first step, the authors discuss several techniques for artificial representation of porous. Afterwards, they describe the single and multi phase flows in simplistic and complex porous structures in terms of macroscopic and microscopic equations as well as of their analytical and numerical solutions. Furthermore, macroscopic quantities such as permeability are introduced and reviewed. The book also discusses with mass transport processes in the porous media which are further strengthen by experimental validation and specific technological applications. This book makes use of state-of-the-art techniques for the modeling of transport processes in porous structures, and considers of realistic sorption mechanisms. It the applies advanced mathematical techniques for upscaling of the major quantities, and presents the experimental investigation and application, namely, experimental methods for the measurement of relevant transport properties. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses all the topics related to transport in porous media (including state-of-the-art applications) and presents some of the most important theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in porous media domain, providing a self-contained major reference that is appealing to both the scientists and the engineers. At the same time, these topics encounter a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemical, civil, agricultural, mechanical engineering. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of related professionals and scientists.
Description : The legal relationship between architects and clients suffers from two basic tensions that have been debated in several European countries. First, the market for design of buildings is not the exclusive domain of architects anymore. Other disciplines have gradually encroached on the architect's core activities. Many new forms of contract have been developed in the construction industry. These market models no longer fit the traditional design contract, departing from the idea that an architect designs a structure that is fit for its purpose and subsequently supervises the realization of the design by the building contractor. Second, designing buildings is a low yield/high risk endeavor. If the obligations of architects under the design contract are not performed well, they are exposed to severe liabilities which may cause serious financial problems. Detailed comparative research on design contracts shows that rule makers have difficulties in dealing with these two tensions. In Europe, considerable differences exist regarding the national rules that apply to the contractual relationship between architects and clients. Therefore, in this study, four regulation issues have been investigated that deal with establishing rules to govern the two tensions: market entry regulation, architect liability, limitation of architect liability, and professional liability insurance. In order to evaluate these regulation issues, a law and economics perspective is applied. The book will help to establish which combination of regulation options is likely to lead to more efficient outcomes. It provides insights in what is the best way to deal with the two tensions in the relationship between architects and clients, and it contributes to establishing a new design for European architect law.
Description : The research of the Study Group on a European Civil Code seeks to advance the process of Europeanisation of private law by drafting a set of common European principles which are relevant for the functioning of the common market. The principles provide national jurisdictions with a grid reference for the future development of the law.