Phase Transitions in Polymers The Role of Metastable States

Phase Transitions in Polymers  The Role of Metastable States
Author: Stephen Z.D. Cheng
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 324
Release: 2008-09-10
ISBN: 9780080558202
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phase Transitions in Polymers The Role of Metastable States Book Excerpt:

A classical metastable state possesses a local free energy minimum at infinite sizes, but not a global one. This concept is phase size independent. We have studied a number of experimental results and proposed a new concept that there exists a wide range of metastable states in polymers on different length scales where their metastability is critically determined by the phase size and dimensionality. Metastable states are also observed in phase transformations that are kinetically impeded on the pathway to thermodynamic equilibrium. This was illustrated in structural and morphological investigations of crystallization and mesophase transitions, liquid-liquid phase separation, vitrification and gel formation, as well as combinations of these transformation processes. The phase behaviours in polymers are thus dominated by interlinks of metastable states on different length scales. This concept successfully explains many experimental observations and provides a new way to connect different aspects of polymer physics. * Written by a leading scholar and industry expert * Presents new and cutting edge material encouraging innovation and future research * Connects hot topics and leading research in one concise volume

Phase Transitions in Polymers

Phase Transitions in Polymers
Author: A. J. Hopfinger,P. L. Taylor
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1980
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phase Transitions in Polymers Book Excerpt:

Phase Transitions and Structure of Polymer Systems in External Fields

Phase Transitions and Structure of Polymer Systems in External Fields
Author: Sergey A. Vshivkov
Publsiher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Total Pages: 381
Release: 2019-05-14
ISBN: 1527534561
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phase Transitions and Structure of Polymer Systems in External Fields Book Excerpt:

Generalized extensive experimental and theoretical data regarding the phase transitions of polymer systems in mechanical and magnetic fields provide the possibility to predict the results of external field effects on the structure and mutual solubility of components. The data on dynamic structuring in deformed polymer blends and solutions allow for the use of found regularities by the processing of polymer systems. The methods offered in this book allow for the connection of shift of phase diagrams in the mechanical field with changes in macromolecule sizes. The tutorials described here will help the reader to correctly build the phase diagrams of polymer systems using a variety of methods.

The Physics of Phase Transitions

The Physics of Phase Transitions
Author: Pierre Papon,Jacques Leblond,Paul H.E. Meijer
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 397
Release: 2013-06-29
ISBN: 3662049899
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Physics of Phase Transitions Book Excerpt:

The Physics of Phase Transitions occupies an important place at the crossroads of several fields central to materials sciences. This second edition incorporates new developments in the states of matter physics, in particular in the domain of nanomaterials and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates where progress is accelerating. New information and application examples are included. This work deals with all classes of phase transitions in fluids and solids, containing chapters on evaporation, melting, solidification, magnetic transitions, critical phenomena, superconductivity, and more. End-of-chapter problems and complete answers are included.

Geometry and Phase Transitions in Colloids and Polymers

Geometry and Phase Transitions in Colloids and Polymers
Author: William Kung
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 191
Release: 2009
ISBN: 9812834966
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Geometry and Phase Transitions in Colloids and Polymers Book Excerpt:

This monograph represents an extension of the author's original PhD thesis and includes a more thorough discussion on the concepts and mathematics behind his research works on the foam model, as applied to studying issues of phase stability and elasticity for various non-closed packed structures found in fuzzy and colloidal crystals, as well as on a renormalization-group analysis regarding the critical behavior of loop polymers upon which topological constraints are imposed. The common thread behind these two research works is their demonstration of the importance and effectiveness of utilizing geometrical and topological concepts for modeling and understanding soft systems undergoing phase transitions. Book jacket.

Phase Transitions in Polymers

Phase Transitions in Polymers
Author: Case Western Reserve University. Materials Research Laboratory,International Union of Pure and Applied Physics,International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phase Transitions in Polymers Book Excerpt:

Kinetics of Phase Transitions in Polymers

Kinetics of Phase Transitions in Polymers
Author: Guangdong Liao
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 332
Release: 1998
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Light
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Kinetics of Phase Transitions in Polymers Book Excerpt:

Ferroelectric Polymers

Ferroelectric Polymers
Author: E. Fukada
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 128
Release: 1989
ISBN: 9780677258805
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ferroelectric Polymers Book Excerpt:

This volume contains four papers commencing with an introduction to early studies in piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and ferroelectricity in polymers. Other topics discussed include - ferroelectric properties of fluoride copolymers; structural phase transition in ferroelectric fluorine polymers; and pressure effect on phase transition in ferroelectric polymers .

Structure and Dynamics of Confined Polymers

Structure and Dynamics of Confined Polymers
Author: John J. Kasianowicz,M. Kellermayer,David W. Deamer
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 390
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 9401004013
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Structure and Dynamics of Confined Polymers Book Excerpt:

Polymers are essential to biology because they can have enough stable degrees of freedom to store the molecular code of heredity and to express the sequences needed to manufacture new molecules. Through these they perform or control virtually every function in life. Although some biopolymers are created and spend their entire career in the relatively large free space inside cells or organelles, many biopolymers must migrate through a narrow passageway to get to their targeted destination. This suggests the questions: How does confining a polymer affect its behavior and function? What does that tell us about the interactions between the monomers that comprise the polymer and the molecules that confine it? Can we design and build devices that mimic the functions of these nanoscale systems? The NATO Advanced Research Workshop brought together for four days in Bikal, Hungary over forty experts in experimental and theoretical biophysics, molecular biology, biophysical chemistry, and biochemistry interested in these questions. Their papers collected in this book provide insight on biological processes involving confinement and form a basis for new biotechnological applications using polymers. In his paper Edmund DiMarzio asks: What is so special about polymers? Why are polymers so prevalent in living things? The chemist says the reason is that a protein made of N amino acids can have any of 20 different kinds at each position along the chain, resulting in 20 N different polymers, and that the complexity of life lies in this variety.

Liquid Crystalline Polymers

Liquid Crystalline Polymers
Author: Vijay Kumar Thakur,Michael R. Kessler
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 626
Release: 2015-11-16
ISBN: 3319228943
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Liquid Crystalline Polymers Book Excerpt:

This book introduces anisotropic innovations in liquid crystalline polymers as well as new nanocomposite materials and testing techniques. The authors detail the newest discoveries of material properties, material types and phases, and material characterization. This interdisciplinary work creates valuable links that strengthen the approach to the evolving field of liquid crystalline polymers/ materials.

Phase Transitions in Polymeric Systems

Phase Transitions in Polymeric Systems
Author: Gerasim K. Iliev
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 282
Release: 2008
ISBN: 9780494580110
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phase Transitions in Polymeric Systems Book Excerpt:

In this thesis several classes of directed paths are considered as models of linear polymers in a dilute solution. We obtain the generating functions for each model by considering factorization arguments. Information about the polymer behaviour can be extracted from the singularity structure of the associated generating functions.By using modified versions of these models we study the adsorption and localization of polymer molecules, the behaviour of polymers subject to a tensile force, the effects of stiffness, as well as the behaviour of polymers in confined geometries. In each of these situations the resulting generating functions contain at least two physical singularities. We identify the phase transitions in these systems by a changeover in the dominant singularity of the generating function.In the study of localization and polymers subject to a force, we utilize both homopolymer and random copolymer models. For copolymers, the physically relevant properties are obtained by considering a quenched average of the free energy over all possible monomer sequences. This procedure is intractable even for the simplest models. By considering the Morita approximation for several walk models we obtain results which give a bound on the corresponding features of the quenched system.We use a mapping between a simple model of duplex DNA and an adsorbing Motzkin path in order to study the mechanical unzipping of duplex DNA. From this model, we obtain force-temperature diagrams which show re-entrant behaviour of the force. We also develop a simple low temperature theory to describe the behaviour of the force close to T = 0 and find that the shape of the force-temperature curve is associated with entropy in the ground state of the system.We consider the effect of stiffness on polymer adsorption and find that the phase transition is second order for all finite stiffness parameters.For systems of polymers in confined geometries, we find that the behaviour of the polymer depends on the distance between the confining surfaces and the associated interactions with each surface. In this problem, there exist regimes where the polymer exerts a force on the surfaces which can be attractive, repulsive or zero.

The Nature of the Phase Transitions of Polymers

The Nature of the Phase Transitions of Polymers
Author: Alan A. Byrne,University College, Dublin. Dept. of Chemistry
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 308
Release: 1999
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Polymers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Nature of the Phase Transitions of Polymers Book Excerpt:

Theories and Mechanism of Phase Transitions Heterophase Polymerizations Homopolymerization Addition Polymerization

Theories and Mechanism of Phase Transitions  Heterophase Polymerizations  Homopolymerization  Addition Polymerization
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 309
Release: 2013-10-03
ISBN: 9783662149010
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Theories and Mechanism of Phase Transitions Heterophase Polymerizations Homopolymerization Addition Polymerization Book Excerpt:

Phase Transitions in Polymers in Combined Tension and Shear

Phase Transitions in Polymers in Combined Tension and Shear
Author: Mary Ann H. Fitzwater
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 278
Release: 1991
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phase Transitions in Polymers in Combined Tension and Shear Book Excerpt:

A Spectroscopic Study of Phase Transitions in Polymers

A Spectroscopic Study of Phase Transitions in Polymers
Author: Nicholas Matthew Reynolds
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 380
Release: 1990
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Phase rule and equilibrium
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Spectroscopic Study of Phase Transitions in Polymers Book Excerpt:

Handbook of Liquid Crystals Volume 3

Handbook of Liquid Crystals  Volume 3
Author: Dietrich Demus,John W. Goodby,George W. Gray,Hans W. Spiess,Volkmar Vill
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 556
Release: 2008-08-29
ISBN: 3527620605
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Liquid Crystals Volume 3 Book Excerpt:

The Handbook of Liquid Crystals is a unique compendium of knowledge on all aspects of liquid crystals. In over 2000 pages the Handbook provides detailed information on the basic principles of both low- and high-molecular weight materials, as well as the synthesis, characterization, modification, and applications (such as in computer displays or as structural materials) of all types of liquid crystals. The five editors of the Handbook are internationally renowned experts from both industry and academia and have drawn together over 70 leading figures in the field as authors. The three volumes of the Handbook are designed both to be used together or as stand-alone reference sources. Some users will require the whole set, others will be best served with one or two of the volumes. Volume 1 deals with the basic physical and chemical principles of liquid crystals, including structure-property relationships, nomenclature, phase behavior, characterization methods, and general synthesis and application strategies. As such this volume provides an excellent introduction to the field and a powerful learning and teaching tool for graduate students and above. Volume 2 concentrates on low-molecular weight materials, for example those typically used in display technology. A high quality survey of the literature is provided along with full details of molecular design strategies, phase characterization and control, and applications development. This volume is therefore by far the most detailed reference source on these industrially very important materials, ideally suited for professionals in the field. Volume 3 concentrates on high-molecular weight, or polymeric, liquid crystals, some of which are found in structural applications and others occur as natural products of living systems. A high-quality literature survey is complemented by full detail of the synthesis, processing, analysis, and applications of all important materials classes. This volume is the most comprehensive reference source on these materials, and is therefore ideally suited for professionals in the field.

Lectures On Phase Transitions And The Renormalization Group

Lectures On Phase Transitions And The Renormalization Group
Author: Nigel Goldenfeld
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 420
Release: 2018-03-08
ISBN: 0429973128
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lectures On Phase Transitions And The Renormalization Group Book Excerpt:

Covering the elementary aspects of the physics of phases transitions and the renormalization group, this popular book is widely used both for core graduate statistical mechanics courses as well as for more specialized courses. Emphasizing understanding and clarity rather than technical manipulation, these lectures de-mystify the subject and show precisely "how things work." Goldenfeld keeps in mind a reader who wants to understand why things are done, what the results are, and what in principle can go wrong. The book reaches both experimentalists and theorists, students and even active researchers, and assumes only a prior knowledge of statistical mechanics at the introductory graduate level.Advanced, never-before-printed topics on the applications of renormalization group far from equilibrium and to partial differential equations add to the uniqueness of this book.

Nanostructured Polymer Blends

Nanostructured Polymer Blends
Author: Sabu Thomas,Robert Shanks,Sarath Chandran
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2013-11-28
ISBN: 1455731609
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanostructured Polymer Blends Book Excerpt:

Over 30% of commercial polymers are blends or alloys or one kind or another. Nanostructured blends offer the scientist or plastics engineer a new range of possibilities with characteristics including thermodynamic stablility; the potential to improve material transparency, creep and solvent resistance; the potential to simultaneously increase tensile strength and ductility; superior rheological properties; and relatively low cost. Nanostructured Polymer Blends opens up immense structural possibilities via chemical and mechanical modifications that generate novel properties and functions and high-performance characteristics at a low cost. The emerging applications of these new materials cover a wide range of industry sectors, encompassing the coatings and adhesives industry, electronics, energy (photovoltaics), aerospace and medical devices (where polymer blends provide innovations in biocompatible materials). This book explains the science of nanostructure formation and the nature of interphase formations, demystifies the design of nanostructured blends to achieve specific properties, and introduces the applications for this important new class of nanomaterial. All the key topics related to recent advances in blends are covered: IPNs, phase morphologies, composites and nanocomposites, nanostructure formation, the chemistry and structure of additives, etc. Introduces the science and technology of nanostructured polymer blends – and the procedures involved in melt blending and chemical blending to produce new materials with specific performance characteristics Unlocks the potential of nanostructured polymer blends for applications across sectors, including electronics, energy/photovoltaics, aerospace/automotive, and medical devices (biocompatible polymers) Explains the performance benefits in areas including rheological properties, thermodynamic stablility, material transparency, solvent resistance, etc.

Phase Transitions in Bulk Polymers

Phase Transitions in Bulk Polymers
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 136
Release: 1977
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Phase rule and equilibrium
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phase Transitions in Bulk Polymers Book Excerpt:

Glass Transition and Phase Transitions in Food and Biological Materials

Glass Transition and Phase Transitions in Food and Biological Materials
Author: Jasim Ahmed,Mohammad Shafiur Rahman,Yrjo H. Roos
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2017-04-24
ISBN: 1118935721
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Glass Transition and Phase Transitions in Food and Biological Materials Book Excerpt:

16.2.2 Pasting Properties of Starches