Physical and Logical Security Convergence Powered By Enterprise Security Management

Physical and Logical Security Convergence  Powered By Enterprise Security Management
Author: William P Crowell,Brian T Contos,Colby DeRodeff,Dan Dunkel
Publsiher: Syngress
Total Pages: 592
Release: 2011-04-18
ISBN: 9780080558783
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physical and Logical Security Convergence Powered By Enterprise Security Management Book Excerpt:

Government and companies have already invested hundreds of millions of dollars in the convergence of physical and logical security solutions, but there are no books on the topic. This book begins with an overall explanation of information security, physical security, and why approaching these two different types of security in one way (called convergence) is so critical in today’s changing security landscape. It then details enterprise security management as it relates to incident detection and incident management. This is followed by detailed examples of implementation, taking the reader through cases addressing various physical security technologies such as: video surveillance, HVAC, RFID, access controls, biometrics, and more. This topic is picking up momentum every day with every new computer exploit, announcement of a malicious insider, or issues related to terrorists, organized crime, and nation-state threats The author has over a decade of real-world security and management expertise developed in some of the most sensitive and mission-critical environments in the world Enterprise Security Management (ESM) is deployed in tens of thousands of organizations worldwide

Security Technology Convergence Insights

Security Technology Convergence Insights
Author: Ray Bernard
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 160
Release: 2015-04-02
ISBN: 0128030011
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Security Technology Convergence Insights Book Excerpt:

Security technology convergence, which refers to the incorporation of computing, networking, and communications technologies into electronic physical security systems, was first introduced in the 1970s with the advent of computer-based access control and alarm systems. As the pace of information technology (IT) advances continued to accelerate, the physical security industry continued to lag behind IT advances by at least two to three years. Security Technology Convergence Insights explores this sometimes problematic convergence of physical security technology and information technology and its impact on security departments, IT departments, vendors, and management. Includes material culled directly from author's column in Security Technology Executive Easy-to-read question and answer format Includes real-world examples to enhance key lessons learned

Security Convergence

Security Convergence
Author: Dave Tyson
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2011-04-08
ISBN: 9780080546261
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Security Convergence Book Excerpt:

Security Convergence describes the movement in business to combine the roles of physical security and security management with network computer security measures within an organization. This is the first book to discuss the subject of security convergence, providing real-world illustrations of implementation and the cost-saving benefits that result. Security Convergence discusses security management, electronic security solutions, and network security and the manner in which all of these interact. Combining security procedures and arriving at complete security solutions improves efficiency, greatly improves security, and saves companies money. Implementation of convergence principles has increased rapidly and the number of businesses moving to this model will continue to grow over the next few years. All security professionals, regardless of background, will find this a useful reference and a practical look at the benefits of convergence and a look to the future of how organizations and corporations will protect their assets. * A high-level, manager's overview of the movement in corporations to combine the physical and IT Security functions * Details the challenges and benefits of convergence with an assessment of the future outlook for this growing industry trend * Contains case examples that detail how convergence can be implemented to save money and improve efficiencies

Security Strategy

Security Strategy
Author: Bill Stackpole,Eric Oksendahl
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 346
Release: 2010-10-13
ISBN: 9781439827345
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Security Strategy Book Excerpt:

Addressing the diminished understanding of the value of security on the executive side and a lack of good business processes on the security side, Security Strategy: From Requirements to Reality explains how to select, develop, and deploy the security strategy best suited to your organization. It clarifies the purpose and place of strategy in an information security program and arms security managers and practitioners with a set of security tactics to support the implementation of strategic planning initiatives, goals, and objectives. The book focuses on security strategy planning and execution to provide a clear and comprehensive look at the structures and tools needed to build a security program that enables and enhances business processes. Divided into two parts, the first part considers business strategy and the second part details specific tactics. The information in both sections will help security practitioners and mangers develop a viable synergy that will allow security to take its place as a valued partner and contributor to the success and profitability of the enterprise. Confusing strategies and tactics all too often keep organizations from properly implementing an effective information protection strategy. This versatile reference presents information in a way that makes it accessible and applicable to organizations of all sizes. Complete with checklists of the physical security requirements that organizations should consider when evaluating or designing facilities, it provides the tools and understanding to enable your company to achieve the operational efficiencies, cost reductions, and brand enhancements that are possible when an effective security strategy is put into action.

Cyber Crime Investigations

Cyber Crime Investigations
Author: Anthony Reyes,Richard Brittson,Kevin O'Shea,James Steele
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2011-04-18
ISBN: 9780080553634
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cyber Crime Investigations Book Excerpt:

Written by a former NYPD cyber cop, this is the only book available that discusses the hard questions cyber crime investigators are asking. The book begins with the chapter “What is Cyber Crime? This introductory chapter describes the most common challenges faced by cyber investigators today. The following chapters discuss the methodologies behind cyber investigations; and frequently encountered pitfalls. Issues relating to cyber crime definitions, the electronic crime scene, computer forensics, and preparing and presenting a cyber crime investigation in court will be examined. Not only will these topics be generally be discussed and explained for the novice, but the hard questions —the questions that have the power to divide this community— will also be examined in a comprehensive and thoughtful manner. This book will serve as a foundational text for the cyber crime community to begin to move past current difficulties into its next evolution. This book has been written by a retired NYPD cyber cop, who has worked many high-profile computer crime cases Discusses the complex relationship between the public and private sector with regards to cyber crime Provides essential information for IT security professionals and first responders on maintaining chain of evidence

The Manager s Guide to Enterprise Security Risk Management

The Manager   s Guide to Enterprise Security Risk Management
Author: Brian J. Allen, Esq., CISSP, CISM, CPP, CFE,Rachelle Loyear CISM, MBCP
Publsiher: Rothstein Publishing
Total Pages: 114
Release: 2016-11-15
ISBN: 1944480242
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Manager s Guide to Enterprise Security Risk Management Book Excerpt:

Is security management changing so fast that you can’t keep up? Perhaps it seems like those traditional “best practices” in security no longer work? One answer might be that you need better best practices! In their new book, The Manager’s Guide to Enterprise Security Risk Management: Essentials of Risk-Based Security, two experienced professionals introduce ESRM. Their practical, organization-wide, integrated approach redefines the securing of an organization’s people and assets from being task-based to being risk-based. In their careers, the authors, Brian Allen and Rachelle Loyear, have been instrumental in successfully reorganizing the way security is handled in major corporations. In this ground-breaking book, the authors begin by defining Enterprise Security Risk Management (ESRM): “Enterprise security risk management is the application of fundamental risk principles to manage all security risks − whether information, cyber, physical security, asset management, or business continuity − in a comprehensive, holistic, all-encompassing approach.” In the face of a continually evolving and increasingly risky global security landscape, this book takes you through the steps of putting ESRM into practice enterprise-wide, and helps you to: Differentiate between traditional, task-based management and strategic, risk-based management. See how adopting ESRM can lead to a more successful security program overall and enhance your own career. . Prepare your security organization to adopt an ESRM methodology. . Analyze and communicate risks and their root causes to all appropriate parties. . Identify what elements are necessary for long-term success of your ESRM program. . Ensure the proper governance of the security function in your enterprise. . Explain the value of security and ESRM to executives using useful metrics and reports. . Throughout the book, the authors provide a wealth of real-world case studies from a wide range of businesses and industries to help you overcome any blocks to acceptance as you design and roll out a new ESRM-based security program for your own workplace.

Practical Intrusion Analysis

Practical Intrusion Analysis
Author: Ryan Trost
Publsiher: Pearson Education
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2009-06-24
ISBN: 9780321591883
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Practical Intrusion Analysis Book Excerpt:

“Practical Intrusion Analysis provides a solid fundamental overview of the art and science of intrusion analysis.” –Nate Miller, Cofounder, Stratum Security The Only Definitive Guide to New State-of-the-Art Techniques in Intrusion Detection and Prevention Recently, powerful innovations in intrusion detection and prevention have evolved in response to emerging threats and changing business environments. However, security practitioners have found little reliable, usable information about these new IDS/IPS technologies. In Practical Intrusion Analysis, one of the field’s leading experts brings together these innovations for the first time and demonstrates how they can be used to analyze attacks, mitigate damage, and track attackers. Ryan Trost reviews the fundamental techniques and business drivers of intrusion detection and prevention by analyzing today’s new vulnerabilities and attack vectors. Next, he presents complete explanations of powerful new IDS/IPS methodologies based on Network Behavioral Analysis (NBA), data visualization, geospatial analysis, and more. Writing for security practitioners and managers at all experience levels, Trost introduces new solutions for virtually every environment. Coverage includes Assessing the strengths and limitations of mainstream monitoring tools and IDS technologies Using Attack Graphs to map paths of network vulnerability and becoming more proactive about preventing intrusions Analyzing network behavior to immediately detect polymorphic worms, zero-day exploits, and botnet DoS attacks Understanding the theory, advantages, and disadvantages of the latest Web Application Firewalls Implementing IDS/IPS systems that protect wireless data traffic Enhancing your intrusion detection efforts by converging with physical security defenses Identifying attackers’ “geographical fingerprints” and using that information to respond more effectively Visualizing data traffic to identify suspicious patterns more quickly Revisiting intrusion detection ROI in light of new threats, compliance risks, and technical alternatives Includes contributions from these leading network security experts: Jeff Forristal, a.k.a. Rain Forest Puppy, senior security professional and creator of libwhisker Seth Fogie, CEO, Airscanner USA; leading-edge mobile security researcher; coauthor of Security Warrior Dr. Sushil Jajodia, Director, Center for Secure Information Systems; founding Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Computer Security Dr. Steven Noel, Associate Director and Senior Research Scientist, Center for Secure Information Systems, George Mason University Alex Kirk, Member, Sourcefire Vulnerability Research Team

InfoSecurity 2008 Threat Analysis

InfoSecurity 2008 Threat Analysis
Author: Craig Schiller,Seth Fogie,Colby DeRodeff,Michael Gregg
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2011-04-18
ISBN: 9780080558691
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

InfoSecurity 2008 Threat Analysis Book Excerpt:

An all-star cast of authors analyze the top IT security threats for 2008 as selected by the editors and readers of Infosecurity Magazine. This book, compiled from the Syngress Security Library, is an essential reference for any IT professional managing enterprise security. It serves as an early warning system, allowing readers to assess vulnerabilities, design protection schemes and plan for disaster recovery should an attack occur. Topics include Botnets, Cross Site Scripting Attacks, Social Engineering, Physical and Logical Convergence, Payment Card Industry (PCI) Data Security Standards (DSS), Voice over IP (VoIP), and Asterisk Hacking. Each threat is fully defined, likely vulnerabilities are identified, and detection and prevention strategies are considered. Wherever possible, real-world examples are used to illustrate the threats and tools for specific solutions. * Provides IT Security Professionals with a first look at likely new threats to their enterprise * Includes real-world examples of system intrusions and compromised data * Provides techniques and strategies to detect, prevent, and recover * Includes coverage of PCI, VoIP, XSS, Asterisk, Social Engineering, Botnets, and Convergence

Enemy at the Water Cooler

Enemy at the Water Cooler
Author: Brian T Contos
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2006-10-30
ISBN: 9780080477602
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Enemy at the Water Cooler Book Excerpt:

The book covers a decade of work with some of the largest commercial and government agencies around the world in addressing cyber security related to malicious insiders (trusted employees, contractors, and partners). It explores organized crime, terrorist threats, and hackers. It addresses the steps organizations must take to address insider threats at a people, process, and technology level. Today’s headlines are littered with news of identity thieves, organized cyber criminals, corporate espionage, nation-state threats, and terrorists. They represent the next wave of security threats but still possess nowhere near the devastating potential of the most insidious threat: the insider. This is not the bored 16-year-old hacker. We are talking about insiders like you and me, trusted employees with access to information - consultants, contractors, partners, visitors, vendors, and cleaning crews. Anyone in an organization’s building or networks that possesses some level of trust. * Full coverage of this hot topic for virtually every global 5000 organization, government agency, and individual interested in security. * Brian Contos is the Chief Security Officer for one of the most well known, profitable and respected security software companies in the U.S.—ArcSight.

Intelligent Distributed Computing IX

Intelligent Distributed Computing IX
Author: Paulo Novais,David Camacho,Cesar Analide,Amal El Fallah Seghrouchni,Costin Badica
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 521
Release: 2015-10-26
ISBN: 3319250175
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Intelligent Distributed Computing IX Book Excerpt:

This book represents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the ninth International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC’2015, of the Workshop on Cyber Security and Resilience of Large-Scale Systems – WSRL’2015, and of the International Workshop on Future Internet and Smart Networks – FI&SN’2015. All the events were held in Guimarães, Portugal during October 7th-9th, 2015. The 46 contributions published in this book address many topics related to theory and applications of intelligent distributed computing, including: Intelligent Distributed Agent-Based Systems, Ambient Intelligence and Social Networks, Computational Sustainability, Intelligent Distributed Knowledge Representation and Processing, Smart Networks, Networked Intelligence and Intelligent Distributed Applications, amongst others.

ISSE 2009 Securing Electronic Business Processes

ISSE 2009 Securing Electronic Business Processes
Author: Norbert Pohlmann,Helmut Reimer,Wolfgang Schneider
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 368
Release: 2010-07-23
ISBN: 3834893633
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

ISSE 2009 Securing Electronic Business Processes Book Excerpt:

This book presents the most interesting talks given at ISSE 2009 – the forum for the inter-disciplinary discussion of how to adequately secure electronic business processes. The topics include: - Economics of Security and Identity Management - Security Services and Large Scale Public Applications - Privacy and Data Protection and Awareness Raising - Standards and Technical Solutions - Secure Software, Trust and Assurance Adequate information security is one of the basic requirements of all electronic business processes. It is crucial for effective solutions that the possibilities offered by security technology can be integrated with the commercial requirements of the applications. The reader may expect state-of-the-art: best papers of the Conference ISSE 2009.

Proceedings of the International Conference on IT Convergence and Security 2011

Proceedings of the International Conference on IT Convergence and Security 2011
Author: Kuinam J. Kim,Seong Jin Ahn
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 642
Release: 2011-12-07
ISBN: 9400729111
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proceedings of the International Conference on IT Convergence and Security 2011 Book Excerpt:

As we entered the 21st century, the rapid growth of information technology has changed our lives more conveniently than we have ever speculated. Recently in all fields of the industry, heterogeneous technologies have converged with information technology resulting in a new paradigm, information technology convergence. In the process of information technology convergence, the latest issues in the structure of data, system, network, and infrastructure have become the most challenging task. Proceedings of the International Conference on IT Convergence and Security 2011 approaches the subject matter with problems in technical convergence and convergences of security technology by looking at new issues that arise from techniques converging. The general scope is convergence security and the latest information technology with the following most important features and benefits: 1. Introduction of the most recent information technology and its related ideas 2. Applications and problems related to technology convergence, and its case studies 3. Introduction of converging existing security techniques through convergence security Overall, after reading Proceedings of the International Conference on IT Convergence and Security 2011, readers will understand the most state of the art information strategies and technologies of convergence security.

Securing Converged IP Networks

Securing Converged IP Networks
Author: Tyson Macaulay
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2006-05-30
ISBN: 0849375819
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Securing Converged IP Networks Book Excerpt:

Internet Protocol (IP) networks increasingly mix traditional data assets with traffic related to voice, entertainment, industrial process controls, metering, and more. Due to this convergence of content, IP networks are emerging as extremely vital infrastructure components, requiring greater awareness and better security and management. Off

The Internet of People Things and Services

The Internet of People  Things and Services
Author: Claire A Simmers,Murugan Anandarajan
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 286
Release: 2018-03-19
ISBN: 1351725076
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Internet of People Things and Services Book Excerpt:

The transformational technologies of the Internet-Web compound continue to exert a vast and readily apparent influence on the way we live and work. In recent times, internet penetration is now very high in most parts of the world, impacting the context and content of the workplace and the boundary between work and private life is even more porous. Not only has the reach increased, but the technologies to access the Internet-Web have further evolved towards increasing portability. The hardware evolution from desktops to laptops to mobile technologies (phones, tablets, watches, eyeglasses) marches forward. The increasing mobility and 24/7 accessibility offers the opportune time to revisit the transformations occurring. Today the Internet consists of billions of digital devices, people, services and other physical objects with the potential to seamlessly connect, interact and exchange information about themselves and their environment. Organizations now use these digital devices and physical objects to produce and consume Internet-based services. This new Internet ecosystem is commonly referred to as the Internet of People, Things and Services (IoPTS). In this follow-up to their 2006 volume, Simmers & Anandarajan examine how The Internet of People, Things and Services (IoPTS) transforms our workplaces. Information and communications technology (ICT) expansion from desktops to laptops to ubiquitous smart objects that sense and communicate directly over the internet – the IoPTS - offers us the opportune time to revisit how the Internet transforms our workplaces.

Security Consulting

Security Consulting
Author: Charles A. Sennewald
Publsiher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Total Pages: 264
Release: 2012-12-31
ISBN: 012401674X
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Security Consulting Book Excerpt:

Since 9/11, business and industry has paid close attention to security within their own organizations. In fact, at no other time in modern history has business and industry been more concerned with security issues. A new concern for security measures to combat potential terrorism, sabotage, theft and disruption -- which could bring any business to it's knees -- has swept the nation. This has opened up a huge opportunity for private investigators and security professionals as consultants. Many retiring law enforcement and security management professionals look to enter the private security consulting market. Security consulting often involves conducting in-depth security surveys so businesses will know exactly where security holes are present and where they need improvement to limit their exposure to various threats. The fourth edition of Security Consulting introduces security and law enforcement professionals to the career and business of security consulting. It provides new and potential consultants with the practical guidelines needed to start up and maintain a successful independent practice. Updated and expanded information is included on marketing, fees and expenses, forensic consulting, the use of computers, and the need for professional growth. Useful sample forms have been updated in addition to new promotion opportunities and keys to conducting research on the Web. The only book of its kind dedicated to beginning a security consulting practice from the ground-up Proven, practical methods to establish and run a security consulting business New chapters dedicated to advice for new consultants, information secutiry consulting, and utilizing the power of the Internet The most up-to-date best practices from the IAPSC

Information Security Management Handbook Sixth Edition

Information Security Management Handbook  Sixth Edition
Author: Harold F. Tipton,Micki Krause Nozaki
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 529
Release: 2011-06-03
ISBN: 1439858861
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Information Security Management Handbook Sixth Edition Book Excerpt:

Every year, in response to advancements in technology and new laws in different countries and regions, there are many changes and updates to the body of knowledge required of IT security professionals. Updated annually to keep up with the increasingly fast pace of change in the field, the Information Security Management Handbook is the single most comprehensive and up-to-date resource on information security and assurance. Providing an up-to-date compilation of the fundamental skills, techniques, tools, and understanding required of IT security professionals, the Information Security Management Handbook, Sixth Edition, Volume 4 reflects the latest changes to information security and the CISSP® Common Body of Knowledge (CBK®). This edition updates the benchmark Volume 1 with a wealth of new information on mobile device security, adaptive threat defense, Web 2.0, virtualization, data leakage, and governance. New material also addresses risk management, business continuity planning, disaster recovery planning, and cryptography. As the risks that threaten the security of our systems continue to evolve, it is imperative that those charged with protecting that information stay ahead of the curve. Also available in a fully searchable CD-ROM format, this comprehensive resource provides the up-to-date understanding required to keep you abreast of the latest developments, new vulnerabilities, and possible threats.

Cybercrime and Espionage

Cybercrime and Espionage
Author: Will Gragido,John Pirc
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2011-01-07
ISBN: 1597496146
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cybercrime and Espionage Book Excerpt:

Cybercrime and Espionage provides a comprehensive analysis of the sophisticated patterns and subversive multi-vector threats (SMTs) associated with modern cybercrime, cyber terrorism, cyber warfare and cyber espionage. Whether the goal is to acquire and subsequently sell intellectual property from one organization to a competitor or the international black markets, to compromise financial data and systems, or undermine the security posture of a nation state by another nation state or sub-national entity, SMTs are real and growing at an alarming pace. This book contains a wealth of knowledge related to the realities seen in the execution of advanced attacks, their success from the perspective of exploitation and their presence within all industry. It will educate readers on the realities of advanced, next generation threats, which take form in a variety ways. This book consists of 12 chapters covering a variety of topics such as the maturity of communications systems and the emergence of advanced web technology; how regulatory compliance has worsened the state of information security; the convergence of physical and logical security; asymmetric forms of gathering information; seven commonalities of SMTs; examples of compromise and presence of SMTs; next generation techniques and tools for avoidance and obfuscation; and next generation techniques and tools for detection, identification and analysis. This book will appeal to information and physical security professionals as well as those in the intelligence community and federal and municipal law enforcement, auditors, forensic analysts, and CIO/CSO/CISO. Includes detailed analysis and examples of the threats in addition to related anecdotal information Authors’ combined backgrounds of security, military, and intelligence, give you distinct and timely insights Presents never-before-published information: identification and analysis of cybercrime and the psychological profiles that accompany them

Core Concepts of Accounting Information Systems

Core Concepts of Accounting Information Systems
Author: Mark G. Simkin,Carolyn S. Norman,Jacob M. Rose
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 528
Release: 2014-11-24
ISBN: 1118742931
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Core Concepts of Accounting Information Systems Book Excerpt:

Knowing how an accounting information systems gather and transform data into useful decision-making information is fundamental knowledge for accounting professionals. Mark Simkin, Jacob Rose, and Carolyn S. Norman's essential text, Core Concepts of Accounting Information Systems, 13th Edition helps students understand basic AIS concepts and provides instructors the flexibility to support how they want to teach the course.

Information Security Evaluation

Information Security Evaluation
Author: Igli Tashi,Solange Ghernaouti
Publsiher: PPUR Presses polytechniques
Total Pages: 201
Release: 2011
ISBN: 2940222533
Category: Business intelligence
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Information Security Evaluation Book Excerpt:

Electronic Security Systems

Electronic Security Systems
Author: Robert Pearson
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2011-04-01
ISBN: 9780080494708
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electronic Security Systems Book Excerpt:

Electronic Security Systems is a book written to help the security professional understand the various electronic security functional components and the ways these components interconnect. Providing a holistic approach to solving security issues, this book discusses such topics as integrating electronic functions, developing a system, component philosophy, possible long-term issues, and the culture within a corporation. The book uses a corporate environment as its example; however, the basic issues can be applied to virtually any environment. For a security professional to be effective, he or she needs to understand the electronics as they are integrated into a total security system. Electronic Security Systems allows the professional to do just that, and is an invaluable addition to any security library. * Provides a well-written and concise overview of electronic security systems and their functions * Takes a holistic approach by focusing on the integration of different aspects of electronic security systems * Includes a collection of practical experiences, solutions, and an approach to solving technical problems