Physically Based Rendering

Physically Based Rendering
Author: Matt Pharr,Greg Humphreys
Publsiher: Morgan Kaufmann
Total Pages: 1167
Release: 2010-07-12
ISBN: 0123750792
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physically Based Rendering Book Excerpt:

This updated edition describes both the mathematical theory behind a modern photorealistic rendering system as well as its practical implementation. Through the ideas and software in this book, designers will learn to design and employ a full-featured rendering system for creating stunning imagery. Includes a companion site complete with source code for the rendering system described in the book, with support for Windows, OS X, and Linux.

Physically Based Rendering of Synthetic Objects in Real Environments

Physically Based Rendering of Synthetic Objects in Real Environments
Author: Joel Kronander
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2015-11-10
ISBN: 9176859126
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physically Based Rendering of Synthetic Objects in Real Environments Book Excerpt:

This thesis presents methods for photorealistic rendering of virtual objects so that they can be seamlessly composited into images of the real world. To generate predictable and consistent results, we study physically based methods, which simulate how light propagates in a mathematical model of the augmented scene. This computationally challenging problem demands both efficient and accurate simulation of the light transport in the scene, as well as detailed modeling of the geometries, illumination conditions, and material properties. In this thesis, we discuss and formulate the challenges inherent in these steps and present several methods to make the process more efficient. In particular, the material contained in this thesis addresses four closely related areas: HDR imaging, IBL, reflectance modeling, and efficient rendering. The thesis presents a new, statistically motivated algorithm for HDR reconstruction from raw camera data combining demosaicing, denoising, and HDR fusion in a single processing operation. The thesis also presents practical and robust methods for rendering with spatially and temporally varying illumination conditions captured using omnidirectional HDR video. Furthermore, two new parametric BRDF models are proposed for surfaces exhibiting wide angle gloss. Finally, the thesis also presents a physically based light transport algorithm based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods that allows approximations to be used in place of exact quantities, while still converging to the exact result. As illustrated in the thesis, the proposed algorithm enables efficient rendering of scenes with glossy transfer and heterogenous participating media.

Physically Based Rendering

Physically Based Rendering
Author: Matt Pharr,Greg Humphreys
Publsiher: Morgan Kaufmann
Total Pages: 1056
Release: 2004-08-11
ISBN: 9780125531801
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physically Based Rendering Book Excerpt:

Rendering is a crucial component of computer graphics- the conversion of a description of a 3D scene into an image for display. Algorithms for animation, geometric modeling, and texturing all must feed their results through some sort of rendering process for the results to be visible in an image. Focusing on realistic images, physically based rendering incorporates ideas from a range of disciplines, including physics, biology, psychology, cognitive science, and mathematics. This book presents the algorithms of modern photorealistic rendering and follows step by step the creation of a complete rendering system. As each new rendering concept is introduced it is also shown implemented in code-there is no better way to understand the subtle and complex process of rendering. The code itself is highly readable, written in the literate programming style that mixes text describing the system with the code that implements it. The result is a stunning achievement in graphics education for students, professionals, and researchers. *CD-ROM with the source code for a complete rendering system for Windows, OS X, & Linux-with many examples of images created by the system throughout the 4 color text *The code and text are tightly woven together through the technique of literate programming with a unique indexing feature that lists all locations of functions, variables, and methods on the page they are first described *The most complete guide to understanding, designing, and building a rendering system

Physically Based Rendering 3rd Edition

Physically Based Rendering  3rd Edition
Author: Matt Pharr,Wenzel Jakob,Greg Humphreys
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 1266
Release: 2016
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physically Based Rendering 3rd Edition Book Excerpt:

Physically Based Rendering: From Theory to Implementation, Third Edition, describes both the mathematical theory behind a modern photorealistic rendering system and its practical implementation. Through a method known as 'literate programming', the authors combine human-readable documentation and source code into a single reference that is specifically designed to aid comprehension. The result is a stunning achievement in graphics education. Through the ideas and software in this book, users will learn to design and employ a fully-featured rendering system for creating stunning imagery. This completely updated and revised edition includes new coverage on ray-tracing hair and curves primitives, numerical precision issues with ray tracing, LBVHs, realistic camera models, the measurement equation, and much more. It is a must-have, full color resource on physically-based rendering. Presents up-to-date revisions of the seminal reference on rendering, including new sections on bidirectional path tracing, numerical robustness issues in ray tracing, realistic camera models, and subsurface scattering Provides the source code for a complete rendering system allowing readers to get up and running fast Includes a unique indexing feature, literate programming, that lists the locations of each function, variable, and method on the page where they are first described Serves as an essential resource on physically-based rendering.

Physically Based Rendering 2nd Edition

Physically Based Rendering  2nd Edition
Author: Matt Pharr,Greg Humphreys
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 1200
Release: 2004
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Augmented reality
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physically Based Rendering 2nd Edition Book Excerpt:

Physically Based Rendering, Second Edition, describes both the mathematical theory behind a modern photorealistic rendering system as well as its practical implementation. A method known as literate programming combines human-readable documentation and source code into a single reference that is specifically designed to aid comprehension. The result is a stunning achievement in graphics education. Through the ideas and software in this book, you will learn to design and employ a full-featured rendering system for creating stunning imagery. This new edition greatly refines its best-selling predecessor by streamlining all obsolete code as well as adding sections on parallel rendering and system design; animating transformations; multispectral rendering; realistic lens systems; blue noise and adaptive sampling patterns and reconstruction; measured BRDFs; and instant global illumination, as well as subsurface and multiple-scattering integrators. These updates reflect the current state-of-the-art technology, and along with the lucid pairing of text and code, ensure the book's leading position as a reference text for those working with images, whether it is for film, video, photography, digital design, visualization, or gaming. The book that won its authors a 2014 Academy Award for Scientific and Technical Achievement from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences New sections on subsurface scattering, Metropolis light transport, precomputed light transport, multispectral rendering, and much more Includes a companion site complete with source code for the rendering system described in the book, with support for Windows, OS X, and Linux: visit www.pbrt.org Code and text are tightly woven together through a unique indexing feature that lists each function, variable, and method on the page that they are first described.

Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Physically Based Rendering

Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Physically Based Rendering
Author: Shao Hua Fan
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2006
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Physically Based Rendering Book Excerpt:

Physically Based Shader Development for Unity 2017

Physically Based Shader Development for Unity 2017
Author: Claudia Doppioslash
Publsiher: Apress
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2017-12-06
ISBN: 1484233093
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physically Based Shader Development for Unity 2017 Book Excerpt:

Benefit from the latest rendering tech developments, currently covered only in papers and talks from Siggraph, in a way any developer or technical artist using Unity can take advantage of. This book starts by introducing how shader programming works in general, the common principles of different platforms (OpenGL, Vulkan, and DirectX), and the shading languages Unity uses: Cg, GLSL, and ShaderLab. Physically Based Shader Development for Unity 2017 discusses artistic choices, presenting various techniques (such as translucency and subsurface scattering) and BRDFs (Oren-Nayar, Cook-Torrance, and Ashikhmin-Shirley), and what they can be used for. Finally you’ll cover the importance of optimizing your code by developing approximations, which achieve similar end results, but are computationally cheaper. By the end of your journey you’ll be able to develop the look of your game or Unity-rendered animated short so that it looks both unique and impressively realistic, thanks to your own custom lighting system. What You Will Learn Master shader programming Gain all you need to know about physically based shading Take almost full control of the shader subsystem Discover what you can achieve with that control Implement a custom physically based lighting system and examine the logic behind every choice Who This Book Is For Most game developers (both indie and AA) that use Unity and technical artists who are responsible for the final look of a game.

Physically Based Rendering

Physically Based Rendering
Author: Matt Pharr
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2016
ISBN: 9780585450865
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physically Based Rendering Book Excerpt:

Physically Based Rendering, 2nd Edition describes both the mathematical theory behind a modern photorealistic rendering system as well as its practical implementation. A method - known as 'literate programming'- combines human-readable documentation and source code into a single reference that is specifically designed to aid comprehension. The result is a stunning achievement in graphics education. Through the ideas and software in this book, you will learn to design and employ a full-featured rendering system for creating stunning imagery. New sections on subsurface scattering, Metropolis light transport, precomputed light transport, multispectral rendering, and much more. Includes a companion site complete with source code for the rendering system described in the book, with support for Windows, OS X, and Linux.

Physically based rendering PBR Workflow Optimierung bei der Visualisierung eines Gesichtes mit Hilfe der Photogrammetrie

Physically based rendering  PBR  Workflow Optimierung bei der Visualisierung eines Gesichtes mit Hilfe der Photogrammetrie
Author: Jannis Dittmer
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2018
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physically based rendering PBR Workflow Optimierung bei der Visualisierung eines Gesichtes mit Hilfe der Photogrammetrie Book Excerpt:

Physically based Modeling and Rendering of Complex Visual Appearance

Physically based Modeling and Rendering of Complex Visual Appearance
Author: Lingqi Yan
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 187
Release: 2018
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physically based Modeling and Rendering of Complex Visual Appearance Book Excerpt:

In this dissertation, we focus on physically-based rendering that synthesizes realistic images from 3D models and scenes. State of the art rendering still struggles with two fundamental challenges -- realism and speed. The rendered results look artificial and overly perfect, and the rendering process is slow for both offline and interactive applications. Moreover, better realism and faster speed are inherently contradictory, because the computational complexity increases substantially when trying to render higher fidelity detailed results. We put emphasis on both ends of the realism-speed spectrum in rendering by introducing the concept of detailed rendering and appearance modeling to accurately represent and reproduce the rich visual world from micron level to overall appearance, and combining sparse ray sampling with fast high dimensional filtering to achieve real-time performance. To make rendering more realistic, our first claim is that, we need details. However, rendering a complex surface with lots of details is far from easy. Traditionally, the surface microstructure is approximated using a smooth normal distribution, but this ignores details such as glinty effects, easily observable in the real world. While modeling the actual surface microstructure is possible, the resulting rendering problem is prohibitively expensive using Monte Carlo point sampling: the energy is concentrated in tiny highlights that take up a minuscule fraction of the pixel. We instead compute the accurate solution that Monte Carlo would eventually converge to, using a completely different deterministic approach (Chapter 3). Our method considers the highly complicated distribution of normals on a surface patch seen through a single pixel. We show different methods to evaluate this efficiently with closed-form solutions, assuming a surface patch is made up of either 2D planar triangles or 4D Gaussian elements, respectively. We also show how to extend our method to accurately handle wave optics. Our results show complicated, temporally varying glints from materials such as bumpy plastics, brushed and scratched metals, metallic paint and ocean waves. In the above, although rendering details imposes many challenges, we assumed we know how the surface reflects light. However, there are a lot of natural materials in the real world where we are not sure exactly how they interact with the light. To render these materials realistically, we need accurate appearance/reflectance models derived from microstructures to define their optical behavior. We demonstrate this by introducing a reflectance model for animal fur in Chapter 4. Rendering photo-realistic animal fur is a long-standing problem in computer graphics. Considerable effort has been made on modeling the geometric complexity of human hair, but the appearance/reflectance of fur fibers is not well understood. Based on anatomical literature and measurements, we develop a double cylinder model for the reflectance of a single fur fiber, where an outer cylinder represents the biological observation of a cortex covered by multiple cuticle layers, and an inner cylinder represents the scattering interior structure known as the medulla, often absent from human hair fibers. We validate our physical model with measurements on real fur fibers, and introduce the first database in computer graphics of reflectance profiles for nine fur samples. For efficient rendering, we develop a method to precompute 2D medulla scattering profiles and analytically approximate our reflectance model with factored lobes. We then develop a number of optimizations that improve efficiency and generality without compromising accuracy. And we present the first global illumination model, based on dipole diffusion for subsurface scattering, to approximate light bouncing between individual fur fibers by modeling complex light and fur interactions as subsurface scattering, and using a simple neural network to convert from fur fibers' properties to scattering parameters. However, even without these details to improve rendered realism, current rendering still suffers from low performance with state of the art Monte Carlo ray tracing. Physically correct, noise-free images can require hundreds or thousands of ray samples per pixel, and take a long time to compute. Recent approaches have exploited sparse sampling and filtering; the filtering is either fast (axis-aligned), but requires more input samples, or needs fewer input samples but is very slow (sheared). We present a new approach for fast sheared filtering on the GPU in Chapter 5. Our algorithm factors the 4D sheared filter into four 1D filters. We derive complexity bounds for our method, showing that the per-pixel complexity is reduced from O(n^2 l^2)$ to O(nl), where n is the linear filter width (filter size is O(n^2)) and l is the (usually very small) number of samples for each dimension of the light or lens per pixel (spp is l^2). We thus reduce sheared filtering overhead dramatically. We demonstrate rendering of depth of field, soft shadows and diffuse global illumination at interactive speeds.

The PBR Guide

The PBR Guide
Author: Wes McDermott
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 104
Release: 2018
ISBN: 9782490071005
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The PBR Guide Book Excerpt:

Accelerating Global Illumination for Physically based Rendering

Accelerating Global Illumination for Physically based Rendering
Author: Thomas Bashford-Rogers
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 398
Release: 2011
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Accelerating Global Illumination for Physically based Rendering Book Excerpt:

Beginning PBR Texturing

Beginning PBR Texturing
Author: Abhishek Kumar
Publsiher: Apress
Total Pages: 263
Release: 2020-05-20
ISBN: 1484258991
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Beginning PBR Texturing Book Excerpt:

Delve into the concepts of physically based rendering (PBR) using Allegorithmic’s Substance Painter. This book covers the integration of PBR textures with various 3D modeling and rendering packages as well as with the Unreal Engine 4 game engine. Beginning PBR Texturing covers all aspects of the software and guides you in implementing its incredible possibilities, including using materials, masks, and baking. Integration with both internal and popular external rendering engines is covered. This book teaches you the skills you need to use the texturing tool that is recognized by studios worldwide. You will know tips and tricks to implement the pipeline and speed up your workflow. What You Will Learn Know the fundamentals of PBR-based texturing from the ground upCreate production-ready textured models from scratchIntegrate PBR textures with standard 3D modeling and rendering applicationsCreate portfolio-ready renders using offline renderers Who This Book Is For Beginners in the fields of 3D animation, computer graphics, and game technology

HCI International 2017 Posters Extended Abstracts

HCI International 2017     Posters  Extended Abstracts
Author: Constantine Stephanidis
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 674
Release: 2017-05-11
ISBN: 3319587536
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

HCI International 2017 Posters Extended Abstracts Book Excerpt:

The two-volume set CCIS 713 and CCIS 714 contains the extended abstracts of the posters presented during the 19th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCI International 2017, held in Vancouver, BC, Canada, in July 2017. HCII 2017 received a total of 4340 submissions, of which 1228 papers were accepted for publication after a careful reviewing process. The 177 papers presented in these two volumes were organized in topical sections as follows: Part I: Design and evaluation methods, tools and practices; novel interaction techniques and devices; psychophisiological measuring and monitoring; perception, cognition and emotion in HCI; data analysis and data mining in social media and communication; ergonomics and models in work and training support. Part II: Interaction in virtual and augmented reality; learning, games and gamification; health, well-being and comfort; smart environments; mobile interaction; visual design and visualization; social issues and security in HCI.

High Quality Illumination of Virtual Objects Based on an Environment Estimation in Mixed Reality Applications

High Quality Illumination of Virtual Objects Based on an Environment Estimation in Mixed Reality Applications
Author: Tobias Schwandt
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 122
Release: 2021-08-30
ISBN: 3658351926
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

High Quality Illumination of Virtual Objects Based on an Environment Estimation in Mixed Reality Applications Book Excerpt:

Visualizations of virtual objects in the real environment is often done by a simplified representation with simple surfaces and without reference to the surrounding environment. The seamless fusion of the virtual and real environment is, however, an essential factor in many areas, which is of particular importance when calculating lighting in mixed realities on mobile devices. Current approaches focus on approximations, which allow the calculation of diffuse lighting, whereby the rendering of glossy reflection properties is often neglected. The aim of this book is to enable the visualization of mirror-like reflective surfaces in mixed reality. In order to achieve this goal, various approaches are explored enabling high-quality visualization of virtual objects in realtime with a focus on the use of common hardware such as cameras, sensors in mobile devices, and partially depth sensors. Complete ambient lighting can be estimated, which enables detailed reflections. The results provide a novel way to embed complex and simple geometric shapes with glossy surfaces in the real world which offers a higher level of detail in the reflections without using additional hardware.

Becoming a Video Game Artist

Becoming a Video Game Artist
Author: John Pearl
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 219
Release: 2016-09-30
ISBN: 1317579593
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Becoming a Video Game Artist Book Excerpt:

The game industry continues to grow and evolve as the years pass. Despite this growth, the competition in obtaining a career in video games remains as arduous as ever. Becoming a Video Game Artist helps guide readers from their first steps of making a portfolio, to acing the job interview and beyond. John Pearl explores the different art related jobs and their responsibilities. Questions are posed to industry professionals throughout each chapter to help with the reader’s growth and understanding. Becoming a Video Game Artist is the ultimate roadmap in navigating a career in video games by teaching how to make your portfolio shine, what expect once hired, and how to make the best decisions to help flourish your talents and cultivate an exciting career.

Unreal Engine 4 for Design Visualization

Unreal Engine 4 for Design Visualization
Author: Tom Shannon
Publsiher: Addison-Wesley Professional
Total Pages: 99998
Release: 2017-07-24
ISBN: 013468074X
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Unreal Engine 4 for Design Visualization Book Excerpt:

The Official, Full-Color Guide to Developing Interactive Visualizations, Animations, and Renderings with Unreal Engine 4 Unreal Engine 4 (UE4) was created to develop video games, but it has gone viral among architecture, science, engineering, and medical visualization communities. UE4’s stunning visual quality, cutting-edge toolset, unbeatable price (free!), and unprecedented ease of use redefines the state of the art and has turned the gaming, film, and visualization industries on their heads. Unreal Engine 4 for Design Visualization delivers the knowledge visualization professionals need to leverage UE4’s immense power. World-class UE4 expert Tom Shannon introduces Unreal Engine 4’s components and technical concepts, mentoring you through the entire process of building outstanding visualization content–all with realistic, carefully documented, step-by-step sample projects. Shannon answers the questions most often asked about UE4 visualization, addressing issues ranging from data import and processing to lighting, advanced materials, and rendering. He reveals important ways in which UE4 works differently from traditional rendering systems, even when it uses similar terminology. Throughout, he writes from the perspective of visualization professionals in architecture, engineering, or science–not gaming. Understand UE4’s components and development environment Master UE4’s pipeline from source data to delivered application Recognize and adapt to the differences between UE4 and traditional visualization and rendering techniques Achieve staggering realism with UE4’s Physically Based Rendering (PBR) Materials, Lighting, and Post-Processing pipelines Create production-ready Materials with the interactive real-time Material Editor Quickly set up projects, import massive datasets, and populate worlds with accurate visualization data Develop bright, warm lighting for architectural visualizations Create pre-rendered animations with Sequencer Use Blueprints Visual Scripting to create complex interactions without writing a single line of code Work with (and around) UE4’s limitations and leveraging its advantages to achieve your vision All UE4 project files and 3ds Max source files, plus additional resources and links, are available at the book's companion website.

Ray Tracing A Tool for All

Ray Tracing  A Tool for All
Author: Jon Peddie
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 358
Release: 2019-08-08
ISBN: 3030174905
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ray Tracing A Tool for All Book Excerpt:

This is the first book to offer a comprehensive overview for anyone wanting to understand the benefits and opportunities of ray tracing, as well as some of the challenges, without having to learn how to program or be an optics scientist. It demystifies ray tracing and brings forward the need and benefit of using ray tracing throughout the development of a film, product, or building — from pitch to prototype to marketing. Ray Tracing and Rendering clarifies the difference between conventional faked rendering and physically correct, photo-realistic ray traced rendering, and explains how programmer’s time, and backend compositing time are saved while producing more accurate representations with 3D models that move. Often considered an esoteric subject the author takes ray tracing out of the confines of the programmer’s lair and shows how all levels of users from concept to construction and sales can benefit without being forced to be a practitioner. It treats both theoretical and practical aspects of the subject as well as giving insights into all the major ray tracing programs and how many of them came about. It will enrich the readers’ understanding of what a difference an accurate high-fidelity image can make to the viewer — our eyes are incredibly sensitive to flaws and distortions and we quickly disregard things that look phony or unreal. Such dismissal by a potential user or customer can spell disaster for a supplier, producer, or developer. If it looks real it will sell, even if it is a fantasy animation. Ray tracing is now within reach of every producer and marketeer, and at prices one can afford, and with production times that meet the demands of today’s fast world.

Beginning PBR Texturing

Beginning PBR Texturing
Author: Abhishek Kumar
Publsiher: Apress
Total Pages: 263
Release: 2020-05-21
ISBN: 9781484258989
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Beginning PBR Texturing Book Excerpt:

Delve into the concepts of physically based rendering (PBR) using Allegorithmic’s Substance Painter. This book covers the integration of PBR textures with various 3D modeling and rendering packages as well as with the Unreal Engine 4 game engine. Beginning PBR Texturing covers all aspects of the software and guides you in implementing its incredible possibilities, including using materials, masks, and baking. Integration with both internal and popular external rendering engines is covered. This book teaches you the skills you need to use the texturing tool that is recognized by studios worldwide. You will know tips and tricks to implement the pipeline and speed up your workflow. What You Will Learn Know the fundamentals of PBR-based texturing from the ground up Create production-ready textured models from scratch Integrate PBR textures with standard 3D modeling and rendering applications Create portfolio-ready renders using offline renderers Who This Book Is For Beginners in the fields of 3D animation, computer graphics, and game technology

Axis aligned Filtering for Interactive Physically based Rendering

Axis aligned Filtering for Interactive Physically based Rendering
Author: Soham Uday Mehta
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 124
Release: 2015
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Axis aligned Filtering for Interactive Physically based Rendering Book Excerpt:

Computer graphics rendering is undergoing a renaissance, with physically-based rendering methods based on accurate Monte-Carlo image synthesis replacing ad-hoc techniques in a variety of applications including movie production. In interactive applications like product visualization or video games, physically-based lighting effects are increasingly popular. However, producing photo-realistic images at interactive speeds still remains a challenge. In Monte-Carlo rendering, a pixel's color is computed by sampling and integrating over a high dimensional space. This includes effects like (1) motion blur, due to objects moving during the time the camera shutter is open; (2) defocus blur, due to camera lens optics; (3) area and environment map lighting, which is direct illumination coming from many directions; (4) global illumination, due to light reflected from one surface to another. The color is sampled through ray- or path-tracing. With insufficient rays, the image looks noisy because the integrand has high variance, and 1000s of rays are needed (per pixel) for a pleasing image. Previous work has showed a Fourier analysis for some of these effects, deriving a compact double-wedge spectrum, and a sheared filter that aligns with the slope of the spectrum. This filter can remove noise from a very sparsely sampled Monte-Carlo image, but is very slow. In this thesis, we will extend the Fourier analysis for more general cases, and propose a less compact axis-aligned filter, that aligns with the frequency axes. The resulting spatial bandwidths are then used for image-space filtering, that is orders of magnitude faster than sheared filtering. The packing of the Fourier spectra also provides adaptive sampling rates that minimize noise in conjunction with the adaptive filter. These algorithms improve speed relative to converged ground-truth by about 30x-60x, and we are able to demonstrate interactive speed with a GPU ray-tracer. We also demonstrate an application of our method to mixed reality with a Kinect camera.