Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology

Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology
Author: Park S. Nobel
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 635
Release: 2012-12-02
ISBN: 032313761X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology Book Excerpt:

This text is the successor volume to Biophysical Plant Physiology and Ecology (W.H. Freeman, 1983). The content has been extensively updated based on the growing quantity and quality of plant research, including cell growth and water relations, membrane channels, mechanisms of active transport, and the bioenergetics of chloroplasts and mitochondria. One-third of the figures are new or modified, over 190 new references are incorporated, the appendixes on constants and conversion factors have doubled the number of entries, and the solutions to problems are given for the first time. Many other changes have emanated from the best laboratory for any book, the classroom. · Covers water relations and ion transport for plant cells; diffusion, chemical potential gradients, solute movement in and out of plant cells · Covers interconnection of various energy forms; light, chlorophyll and accessory photosynthesis pigments, ATP and NADPH · Covers forms in which energy and matter enter and leave a plant; energy budget analysis, water vapor and carbon dioxide, water movement from soil to plant to atmosphere

Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology

Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology
Author: Park S. Nobel
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 604
Release: 2009-05-13
ISBN: 9780080920894
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology Book Excerpt:

Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition, is the updated version of an established and successful reference for plant scientists. The author has taken into consideration extensive reviews performed by colleagues and students who have touted this book as the ultimate reference for research and learning. The original structure and philosophy of the book continue in this new edition, providing a genuine synthesis of modern physicochemical and physiological thinking, while entirely updating the detailed content. This version contains more than 40% new coverage; five brand new equations and four new tables, with updates to 24 equations and six tables; and 30 new figures have been added with more than three-quarters of figures and legends improved. Key concepts in plant physiology are developed with the use of chemistry, physics, and mathematics fundamentals. The book is organized so that a student has easy access to locate any biophysical phenomenon in which he or she is interested. * More than 40% new coverage * Incorporates student-recommended changes from the previous edition * Five brand new equations and four new tables, with updates to 24 equations and six tables * 30 new figures added with more than three-quarters of figures and legends improved * Organized so that a student has easy access to locate any biophysical phenomenon in which he or she is interested * Per-chapter key equation tables * Problems with solutions presented in the back of the book * Appendices with conversion factors, constants/coefficients, abbreviations and symbols

Physicochemical Environmental Plant Physiology

Physicochemical   Environmental Plant Physiology
Author: Park S. Nobel,Professor of Biology and Associate Director of the UCLA-Doe Laboratory Park S Nobel
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 474
Release: 1999
ISBN: 9780125200257
Category: Gardening
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physicochemical Environmental Plant Physiology Book Excerpt:

The functioning of all living systems obeys the laws of physics in fundamental ways. This is true for all physiological processes that occur inside cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. The new edition of Park Nobel's classic text has been revised in an unprecedented fashion, while still remaining user-friendly and clearly presented. Certain to maintain its leading role in teaching general and comparative physiological principles, Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology now establishes a new standard of excellence in teaching advanced physiology.The book covers water relations and ion transport for plant cells, including diffusion, chemical potential gradients, and solute movement in and out of plant cells. It also presents the interconnection of various energy forms, such as light, chlorophyll and accessory photosynthesis pigments, and ATP and NADPH. Additionally, the book describes the forms in which energy and matter enter and leave a plant, for example: energy budget analysis, water vapor and carbon dioxide, and water movement from soil to plant to atmosphere.

Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology

Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology
Author: Erick De La Barrera,William Kirby Smith
Publsiher: UNAM
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2009
ISBN: 0578004216
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology Book Excerpt:

Park S. Nobel pioneered the coupling of cellular physical chemistry with plant physiology, providing a sound physicochemical interpretation of the laws of diffusion to a rapidly expanding field of plant physiological ecology. His classical textbook is the only one of its kind to provide an extensive array of quantitative problems and solutions in the field of plant biophysics and ecophysiology, extending from the molecular to the ecological level. In this festschrift, former graduate students and postdocs, as well as colleagues of Prof. Nobel present a series of reviews that include scales from sub-cellular to global, and topics that range from desert succulent biology to the physiology of alpine plants, encompassing basic research and applications in agronomy and conservation biology. This state-of-the-field survey provides current and useful information for professionals and graduate students, while illustrating the broad span of the influence that Nobel's career has had on modern ecophysiology.

Environmental Plant Physiology

Environmental Plant Physiology
Author: Vir Singh
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 248
Release: 2020-02-13
ISBN: 1000024903
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Plant Physiology Book Excerpt:

Environmental Plant Physiology provides a stupendous knowledge source for undergraduate and graduate students and their teachers in many inter-related disciplines, like life sciences, agricultural sciences, environmental sciences, ecology, and climatology. Further, this book can also be of vital importance for policy makers and organizations dealing with climate related issues and committed to the cause of the Earth. This book can be instrumental in formulating strategies that can lead us to a climate smart planet. Features: Ecological basis of environmental plant physiology. Energy, nutrient, water, temperature, allelochemical and altitude relations of plants. Stress physiology of plants. Climate change effects on plant physiology. Plants’ adaptations to the changing climate. Evolving botanical strategies for a climate smart planet.

Stomata

Stomata
Author: C. Willmer,M. Fricker
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 375
Release: 1996
ISBN: 9780412574306
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stomata Book Excerpt:

The second edition of this popular work provides a comprehensive account of all aspects of stomatal biology. The substantially revised text is thoroughly up to date and well illustrated with numerous line illustrations, photographs and comprehensive tables. The theory of gaseous diffusion through stomata is reviewed in a new chapter and sections on signal perception and transduction, guard cell ionic relations and guard cell metabolism have been added. A concluding chapter reviews the genetics and molecular biology of stomata. This work provides a comprhensive reference text which will appeal to advanced students, post-graduates and lecturers in plant physiology.

Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations

Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations
Author: M.B. Kirkham
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 598
Release: 2014-04-21
ISBN: 0124200788
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations Book Excerpt:

Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations, 2e describes the principles of water relations within soils, followed by the uptake of water and its subsequent movement throughout and from the plant body. This is presented as a progressive series of physical and biological interrelations, even though each topic is treated in detail on its own. The book also describes equipment used to measure water in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. At the end of each chapter is a biography of a scientist whose principles are discussed in the chapter. In addition to new information on the concept of celestial time, this new edition also includes new chapters on methods to determine sap flow in plants dual-probe heat-pulse technique to monitor water in the root zone. Provides the necessary understanding to address advancing problems in water availability for meeting ecological requirements at local, regional and global scales Covers plant anatomy: an essential component to understanding soil and plant water relations

Horticultural Reviews

Horticultural Reviews
Author: Jules Janick
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2010-06-22
ISBN: 0470650796
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Horticultural Reviews Book Excerpt:

Horticultural Reviews presents state-of-the-art reviews on topics in the horticultural sciences. The emphasis is on applied topics including the production of fruits, vegetables, nut crops, and ornamental plants of commercial importance. These articles perform the valuable function of collecting, comparing, and contrasting the primary journal literature in order to form an overview of the topic.

Crops and Environmental Change

Crops and Environmental Change
Author: Jeffrey Amthor,Seth Pritchard
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 421
Release: 2005-02-07
ISBN: 9781560229131
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Crops and Environmental Change Book Excerpt:

Examine important global environmental changes that will affect the future of agriculture! Here is a complete introduction to the influence of global environmental changes on the structure, function, and harvestable yield of major field crops. It gives you an in-depth look at the effects of climate change, air pollution, and soil salinization. The book provides an introduction to the ramifications, both positive and negative, of these ongoing environmental changes for present and future crop production and food supply. Crops and Environmental Change: An Introduction to Effects of Global Warming, Increasing Atmospheric CO2 and O3 Concentrations, and Soil Salinization on Crop Physiology and Yield integrates a discussion of the physiological effects of environmental change with background information on basic topics in plant physiology. Numerous charts, tables, and figures are included to assist in understanding the empirical effects of the environment on crops. Topics addressed in Crops and Environmental Change include: the effects of increasing global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration climatic changes associated with increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases the effects of increasing ozone concentrations in the lower atmosphere across large crop-growing regions soil salinization in areas of irrigated crops the causes and trajectories of ongoing environmental changes the implications of environmental changes on the future of crop production and much more! The information in this book is appropriate for newcomers to the field as well as for seasoned professionals. It is written in language accessible to those new to the area and serves as a good jumping off point for more in-depth study. And since it is organized like a traditional plant physiology textbook, it is appropriate for students in the field. For experienced professionals, it acts as a handy refresher/reference tool on the basics of plant physiology. Crops and Environmental Change is a valuable resource for anyone concerned with the future of agriculture. Make it part of your professional/teaching collection today!

The Evolution of Plant Physiology

The Evolution of Plant Physiology
Author: Alan R. Hemsley,Imogen Poole
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2004-02-05
ISBN: 0080472729
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Evolution of Plant Physiology Book Excerpt:

Coupled with biomechanical data, organic geochemistry and cladistic analyses utilizing abundant genetic data, scientific studies are revealing new facets of how plants have evolved over time. This collection of papers examines these early stages of plant physiology evolution by describing the initial physiological adaptations necessary for survival as upright structures in a dry, terrestrial environment. The Evolution of Plant Physiology also encompasses physiology in its broadest sense to include biochemistry, histology, mechanics, development, growth, reproduction and with an emphasis on the interplay between physiology, development and plant evolution. Contributions from leading neo- and palaeo-botanists from the Linnean Society Focus on how evolution shaped photosynthesis, respiration, reproduction and metabolism. Coverage of the effects of specific evolutionary forces -- variations in water and nutrient availability, grazing pressure, and other environmental variables

Advances in Selected Plant Physiology Aspects

Advances in Selected Plant Physiology Aspects
Author: Giuseppe Montanaro
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2012-04-25
ISBN: 9535105574
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Selected Plant Physiology Aspects Book Excerpt:

The book provides general principles and new insights of some plant physiology aspects covering abiotic stress, plant water relations, mineral nutrition and reproduction. Plant response to reduced water availability and other abiotic stress (e.g. metals) have been analysed through changes in water absorption and transport mechanisms, as well as by molecular and genetic approach. A relatively new aspects of fruit nutrition are presented in order to provide the basis for the improvement of some fruit quality traits. The involvement of hormones, nutritional and proteomic plant profiles together with some structure/function of sexual components have also been addressed. Written by leading scientists from around the world it may serve as source of methods, theories, ideas and tools for students, researchers and experts in that areas of plant physiology.

Introduction to Environmental Physics

Introduction to Environmental Physics
Author: Peter Hughes,N.J. Mason
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2014-04-21
ISBN: 1482273063
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to Environmental Physics Book Excerpt:

The changing climate and its affect on all of us is becoming increasingly apparent - ozone depletion, hurricanes, floods and extreme weather behaviour. Introduction to Environmental Physics challenges the way we think about how and why environmental change occurs. This authoritative book aims to cover some of the more common and popular topics addressed in "physics of the earth", "physics of the environment" and "environmental physics" courses. It provides an essentially non- mathematical treatment suitable for a first year undergraduate level course. The principle topics covered are the physics of the built environment, the physics of human survival, energy for living, environmental health, revealing the planet, the sun and the atmosphere, the biosphere, the global climate and climate change. With contributions from well-respected experts on the subject, this textbook contains a summary, references and questions at the end of each chapter. This is an ideal textbook for first year undergraduates in a variety of courses, particularly physical geography, physics, environmental and earth science, with worked examples illustrating principles and vignettes from scientists who have made a significant contribution to the field enlightening the student along the way. As the authors say in the preface to this book, "At the outset of the 21st century there are many environmental challenges to be wrestled with, and though the environment is changing, the Physics is not!"

Plant Physiology

Plant Physiology
Author: Hans Mohr,Peter Schopfer
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 629
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 3642975704
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plant Physiology Book Excerpt:

In this comprehensive and stimulating text and reference, the authors have succeeded in combining experimental data with current hypotheses and theories to explain the complex physiological functions of plants. For every student, teacher and researcher in the plant sciences it offers a solid basis for an in-depth understanding of the entire subject area, underpinning up-to-date research in plant physiology. The authors vividly explain current research by references to experiments, they cite original literature in figures and tables, and, at the end of each chapter, list recent references that are relevant for a deeper analysis of the topic. In addition, an abundance of detailed and informative illustrations complement the text.

Advances In Plant Physiology Vol 5

Advances In Plant Physiology  Vol  5
Author: A. Hemantaranjan
Publsiher: Scientific Publishers
Total Pages: 547
Release: 2003-07-01
ISBN: 9387913775
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances In Plant Physiology Vol 5 Book Excerpt:

The publication of Volume 5 of the International Treatise Series on Advances in Plant Physiology has been feasible - exclusively and unquestionably due to commendable contributions from World Scientists of distinction in explicit fields. within eight years, the treatise series has been instituted in the spirits and compassion of illustrious readers all through the world. The proficient International and National Co-ordinators have all along unified their views for the expediency of readers assisting them to speed up important research work in the field of Plant and Crop Physiology, Biochemistry & Plant Molecular Biology. in spite of handiness of quick accessibility of vast literature from internet, this treatise series in the field of life sciences has been realized over and above to be like a true guide, friend and philosopher, everlastingly enlightening the most hidden perceptible nerves of an individual worker, which is beyond the competence of mere web services. The volume 8 is absolutely another one of its kinds for incorporation of most timely and important worthy reviews of diverse objectives contributed by forty four well-informed, admirable and documented scientists/ stalwarts, of which twenty three participated from abroad. The original writing coming in bounteous journals of international repute covering new technologies and tools in plant science research have been pulled together in affirmative, prolific and supportive manner by specialists all over the globe. In this volume efforts have been made to fetch together twenty one indispensable review articles, duly evaluated by the respective Consulting Editors of international stature from India, U.K., U.S.A., Argentina, Australia, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Portugal, Israel, and Morocco and rationally distributed in eight sections. Indeed, the treatise is wealth for interdisciplinary exchange of information. Apart from fulfilling need of this kind of exclusive edition in different volumes for research teams in Molecular Plant Physiology and Biochemistry in traditional and agricultural universities, institutes and research laboratories throughout the world, it would be extremely a constructive book and a voluminous reference material for acquiring advanced knowledge by post-graduate and Ph.D. scholars in response to the innovative courses in Plant Physiology, Plant Biochemistry, Plant Molecular Biology, Plant Biotechnology, Environmental Sciences, Plant Pathology, Microbiology, Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Agronomy, Horticulture, and Botany.

Plant Physiological Ecology

Plant Physiological Ecology
Author: Hans Lambers,F Stuart Chapin III,Thijs L. Pons
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 605
Release: 2008-10-08
ISBN: 9780387783413
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plant Physiological Ecology Book Excerpt:

Box 9E. 1 Continued FIGURE 2. The C–S–R triangle model (Grime 1979). The strategies at the three corners are C, competiti- winning species; S, stress-tolerating s- cies; R,ruderalspecies. Particular species can engage in any mixture of these three primary strategies, and the m- ture is described by their position within the triangle. comment briefly on some other dimensions that Grime’s (1977) triangle (Fig. 2) (see also Sects. 6. 1 are not yet so well understood. and 6. 3 of Chapter 7 on growth and allocation) is a two-dimensional scheme. A C—S axis (Com- tition-winning species to Stress-tolerating spe- Leaf Economics Spectrum cies) reflects adaptation to favorable vs. unfavorable sites for plant growth, and an R- Five traits that are coordinated across species are axis (Ruderal species) reflects adaptation to leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf life-span, leaf N disturbance. concentration, and potential photosynthesis and dark respiration on a mass basis. In the five-trait Trait-Dimensions space,79%ofallvariation worldwideliesalonga single main axis (Fig. 33 of Chapter 2A on photo- A recent trend in plant strategy thinking has synthesis; Wright et al. 2004). Species with low been trait-dimensions, that is, spectra of varia- LMA tend to have short leaf life-spans, high leaf tion with respect to measurable traits. Compared nutrient concentrations, and high potential rates of mass-based photosynthesis. These species with category schemes, such as Raunkiaer’s, trait occur at the ‘‘quick-return’’ end of the leaf e- dimensions have the merit of capturing cont- nomics spectrum.

Principles of Environmental Physics

Principles of Environmental Physics
Author: John Monteith,Mike Unsworth
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2007-10-25
ISBN: 9780080924793
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Principles of Environmental Physics Book Excerpt:

Environmental Physics concerns the description and analysis of physical processes that establish the conditions in which all species of life survive and reproduce. The subject involves a synthesis of mathematical relations that describe the physical nature of the environment and the many biological responses that environments evoke. Environmental Physics provides a basis for understanding the complex responses of plants and animals to environmental change. International concern with climate change has made both politicans and the general public much more aware of the impact of local and global weather on all aspects of domestic life, industry and commerce. Environmental Physics has become more widely used by biologists, atmospheric scientists and climate modellers to specify interations between surfaces and the atmosphere. This new edition contains further material on causes of global warming, applications of remote sensing, and the carbon and water cycles of crops and forests. * Presents a unique synthesis of micrometeorology and ecology in its widest sense. * Deals quantitatively with the impact of weather on living systems but also with the interactions between them that are a central feature of life on earth * Includes an up-to-date bibliography and review of recent micrometeorological applications in forestry, ecology, hydrology and agriculture * Includes numerical problems and worked examples

Plants and Microclimate

Plants and Microclimate
Author: Hamlyn G. Jones
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2013-12-12
ISBN: 1107511631
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plants and Microclimate Book Excerpt:

This rigorous yet accessible text introduces the key physical and biochemical processes involved in plant interactions with the aerial environment. It is designed to make the more numerical aspects of the subject accessible to plant and environmental science students, and will also provide a valuable reference source to practitioners and researchers in the field. The third edition of this widely recognised text has been completely revised and updated to take account of key developments in the field. Approximately half of the references are new to this edition and relevant online resources are also incorporated for the first time. The recent proliferation of molecular and genetic research on plants is related to whole plant responses, showing how these new approaches can advance our understanding of the biophysical interactions between plants and the atmosphere. Remote sensing technologies and their applications in the study of plant function are also covered in greater detail.

Metabolic Adaptations in Plants During Abiotic Stress

Metabolic Adaptations in Plants During Abiotic Stress
Author: Akula Ramakrishna,Sarvajeet Singh Gill
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 420
Release: 2018-12-07
ISBN: 1351676822
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Metabolic Adaptations in Plants During Abiotic Stress Book Excerpt:

Key features: Serves as a cutting-edge resource for researchers and students who are studying plant abiotic stress tolerance and crop improvement through metabolic adaptations Presents the latest trends and developments in the field of metabolic engineering and abiotic stress tolerance Addresses the adaptation of plants to climatic changes Gives special attention to emerging topics such as the role of secondary metabolites, small RNA mediated regulation and signaling molecule responses to stresses Provides extensive references that serve as entry points for further research Metabolic Adaptations in Plants during Abiotic Stress covers a topic of past, present and future interest for both scientists and policy makers as the global challenge of climate change is addressed. Understanding the mechanisms of plant adaptation to environmental stresses can provide the necessary tools needed to take action to protect them, and hence ourselves. This book brings together recent findings about metabolic adaptations during abiotic stress and in diverse areas of plant adaptation. It covers not only the published results, but also introduces new concepts and findings to offer original views on the perspectives and challenges in this field.

Advances in Botanical Research

Advances in Botanical Research
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 328
Release: 1996-02-26
ISBN: 9780080561769
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Botanical Research Book Excerpt:

Harmonious, integrated functioning of the whole plant system requires that its various cells, tissues and organs should be able to communicate with each other, transferring a range of information on environmental conditions, physiological and microbial stresses etc. In this volume of Advances in Botanical Research incorporating Advances in Plant Pathology three articles are concerned with different aspects of plant signalling. McDonald and Davis consider how shoot systems respond to drying and N-deficient soil, in terms of their stomatal behaviour and growth, via the transmission of root-derived chemical signals. Malone considers the major hypotheses that have been proposed with particular attention being given to hydraulic pressure signals and the hydraulic dispersal of chemical signals. At a different, intracellular level of communication, a wide variety of second messengers couple extracellular stimuli to a characteristic physiological response. Webb et al. Consider progress made in establishing similar roles for calcium in plant signalling in the context of the mammalian paradigms. The effects of UV-B radiation on plants have been extensively investigated in recent years. Jordan considers progress in understanding the chain of events from perception of UV-B to signal transduction and consequent changes in gene expression and regulation. Smith and Smith assess the various hypotheses erected over the years to explain structure and function of the host-parasite interface formed by vesticular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas, an important and widespread mutualistic symbioses of a wide range of higher and some lower plants.

Boreal Forest and Climate Change

Boreal Forest and Climate Change
Author: Pertti Hari,Liisa Kulmala
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 582
Release: 2008-09-24
ISBN: 1402087187
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Boreal Forest and Climate Change Book Excerpt:

The Forest Primary Production Research Group was born in the Department of S- viculture, University of Helsinki in the early 1970s. Intensive ?eld measurements of photosynthesis and growth of forest vegetation and use of dynamic models in the interpretation of the results were characteristic of the research in the group. Electric instrumentation was based on analogue techniques and the analysis of the obtained measurements was based on self-written programs. Joint research projects with the Research Group of Environmental Physics at the Department of Physics, lead by Taisto Raunemaa (1939–2006) started in the late 1970s. The two research groups shared the same quantitative methodology, which made the co-operation fruitful. Since 1980 until the collapse of the Soviet Union the Academy of Finland and the Soviet Academy of Sciences had a co-operation program which included our team. The research groups in Tartu, Estonia, lead by Juhan Ross (1925–2002) and in Petrozawodsk, lead by Leo Kaipiainen (1932–2004) were involved on the Soviet side. We had annual ?eld measuring campaigns in Finland and in Soviet Union and research seminars. The main emphasis was on developing forest growth models. The research of Chernobyl fallout started a new era in the co-operation between forest ecologists and physicists in Helsinki. The importance of material ?uxes was realized and introduced explicitly in the theoretical thinking and measurements.