Physiology And Biochemistry Of Sterols

Author by : Glenn W. Patterson
Languange : en
Publisher by : The American Oil Chemists Society
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The Effects Of Sterols On Drosophila Melanogaster

Author by : Angela M. Martin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : Sterols are essential components of cellular membranes and are required precursors for important hormones regulating growth and development. Unlike most animals, insects lack the ability to synthesize sterols de novo and they must acquire sterols from their food. Cholesterol is the typical sterol recovered from animals, including most insects. Plant and fungal sterols differ structurally from cholesterol, mostly in side chain configuration and the number and position of double bonds. In the lab, Drosophila are reared on diets that contain 4 different sterols -- cholesterol (animal sterol), sitosterol and stigmasterol (plant sterols), plus ergosterol (fungal sterol); ergosterol comprises nearly 75% of the dietary sterol content. Like vertebrates, Drosophila requires cholesterol for membrane structure and hormone production. However, their inability to synthesize sterols de novo makes them a model organism to study sterol use and metabolism. Two experiments were performed. First, using a recently developed holidic diet, larvae were individually reared (from hatch) on each of the 4 different sterols in standard Drosophila diet, each at a range of different concentrations. When individual sterols are incorporated at different concentrations into a holidic diet, performance and overall survival are significantly affected. Individuals reared on cholesterol only diets exhibited significantly faster developmental times to pupation and also to eclosion from pupation; additionally, overall survival to pupation and eclosion was significantly increased compared to sitosterol, stigmasterol, and ergosterol. In the absence of sterols, individuals arrested development. As an individual sterol ergosterol minimally supported adult survival at low concentrations and failed to support survival at high concentrations. Next, the extent to which sparing occurs in Drosophila melanogaster was examined using different cholesterol and ergosterol ratios in the diet. When ergosterol was supplemented with cholesterol in different ratios, survival was dramatically improved and in some instances exceeded that of only cholesterol. Survival to pupation was significantly reduced as the ratio of cholesterol increased. Collectively the results show that slight variations in sterol structure have pronounced effects on Drosophila growth and development, and that a small amount of dietary cholesterol, likely for metabolic purposes, is required. The electronic version of this dissertation is accessible from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/155605.


Effects Of Sterol Structure On Insect Herbivore Physiology Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

Author by : Xiangfeng Jing
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : Sterols serve two important biological functions in animals - they act as cellular membrane components, and as the precursor to steroid hormones. Insects require a dietary source of sterol because they cannot synthesize sterols de novo. Cholesterol is the most common sterol in plant-feeding insects, but because plants contain very little cholesterol, plant-feeding insects must convert plant sterols into cholesterol. In this dissertation I investigate the effect of common and novel plant sterols and steroids found in a transgenic tobacco line on several caterpillar species. I also explore the metabolism of these sterols and steroids, and use a microarray approach to identify genes involved in sterol use and metabolism in plant-feeding insects. I also study cholesterol homeostasis using a grasshopper species. Modified tobacco plants containing a novel sterol profile negatively affected performance three different caterpillar species, especially in the second generation. Insects reared on modified plants contained less total sterols and cholesterol than those on control plants having normal sterol profile. Similar results were found using artificial diets containing atypical steroids, e.g., cholestanol and cholestan-3-one, identified in the tobacco plants that were fed to my experimental caterpillars. More importantly, the sterol/steroid ratio, but not their absolute amount in the diets, determined the negative effects. Caterpillar species could convert stigmasterol, a common plant sterol, into cholesterol. They could also convert cholestan-3-one into cholestanol and epicholestanol, although this ability varied among different species. A microarray study, that focused on gene expression in midgut tissue, indicated that stigmasterol, cholestanol and cholestan-3-one could induce different gene expression level, and that cholestan-3-one caused a the largest pool of genes to be regulated. The genes possibly involved in the metabolism of stigmasterol and cholestan-3-one were reported. These findings are important in directing further research on the potential application of plant sterol modification to control pests in agricultural systems. Insect herbivores could behaviorally regulate the intake of several nutrients, but they could not regulate their sterol intake. They did, however, practice cholesterol homeostasis, by postingestively regulating tissue sterol levels, even when feeding on diets with high cholesterol content. Collectively, the results from this dissertation provide unique insight into cholesterol regulation, which is difficult to achieve in mammals that are capable of synthesizing their own sterols.


Cholesterol

Author by : Robert P. Cook
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : Cholesterol: Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Pathology focuses on the properties, characteristics, compositions, and reactions of cholesterol. The selection first offers information on the history of cholesterol, including occurrence of cholesterol, early chemistry, related compounds, and analytical methods. The text then surveys the chemistry of cholesterol; methods of isolation and estimation of sterols; and distribution of sterols in organisms and in tissues. Discussions focus on quantitative determination of sterols, isolation procedures, distribution in animal tissues, sterols in plants, and sterol content of foodstuffs. The publication ponders on the physiology of the circulating cholesterol and lipoproteins and the biosynthesis of cholesterol. The manuscript then takes a look at the metabolism of cholesterol and other sterols in animal organisms; conversion of cholesterol to steroid hormones; microscopical localization of cholesterol in cells and tissues; and pathological manifestations of abnormal cholesterol metabolism. The selection is a valuable reference for readers interested in the properties and reactions of cholesterol.


Analysis Of Sterols

Author by : J. Goad
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information on it Samuel Johnson, 18 April, 1775* Sterols are among the most studied groups of natural products with interest commencing in the 19th century and running to the present. Investigations have embraced the refinement of separation procedures, the development of new analytical techniques and instrumentation for structure elucidation, the unravelling of biosynthetic mechanisms, the determination of the physiological functions of sterols, and the role they play in health and disease. In the past 20-30 years interest in the medical implications of sterol biochemistry, studies on the sterols of plants, algae and fungi, and the identification of the many unusual sterols from marine organisms have proceeded in parallel and somewhat independently. Although the motiva tion and goals for the various lines of investigation have differed widely the researchers working in each of these areas have contributed a wealth of knowledge to the literature relating to the analysis of sterols and many diverse new sterols have been discovered. We conceived this book as a modest attempt to bring together some of this literature in the hope that it may be helpful to newcomers to sterol research. We had originally intended to produce a 'handbook' outlining in detail the protocols to be followed for sterol extraction, chromatography, NMR analysis, etc. in order to identify the components of a sterol mixture.


Lipids In Aquatic Ecosystems

Author by : Michael T. Arts
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : Evidence now suggests that the roles of essential fatty acids as growth promoters and as indices of health and nutrition are fundamentally similar in freshwater and marine ecosystems. Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems integrates this divergent literature into a coordinated, digestible form. Chapters are organized so as to discuss and synthesize the flow of lipids from lower to higher trophic levels, up to and including humans. Linkages between the production, distribution and pathways of these essential compounds within the various levels of the aquatic food webs, and their ultimate uptake by humans and other terrestrial organisms, are highlighted throughout the book. This book will be of interest to researchers and resource managers working with aquatic ecosystems.


Physiology Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Of Plant Lipids

Author by : John Peter Williams
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : The 12th International Symposium on Plant Lipids was held at the University of Toronto, Canada, from July 7th to 12th, 1996. The conference was attended by over 200 scientists from university, government and corporate laboratories from 24 different countries. The topics covered in the symposium ranged from basic physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology of plant lipids to transformation and genetic engineering of crop plants. Oil seed plants were a particular focus of the symposium. There were 62 oral and 96 posters presentations. A special lecture in memory of the founder of this series of symposium, Terry Galliard, was presented by John Shanklin. This Proceedings Book has been dedicated to Grattan Roughan for his important contributions to our knowledge of plant lipid metabolism. This volume contains manuscripts submitted from most of the presentations at the symposium. It provides a useful summary of the major fields of plant lipid studies and our present state of knowledge. The papers are arranged in eight sections covering the major areas in the field of plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology of plant lipids. We would like to thank Valerie Imperial, Rajesh Khetarpal and Mary Williams for their invaluable help in organizing and running the meetings and excursions. John P. Williams, Mobashsher U. Khan and Nora W. Lem Toronto, Canada, October 1996 xvii DEDICATION This volume is dedicated to Grattan Roughan.


Insect Physiology And Biochemistry

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
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Description : Expanded and updated, this second edition of a bestselling book challenges conventional entomological wisdom with the latest research and analytical interpretations. Encouraging independent evaluation of the data and allowing for the extrapolation of major concepts across species, this indispensable text establishes a thorough understanding of the


Algal Physiology And Biochemistry

Author by : William Duncan Patterson Stewart
Languange : en
Publisher by : Univ of California Press
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The Bile Acids Chemistry Physiology And Metabolism

Author by : P. Nair
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : The bile acids as principal end products of cholesterol metabolism occupy a focal position in our understanding of the role of steroids in bio logical systems. The biogenesis of bile acids from cholesterol in higher ani mals, and their functions in regulating sterol metabolism and in gastrointestinal physiology have been elucidated by the development of elegant methodo logical approaches during the last two decades. The molecular pleomorphism exhibited by the bile acids and bile alcohols in the animal kingdom is a classic example of their role in biochemical evolution. The total story of the bile acids, their chemistry, their role in normal and abnormal physiological processes, and their significance in biochemical evolution has never been available in the form of a comprehensive treatise written in the words of those who have contributed to the development of our knowledge in this area. The Bile Acids, in two volumes, will serve to fill this void, and will also bring together information which will prove in valuable to both the biochemist and the medical scientist. We wish to thank Mrs. Sally Wiseman and Mrs. Lillian Haas for their invaluable assistance with the editing of the manuscripts. This work was supported in part by grants AM-02131, General Research Support SS0-1- FR-05479 (P.P.N.), HE-03299, HE-05209, and a National Heart Institute Research Career Award (D.K. ), K6-HE-734, from the National Institutes of Health, United States Public Health Service. P.P.N. Baltimore, Maryland D.K.


The Biochemistry And Physiology Of Tetrahymena

Author by : Donald G. Hill
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : The Biochemistry and Physiology of Tetrahymena presents a review of the literature covering the physiology and biochemistry of the ciliate genus Tetrahymena, of which Tetrahymena pyriformis is the most studied species. Organized into 10 parts, this book first provides basic information about Tetrahymena, which is found in almost any body of water and is so unusual that one can debate quite rationally as to whether it is an animal or a plant. Other chapters are restricted to specific subjects about this organism, namely, carbohydrate, lipid, energy, protein, amino acid, purine, pyrimidine, and nucleic acid metabolism. The organism’s biochemical genetics, vitamin and inorganic requirements, and evolution are also shown. This book also explores the effect of radiation, drugs, and hydrostatic pressure on Tetrahymena. The documented information presented in this book will be sufficient to stimulate even more interest in the organism.


Biochemistry

Author by : G. A. Kerkut
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : The underlying theme of this volume is the understanding of the molecules and processes important in the primary metabolism of insects. The 19 chapters provide both rich historical perspectives and timely reviews of current research, as well as showing the extent of progress to be expected in the near future, including the application of advanced techniques now used for the study of microbial and mammalian processes. The major themes of metabolism, proteins and nucleic acids, and biochemical events in the nervous system each have several chapters devoted to them, but specific topics such as pigments, toxins, and aging are also covered in detail. This extensive volume is therefore an invaluable source of information not only for entomologists but also for all scientists whose work involves insect biochemistry, including zoologists, biochemists, and molecular biologists and geneticists.


Analysis Of Sterols

Author by : J. Goad
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 49
Total Download : 209
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Description : Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information on it Samuel Johnson, 18 April, 1775* Sterols are among the most studied groups of natural products with interest commencing in the 19th century and running to the present. Investigations have embraced the refinement of separation procedures, the development of new analytical techniques and instrumentation for structure elucidation, the unravelling of biosynthetic mechanisms, the determination of the physiological functions of sterols, and the role they play in health and disease. In the past 20-30 years interest in the medical implications of sterol biochemistry, studies on the sterols of plants, algae and fungi, and the identification of the many unusual sterols from marine organisms have proceeded in parallel and somewhat independently. Although the motiva tion and goals for the various lines of investigation have differed widely the researchers working in each of these areas have contributed a wealth of knowledge to the literature relating to the analysis of sterols and many diverse new sterols have been discovered. We conceived this book as a modest attempt to bring together some of this literature in the hope that it may be helpful to newcomers to sterol research. We had originally intended to produce a 'handbook' outlining in detail the protocols to be followed for sterol extraction, chromatography, NMR analysis, etc. in order to identify the components of a sterol mixture.


Biochemistry And Physiology Of Protozoa

Author by : M Levendowsky
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa, Second Edition, Volume 1 is organized into 13 chapters, beginning with a discussion on fine structure and phytogeny of phytoflagellates. This book discusses the structural features of protozoan cytochromes. Subsequent chapters explain sterol and carotenoid distributions in various groups, phycobiliproteins in cryptomonads, halotolerance in Dunaliella, physiology of coccolithophorids, the ameboflagellates, and bioluminescence of phytoflagellates. This edition also describes the most severe and best known of the toxins, saxitoxin, produced by species of Gonyaulax. Lastly, the physiological ecology of red tide flagellates is explained.


Sterols And Related Compounds

Author by : Ernst Joseph Friedmann
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Annual Plant Reviews Biochemistry Of Plant Secondary Metabolism

Author by : Michael Wink
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Description : This brand new Annual Plant Reviews volume is the second edition of the highly successful and well-received Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 2. This exciting new volume provides an up-to-date survey of the biochemistry and physiology of plant secondary metabolism. The volume commences with an overview of the biochemistry, physiology and function of secondary metabolism, followed by detailed reviews of the major groups of secondary metabolites: alkaloids and betalains, cyanogenic glucosides, glucosinolates and nonprotein amino acids, phenyl propanoids and related phenolics, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and saponins. A final chapter discusses the evolution of secondary metabolism. This carefully compiled new edition brings together chapters from some of the world's leading experts in plant secondary metabolism. Completely revised and brought right up to date with much new information, this volume is an essential purchase for advanced students, researchers and professionals in biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, genetics, plant sciences, agriculture, medicine, pharmacology and pharmacy, working in the academic and industrial sectors, including those working in the pesticide and pharmaceutical industries. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where these subjects are studied and taught will need copies of this excellent volume on their shelves. A companion volume Annual Plant Reviews Volume 39, Functions and Biotechnology of Plant Secondary Metabolites, Second Edition, Edited by M. Wink, is also available.


The Physiology Of Microalgae

Author by : Michael A. Borowitzka
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Description : This book covers the state-of-the-art of microalgae physiology and biochemistry (and the several –omics). It serves as a key reference work for those working with microalgae, whether in the lab, the field, or for commercial applications. It is aimed at new entrants into the field (i.e. PhD students) as well as experienced practitioners. It has been over 40 years since the publication of a book on algal physiology. Apart from reviews and chapters no other comprehensive book on this topic has been published. Research on microalgae has expanded enormously since then, as has the commercial exploitation of microalgae. This volume thoroughly deals with the most critical physiological and biochemical processes governing algal growth and production.


Comprehensive Insect Physiology Biochemistry And Pharmacology

Author by : Gerald A. Kerkut
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 19
Total Download : 179
File Size : 51,5 Mb
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Description : The underlying theme of this volume is the understanding of the molecules and processes important in the primary metabolism of insects. The 19 chapters provide both rich historical perspectives and timely reviews of current research, as well as showing the extent of progress to be expected in the near future, including the application of advanced techniques now used for the study of microbial and mammalian processes. The major themes of metabolism, proteins and nucleic acids, and biochemical events in the nervous system each have several chapters devoted to them, but specific topics such as pigments, toxins, and aging are also covered in detail. This extensive volume is therefore an invaluable source of information not only for entomologists but also for all scientists whose work involves insect biochemistry, including zoologists, biochemists, and molecular biologists and geneticists.


Introduction To Plant Physiology

Author by : William G. Hopkins
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
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Description : Cells, tissues, and organs: the architecture of plants; The plant cell building blocks: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates; Lipids are a class of molecules that includes fats, oils, sterols, and pigments; Proteins playa central role in the biochemistry of cells and are responsible for virtually all the properties of life as we know it; Carbohydrates are the most abundant class of biological molecules; Biological membranes; The membrane lipid forms a bilayer, a highly fluid but very stable structure; Membranes contain significantamounts of protein; Cellular organelles; Most mature plant cells contain a large, central vacuole; The nucleus is the information center of the cell; The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus are centers of membrane biosynthesis and secretory activities; The mitochondrion is the principal site of cellular respiration; Plastids are a family of organelles with a variety of functions; Microbodies are metabolically very active; Cytoskeleton the extracellular matrix; The primary cell wall is a flexible n etwork of cellulose microfibrils and cross-linking glycans; The cellulose-glycan lattice is embedded in a matrix of pectin and protein; Cellulose microfibrils are assembled at the plasma membrane as they are extruded into the cell wall; The secondary cell wall is deposited on the inside of the primary wall in maturing cells; Plasmadesmata are cytoplasmic channels extend through the wall to connect the protoplasts of adjacent cells; Tissues and organs; Tissues are groups of cells that form organized, functional unit; Meristems are regions of perpetually dividing cells; Parenchyma is the most abundant living tissue in plants; Supporting tissues are distributed throughout the primary and secondary plant bodies; Vascular tissues are the principal conducting tissues for water and nutrients ; Epidermis is a superficial tissue that f orms a continuous layer over the surface of the primary; Plant body; Plant organs; Roots anchor the plant and absorb water and minerais from the soil.


Lipids And Lipid Polymers In Higher Plants

Author by : M. Tevini
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : This book contains a number of papers dealing with the main topics of a Symposium on "Lipids and Lipid Polymers in Higher Plants", held in July 1976 at the Botanical Institute of the University of Karlsruhe. The symposium was organized by Professors E. Heinz, H.K. Lichtenthaler, H.K. Mangold, and M. Tevini. The sponsorship by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Erwin-Riesch-Stiftung is gratefully acknowledged. The intention of the Symposium was to bring together in one place scientists working in very different fields of plant lipids, such as fatty acids, glycolipids, phospholipids, prenyllipids, sterols, and lipid polymers. The emphasis was placed on biosynthesis, distribution, function, and physiology of the various higher plant lipids and their role in biomembranes and epidermal cell walls. By combining the major contributions in this book, we hope to give all plant scientists access to the recent developments in biochemistry and physiology of plant lipid metabolism. The editors are very grateful to the contributors, who have taken great care to present up-to-date reviews. Karlsruhe, May 1977 M. TEVINI H.K. LICHTENTHALER Contents Section 1. Function, Organization and Lipid Composition of Biomembranes Chapter 1. Functional Organization of Biomembranes P. SITTE (With 15 Figures) A. Introduction. . . . . 1 B. Membrane Functions . 2 I. Membrane Diversity 2 II. Membranes as Barriers 4 III. Lipids and Permeability . 5 IV. Specific Transport . . . 8 V. Membrane Flow and Membrane Families 9 VI. General Principles of Cellular Compartmentation 10 C. Membrane Biogenesis. . . . . . . . . . . . .


Fungal Lipid Biochemistry

Author by : John Weete
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : With the development of highly sophisticated analytical techniques and instrumentation during the past 15-20 years, progress in the field of lipid biochemistry has been greatly accelerated. Within this period, there has been an increasing volume of information concerning the distribution and metabolism of lipids in animals and, more recently, in plants. The fungi have played an important role in studies concerning the biochemistry of lipids and, in this text, they are treated separately from the photosynthetic plants. This book is concerned with distribution and bio chemistry of lipids in fungi. The text is divided into three sections, beginning with an introduction to fungallipids which includes total lipid abundances in fungal cells and cell fractions and cultural conditions influencing lipid production. In the second section, each chapter deals with the distribution andjor metabolism of a single lipid class as it occurs in fungi. Comparisons with plants and animals are also included. Six major lipid classes are covered which include the aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, sterols, triacylglycerols, glycerophosphatides, and sphingolipids. The third section contains two chapters concerned with the physiology and ultrastructure of fungal spore formation and germination with particular emphasis on lipids. Although this book is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the literature, the information presented is compiled from over 1000 articles, most of which were published during the past 10-12 years.


Phytosterols As Functional Food Components And Nutraceuticals

Author by : Paresh C. Dutta
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
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Description : Analyses food and biological samples of phytosterols and discusses plant sterol analysis with respect to functional foods. Investigates the safety of phytosterols and phytosterol esters and associated health risks, including potential impact on cancer development and the lowering of cholesterol levels. Details the chemistry, occurrence, and biological effects of phytosterol oxides.


Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking

Author by : T.Y. Chang
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE FOR INTRACELLULAR CHOLESTEROL TRAFFICKING This volume is an elaboration of an earlier small meeting held in St. Louis, Missouri. In April 1997, many of the authors met for a two-day meeting devoted entirely to intracellular cholesterol trafficking. The rationale for this meeting was that investigators interested in this topic worked in a variety of fields, and rarely, if ever, all met together. Everybody knew each other's papers but mostly worked in isolation from one another. Understanding of cholesterol trafficking also appeared to have reached the point where it would start to rapidly expand beyond these few laboratories. Understanding of cholesterol trafficking was moving from a largely descriptive science into the molecular age. It seemed a good time to get together and see how much we agreed upon up to this point. More authors contributed to this volume than attended the St. Louis meeting. That meeting was generously funded by grants from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck and Company and Parke-Davis, however, the total funding available limited the size of the meeting. For the book, we are not so limited and have tried to be as inclusive as possible and pretty much invited everyone who is presently active in this area. We were quite fortunate to successfully recruit the authors we sought for each of these chapters. The authors and their contributions can be organized by particular interests and particular areas of expertise.


High Performance Liquid Chromatography In Phytochemical Analysis

Author by : Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
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Description : The powerful, efficient technique of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is essential to the standardization of plant-based drugs, identification of plant material, and creation of new herbal medicines. Filling the void in this critical area, High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Phytochemical Analysis is the first book to give a comp