Planning of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems Electric Vehicles and Microgrid

Planning of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems  Electric Vehicles and Microgrid
Author: Aashish Kumar Bohre
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN: 9811909792
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Planning of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems Electric Vehicles and Microgrid Book Excerpt:

Planning of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems Electric Vehicles and Microgrid

Planning of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems  Electric Vehicles and Microgrid
Author: Aashish Kumar Bohre,Pradyumn Chaturvedi,Mohan Lal Kolhe,Sri Niwas Singh
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 1009
Release: 2022-05-22
ISBN: 9789811909788
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Planning of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems Electric Vehicles and Microgrid Book Excerpt:

This book focuses on various challenges, solutions, and emerging technologies in the operation, control, design, optimization, and protection of microgrids in the presence of hybrid renewable energy sources and electric vehicles. This book provides an insight into the potential applications and recent development of different types of renewable energy systems including AC/DC microgrids, RES integration issues with the grid, electric vehicle technology, etc. The book serves as an interdisciplinary platform for the audience working in the focused area to access information related to energy management, modeling, and control. It covers fundamental knowledge, design, mathematical modeling, applications, and practical issues with sufficient design problems and case studies with detailed planning aspects. This book will serve as a guide for researchers, academicians, practicing engineers, professionals, and scientists, as well as for graduate and postgraduate students working in the area of various applications of RES, Electric Vehicles, and AC/DC Microgrid.

Energy Storage in Energy Markets

Energy Storage in Energy Markets
Author: Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo,Amin Mohammadpour Shotorbani,Amjad Anvari-Moghaddam
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 490
Release: 2021-04-30
ISBN: 0128203838
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Storage in Energy Markets Book Excerpt:

Energy Storage in Energy Markets reviews the modeling, design, analysis, optimization and impact of energy storage systems in energy markets in a way that is ideal for an audience of researchers and practitioners. The book provides deep insights on potential benefits and revenues, economic evaluation, investment challenges, risk analysis, technical requirements, and the impacts of energy storage integration. Heavily referenced and easily accessible to policymakers, developers, engineer, researchers and students alike, this comprehensive resource aims to fill the gap in the role of energy storage in pool/local energy/ancillary service markets and other multi-market commerce. Chapters elaborate on energy market fundamentals, operations, energy storage fundamentals, components, and the role and impact of storage systems on energy systems from different aspects, such as environmental, technical and economics, the role of storage devices in uncertainty handling in energy systems and their contributions in resiliency and reliability improvement. Provides integrated techno-economic analysis of energy storage systems and the energy markets Reviews impacts of electric vehicles as moving energy storage and loads on the electricity market Analyzes the role and impact of energy storage systems in the energy, ancillary, reserve and regulatory multi-market business Applies advanced methods to the economic integration of large-scale energy storage systems Develops an evaluation framework for energy market storage systems

Integration of Electric Vehicles and Battery Storage Systems

Integration of Electric Vehicles and Battery Storage Systems
Author: Hrvoje Pandžić
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 238
Release: 2021-04-22
ISBN: 3036501789
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Integration of Electric Vehicles and Battery Storage Systems Book Excerpt:

Achieving the goal of green and environmentally friendly energy systems is not possible without the concept of energy storage. Such storage should charge when renewable generation, e.g., photovoltaics and wind farms, is abundant and discharge during periods of its scarcity. Although pumped hydropower plants have been widely used as extremely large capacity energy storage, the recent technological developments in lithium-based batteries have made them economically feasible. The major advantages of batteries over a conventional energy storage system, i.e., hydropower, include its modularity and ease of integration with the transport system. This Special Issue is thus focused on both stationary batteries and mobile batteries in electric vehicles. Both should be used to provide flexibility and balancing services to power systems. While stationary batteries are focused solely on the power system, the batteries within electric vehicles need to primarily fulfill the task of providing energy for transportation. This is why their use in power systems is secondary. However, due to generally long parking periods, they can become a detrimental asset in terms of balancing the power system.

Electric Vehicles in Energy Systems

Electric Vehicles in Energy Systems
Author: Ali Ahmadian,Behnam Mohammadi-ivatloo,Ali Elkamel
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 392
Release: 2020-01-20
ISBN: 3030344487
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electric Vehicles in Energy Systems Book Excerpt:

This book discusses the technical, economic, and environmental aspects of electric vehicles and their impact on electrical grids and energy systems. The book is divided into three parts that include load modeling, integration and optimization, and environmental evaluation. Theoretical background and practical examples accompany each section and the authors include helpful tips and hints in the load modeling and optimization sections. This book is intended to be a useful tool for undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and engineers who are trying to solve power and engineering problems related electric vehicles. Provides optimization techniques and their applications for energy systems; Discusses the economic and environmental perspectives of electric vehicles; Contains the most comprehensive information about electric vehicles in a single source.

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems in Microgrids

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems in Microgrids
Author: Hina Fathima,Prabaharan N,Palanisamy K,Akhtar Kalam,Saad Mekhilef,Jackson J. Justo
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 268
Release: 2018-06-02
ISBN: 0081024940
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems in Microgrids Book Excerpt:

Hybrid-Renewable Energy Systems in Microgrids: Integration, Developments and Control presents the most up-to-date research and developments on hybrid-renewable energy systems (HRES) in a single, comprehensive resource. With an enriched collection of topics pertaining to the control and management of hybrid renewable systems, this book presents recent innovations that are molding the future of power systems and their developing infrastructure. Topics of note include distinct integration solutions and control techniques being implemented into HRES that are illustrated through the analysis of various global case studies. With a focus on devices and methods to integrate different renewables, this book provides those researching and working in renewable energy solutions and power electronics with a firm understanding of the technologies available, converter and multi-level inverter considerations, and control and operation strategies. Includes significant case studies of control techniques and integration solutions which provide a deeper level of understanding and knowledge Combines existing research into a single informative resource on micro grids with HRES integration and control Includes architectural considerations and various control strategies for the operation of hybrid systems

Some Aspects of Microgrid Planning and Optimal Distribution Operation in the Presence of Electric Vehicles

Some Aspects of Microgrid Planning and Optimal Distribution Operation in the Presence of Electric Vehicles
Author: Omar Hafez
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 83
Release: 2011
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Some Aspects of Microgrid Planning and Optimal Distribution Operation in the Presence of Electric Vehicles Book Excerpt:

Increase in energy demand is one of the major challenges that utilities are faced with, thus resulting in an increase in environmental pollution and global warming. The transport sector has a significant share of the energy demand and is a major contribution of emissions to the environment. In Canada, almost 35% of the total energy demand is from the transport sector and it is the second largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The government of Ontario has aimed to move toward a green energy economy, thus resulting in increased penetration of renewable energy sources as well as Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology. Penetration of renewable energy sources into microgrids are gradually being recognized as important alternatives in supply side planning. This thesis focuses on the optimal design, planning, sizing and operation of a hybrid, renewable energy based microgrid with the goal of minimizing the lifecycle cost, while taking into account environmental emissions. Four different configurations including a diesel-only, a fully renewable-based, a diesel-renewable mixed, and an external-grid connected microgrid are designed, to compare and evaluate their economics, operational performance and environmental emissions. Analysis is also carried out to determine the break-even economics for a grid-connected microgrid. The well-known energy modeling software for hybrid renewable energy systems, HOMER, is used in the studies reported in this thesis. An optimal power flow (OPF) based optimization framework considering two different objectives, minimizing feeder losses and PHEV charging cost, are presented to understand the impact of PHEV charging on distribution networks. Three different charging periods are considered and the impact of the Ontario Time-of-Use (TOU) tariff on PHEV charging schedules is examined. The impact of PHEV charging on distribution systems in the presence of renewable energy sources is discussed by extending the developed OPF based model to include the contribution of renewable energy sources. The proposed model is evaluated under a variety of scenarios.

Smart Charging Solutions for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

Smart Charging Solutions for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles
Author: Sulabh Sachan,Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban,Sanchari Deb
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2022-02-17
ISBN: 1119771714
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Charging Solutions for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Book Excerpt:

SMART CHARGING SOLUTIONS The most comprehensive and up-to-date study of smart charging solutions for hybrid and electric vehicles for engineers, scientists, students, and other professionals. As our dependence on fossil fuels continues to wane all over the world, demand for dependable and economically feasible energy sources continues to grow. As environmental regulations become more stringent, energy production is relying more and more heavily on locally available renewable resources. Furthermore, fuel consumption and emissions are facilitating the transition to sustainable transportation. The market for electric vehicles (EVs) has been increasing steadily over the past few years throughout the world. With the increasing popularity of EVs, a competitive market between charging stations (CSS) to attract more EVs is expected. This outstanding new volume is a resource for engineers, researchers, and practitioners interested in getting acquainted with smart charging for electric vehicles technologies. It includes many chapters dealing with the state-of-the-art studies on EV smart charging along with charging infrastructure. Whether for the veteran engineer or student, this is a must-have volume for any library. Smart Charging Solutions for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles: Presents the state of the art of smart charging for hybrid and electric vehicles, from a technological point of view Focuses on optimization and prospective solutions for practical problems Covers the most important recent developmental technologies related to renewable energy, to keep the engineer up to date and well informed Includes economic considerations, such as business models and price structures Covers standards and regulatory frameworks for smart charging solutions

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems and Microgrids

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems and Microgrids
Author: Ersan Kabalci
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 526
Release: 2020-11-21
ISBN: 012823248X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems and Microgrids Book Excerpt:

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems and Microgrids covers the modeling and analysis for each type of integrated and operational hybrid energy system. Looking at the fundamentals for conventional energy systems, decentralized generation systems, RES technologies and hybrid integration of RES power plants, the most important contribution this book makes is combining emerging energy systems that improve micro and smart grid systems and their components. Sections cover traditional system characteristics, features, challenges and benefits of hybrid energy systems over the conventional power grid, the deployment of emerging power electronic technologies, and up-to-date electronic devices and systems, including AC and DC waveforms. Conventional, emerging and hierarchical control methods and technologies applied in microgrid operations are covered to give researchers and practitioners the information needed to ensure reliability, resilience and flexibility of implemented hybrid energy systems. Presents detailed contents on emerging power networks provided by decentralized and distributed generation approaches Covers driving factors, photovoltaic based power plant modeling and planning studies Introduces hierarchical control methods and technologies applied in microgrid operations to ensure reliability, resilience and flexibility of hybrid energy systems

Standalone Renewable Energy Systems

Standalone Renewable Energy Systems
Author: Rodolfo Dufo-López,José L. Bernal-Agustín
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 188
Release: 2020-06-23
ISBN: 3039361848
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Standalone Renewable Energy Systems Book Excerpt:

Standalone (off-grid) renewable energy systems supply electricity in places where there is no access to a standard electrical grid. These systems may include photovoltaic generators, wind turbines, hydro turbines or any other renewable electrical generator. Usually, this kind of system includes electricity storage (commonly lead-acid batteries, but also other types of storage can be used). In some cases, a backup generator (usually powered by fossil fuel, diesel or gasoline) is part of the hybrid system. The modelling of the components, the control of the system and the simulation of the performance of the whole system are necessary to evaluate the system technically and economically. The optimization of the sizing and/or the control is also an important task in this kind of system.

Operation of Distributed Energy Resources in Smart Distribution Networks

Operation of Distributed Energy Resources in Smart Distribution Networks
Author: Kazem Zare,Sayyad Nojavan
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 422
Release: 2018-06-05
ISBN: 0128148926
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Operation of Distributed Energy Resources in Smart Distribution Networks Book Excerpt:

Operation of Distributed Energy Resources in Smart Distribution Networks defines the barriers and challenges of smart distribution networks, ultimately proposing optimal solutions for addressing them. The book considers their use as an important part of future electrical power systems and their ability to improve the local flexibility and reliability of electrical systems. It carefully defines the concept as a radial network with a cluster of distributed energy generations, various types of loads, and energy storage systems. In addition, the book details how the huge penetration of distributed energy resources and the intermittent nature of renewable generations may cause system problems. Readers will find this to be an important resource that analyzes and introduces the features and problems of smart distribution networks from different aspects. Integrates different types of elements, including electrical vehicles, demand response programs, and various renewable energy sources in distribution networks Proposes optimal operational models for the short-term performance and scheduling of a distribution network Discusses the uncertainties of renewable resources and intermittent load in the decision-making process for distribution networks

Design Control and Operation of Microgrids in Smart Grids

Design  Control  and Operation of Microgrids in Smart Grids
Author: Mehdi Rahmani-Andebili
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 182
Release: 2021-06-08
ISBN: 3030646319
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Design Control and Operation of Microgrids in Smart Grids Book Excerpt:

This book offers a wide-ranging overview of advancements, techniques, and challenges related to the design, control, and operation of microgrids and their role in smart grid infrastructure. It brings together an authoritative group of specialists who approach the subject from a number of different viewpoints in the electric power industry, including electricity distribution companies, aggregators, power market retailers, and power generation companies. Design, Control, and Operation of Microgrids in Smart Grids is an authoritative resource for students, researchers, and professionals working with power and energy systems.

Electric Systems for Transportation

Electric Systems for Transportation
Author: Maria Carmen Falvo,Alessandro Ruvio
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 690
Release: 2021-09-02
ISBN: 3036504885
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electric Systems for Transportation Book Excerpt:

Transportation systems play a major role in the reduction of energy consumptions and environmental impact all over the world. The significant amount of energy of transport systems forces the adoption of new solutions to ensure their performance with energy-saving and reduced environmental impact. In this context, technologies and materials, devices and systems, design methods, and management techniques, related to the electrical power systems for transportation are continuously improving thanks to research activities. The main common challenge in all the applications concerns the adoption of innovative solutions that can improve existing transportation systems in terms of efficiency and sustainability.

Electric Vehicles and the Future of Energy Efficient Transportation

Electric Vehicles and the Future of Energy Efficient Transportation
Author: Subramaniam, Umashankar,Williamson, Sheldon S.,Krishna S., Mohan,J. L., Febin Daya
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 293
Release: 2021-04-16
ISBN: 1799876284
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electric Vehicles and the Future of Energy Efficient Transportation Book Excerpt:

The electric vehicle market has been gradually gaining prominence in the world due to the rise in pollution levels caused by traditional IC engine-based vehicles. The advantages of electric vehicles are multi-pronged in terms of cost, energy efficiency, and environmental impact. The running and maintenance cost are considerably less than traditional models. The harmful exhaust emissions are reduced, besides the greenhouse gas emissions, when the electric vehicle is supplied from a renewable energy source. However, apart from some Western nations, many developing and underdeveloped countries have yet to take up this initiative. This lack of enthusiasm has been primarily attributed to the capital investment required for charging infrastructure and the slow transition of energy generation from the fossil fuel to the renewable energy format. Currently, there are very few charging stations, and the construction of the same needs to be ramped up to supplement the growth of electric vehicles. Grid integration issues also crop up when the electric vehicle is used to either do supply addition to or draw power from the grid. These problems need to be fixed at all the levels to enhance the future of energy efficient transportation. Electric Vehicles and the Future of Energy Efficient Transportation explores the growth and adoption of electric vehicles for the purpose of sustainable transportation and presents a critical analysis in terms of the economics, technology, and environmental perspectives of electric vehicles. The chapters cover the benefits and limitations of electric vehicles, techno-economic feasibility of the technologies being developed, and the impact this has on society. Specific points of discussion include electric vehicle architecture, wireless power transfer, battery management, and renewable resources. This book is of interest for individuals in the automotive sector and allied industries, policymakers, practitioners, engineers, technicians, researchers, academicians, and students looking for updated information on the technology, economics, policy, and environmental aspects of electric vehicles.

Microgrids

Microgrids
Author: Amjad Anvari-Moghaddam
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2021-05-21
ISBN: 3036506624
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microgrids Book Excerpt:

Microgrids are a growing segment of the energy industry, representing a paradigm shift from centralized structures toward more localized, autonomous, dynamic, and bi-directional energy networks, especially in cities and communities. The ability to isolate from the larger grid makes microgrids resilient, while their capability of forming scalable energy clusters permits the delivery of services that make the grid more sustainable and competitive. Through an optimal design and management process, microgrids could also provide efficient, low-cost, clean energy and help to improve the operation and stability of regional energy systems. This book covers these promising and dynamic areas of research and development and gathers contributions on different aspects of microgrids in an aim to impart higher degrees of sustainability and resilience to energy systems.

Smart Grids and Micro Grids

Smart Grids and Micro Grids
Author: P. Prajof,Umashankar Subramaniam,S. Mohan Krishna,J. L. Febin Daya,P. V. Brijesh
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2022-03-22
ISBN: 1119760607
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Grids and Micro Grids Book Excerpt:

SMART GRIDS AND MICROGRIDS Written and edited by a team of experts in the field, this is the most comprehensive and up-to-date study of smart grids and microgrids for engineers, scientists, students, and other professionals. The power supply is one of the most important issues of our time. In every country, all over the world, from refrigerators to coffee makers to heating and cooling, almost everyone in the world needs to have access to power. As the global demand rises, new methods of delivering power, such as smart grids and microgrids, have, out of necessity or choice, been developed and researched. In this book, modern and advanced concepts of both microgrid and smart grid technology are introduced. Beginning from the brief fundamental concepts of microgrids and its various constituents this team of experts discusses different architectures, control issues, communication challenges, measurement, stability, power quality and mitigation, protection, and power electronic aspects of the microgrid system. Through this book, tools and techniques needed to design both microgrids and smart grids are discussed. Recent and developing topics like smart meter impact, remote data monitoring, communication protocols, cybersecurity, artificial intelligence, big data, IoT, and many others are covered. Furthermore, this new volume also covers simulation and stability analysis tools pertaining to microgrids and smart grids. Throughout the book, detailed examples of microgrid and smart grid design and development strategies are provided, based on different constraints and requirements. Case studies, numerical models, and design examples are also included. Whether for the veteran engineer or student, this is a must-have volume for any library. Audience: Engineers, scientists, industry professionals, students, and other lay people involved in the business of smart grids and microgrids

Residential Microgrids and Rural Electrifications

Residential Microgrids and Rural Electrifications
Author: Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban,C. Sharmeela,P. Sivaraman,Jens Bo Holm-Nielsen
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2021-12-10
ISBN: 0323904505
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Residential Microgrids and Rural Electrifications Book Excerpt:

Residential Microgrids and Rural Electrifications contains an overview of microgrids' architecture, load assessments, designing of microgrids for residential systems, and rural electrifications to help readers understand the fundamentals. Including many new topics in the field of home automation and the application of IoT for microgrids monitoring and control, the book includes sections on the infrastructure necessary for charging Electric Vehicles in residential systems and rural electrifications and how to estimate the energy and cost of various combinations of energy resources. Many examples and practical case studies are included to enhance and reinforce learning objective goals. Those in engineering research and technical professions will be able to perform energy and cost analyses of various combinations of energy sources by using advanced, real simulation tools. Features methods for adopting and applying artificial intelligent techniques in microgrids for improving reliability Addresses the role of battery energy storage systems, the reliable operation of microgrids, international standards such as IEC and IEEE standards, and safe handling techniques Covers IoT for the monitoring and control of microgrids and the adoption of recent technologies

Optimization in Renewable Energy Systems

Optimization in Renewable Energy Systems
Author: Ozan Erdinc
Publsiher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Total Pages: 326
Release: 2017-02-25
ISBN: 0081012098
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optimization in Renewable Energy Systems Book Excerpt:

Optimization in Renewable Energy Systems: Recent Perspectives covers all major areas where optimization techniques have been applied to reduce uncertainty or improve results in renewable energy systems (RES). Production of power with RES is highly variable and unpredictable, leading to the need for optimization-based planning and operation in order to maximize economies while sustaining performance. This self-contained book begins with an introduction to optimization, then covers a wide range of applications in both large and small scale operations, including optimum operation of electric power systems with large penetration of RES, power forecasting, transmission system planning, and DG sizing and siting for distribution and end-user premises. This book is an excellent choice for energy engineers, researchers, system operators, system regulators, and graduate students. Provides chapters written by experts in the field Goes beyond forecasting to apply optimization techniques to a wide variety of renewable energy system issues, from large scale to relatively small scale systems Provides accompanying computer code for related chapters

Power Electronics and High Voltage in Smart Grid

Power Electronics and High Voltage in Smart Grid
Author: Atma Ram Gupta,Nirmal Kumar Roy,Sanjoy Kumar Parida
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN: 9811673934
Category: Electronic books
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Power Electronics and High Voltage in Smart Grid Book Excerpt:

The book contains select proceedings of the International Conference on Smart Grid Energy Systems and Control (SGESC 2021). The proceedings is divided into 03 volumes, and this volume focuses on power electronics, machines, systems integrations, and high voltage engineering. This book is a unique collection of chapters from different areas with a common theme and will be immensely useful to academic researchers and practitioners in the industry.

Advances of Artificial Intelligence in a Green Energy Environment

Advances of Artificial Intelligence in a Green Energy Environment
Author: Pandian Vasant,Joshua Thomas,Elias Munapo,Gerhard-Wilhelm Weber
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 414
Release: 2022-06-01
ISBN: 0323885748
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances of Artificial Intelligence in a Green Energy Environment Book Excerpt:

Advances of Artificial Intelligence in a Green Energy Environment reviews the new technologies in intelligent computing and AI that are reducing the dimension of data coverage worldwide. This handbook describes intelligent optimization algorithms that can be applied in various branches of energy engineering where uncertainty is a major concern. Including AI methodologies and applying advanced evolutionary algorithms to real-world application problems for everyday life applications, this book considers distributed energy systems, hybrid renewable energy systems using AI methods, and new opportunities in blockchain technology in smart energy. Covering state-of-the-art developments in a fast-moving technology, this reference is useful for engineering students and researchers interested and working in the AI industry. Looks at new techniques in artificial intelligence (AI) reducing the dimension of data coverage worldwide Chapters include AI methodologies using enhanced hybrid swarm-based optimization algorithms Includes flowchart diagrams for exampling optimizing techniques