Plato on God as Nous

Plato on God as Nous
Author: Stephen Menn,Stephen Philip Menn
Publsiher: Journal on the History of Phil
Total Pages: 86
Release: 1995
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plato on God as Nous Book Excerpt:

This book is the first sustained modern investigation of Plato's theology. A central thesis of the book is that Plato had a theology--not just a mythology for the ideal city, not just the theory of forms or the theory of cosmic souls, but also, irreducible to any of these, an account of God as Nous (Reason), the source of rational order both to souls and the world of bodies. The understanding of God as Reason, and of the world as governed directly or indirectly by Reason, is worked out in the dialogues of Plato's last period, the Statesman, Philebus, Timaeus, and Laws. These dialogues offer a strategy for explaining the physical world that goes beyond anything in the middle dialogues, and gives the best starting point for understanding the cosmologies and theologies of Aristotle, the Stoics, and later ancient thinkers. Menn focuses on the Timaeus as Plato's most sustained effort to provide what (according to the Phaedo) Anaxagoras had failed to deliver: an explanation of the world through Reason, showing that things are as they are because it is best, or because it best serves the order of the world as a whole. Anaxagoras was disappointed because he explained things through their material constituents, without explaining why the constituents are ordered as they are; but the theory of forms has the same defect, since itcannot explain why different parts of the universe participate in different forms according to a particular order. The Timaeus and other late dialogues attempt to supply the missing explanation of the ordering of the physical world. These dialogues do not retreat from the middle dialogue theory of forms, nor do they escape into an esoteric theory of numbers; but they add to the middle dialogues an analysis of the principles necessary to account for the existence and partial intelligibility of the sensible world--not only forms and a material substance but also Nous and souls. Although the demiurge of the Timaeus (and his counterpart the Nous of Philebus) is represented as a cause both to souls and bodies, most scholars have been reluctant to identify the demiurge as a being separate from and superior to souls, because they think that both the meaning of the Greek word nous and Plato's own statements require that Nous iseither a kind of soul (mind or rational soul) or something inseparable from souls (rational mental activity). Reexamining the linguistic evidence and the Platonic texts, Menn argues that nous can mean something separate from souls, namely the virtue of rationality or intelligence that souls participate in. Menn argues that Anaxagoras' Nous should be construed as such a virtue; then he examines what status this virtue has in the context of the Platonic theory of forms, and how itis a cause both to souls and to bodies. Soul plays a crucial role in mediating the causality of Nous and introducing rational order into the world of bodies, but neither soul in general nor the world-soul in particular can be identified with Nous. Menn stresses the pre-Socratic context for the cosmology and theology of Plato's late dialogues; he argues for the importance of Diogenes of Appolonia in particular, and he reconstructs a possible new fragment of Diogenes from the Timaeus and from the Hippocratic treatise On Breaths. In the Timaeus and other late dialogues Plato attempts to do better than his predecessors by standards implicit in Socrates' critique of Anaxagoras in the Phaedo, but what Plato offers remains consciously provisional. Aristotle argues that the Timaeus remains liable to some of the same criticisms that Socrates had leveled against Anaxagoras, and Aristotle's own cosmology and theology take up Plato's challenge to carry out Anaxagoras' promise of an explanation of the world through Nous, and attempt to improve on the Timaeus asPlato had improved on Anaxagoras. In this way the Timaeus serves as an essential starting point, not onlyfor those later ancient philosophers who took it as an authoritative statement on the world and on God but also for those who took it as a challenge to do better.

Plato s Gods

Plato s Gods
Author: Gerd Van Riel
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 146
Release: 2016-04-22
ISBN: 1317079930
Category: Religion
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plato s Gods Book Excerpt:

This book presents a comprehensive study into Plato's theological doctrines, offering an important re-valuation of the status of Plato's gods and the relation between metaphysics and theology according to Plato. Starting from an examination of Plato's views of religion and the relation between religion and morality, Gerd Van Riel investigates Plato's innovative ways of speaking about the gods. This theology displays a number of diverging tendencies - viewing the gods as perfect moral actors, as cosmological principles or as celestial bodies whilst remaining true to traditional anthropomorphic representations. Plato's views are shown to be unified by the emphasis on the goodness of the gods in both their cosmological and their moral functions. Van Riel shows that recent interpretations of Plato's theology are thoroughly metaphysical, starting from aristotelian patterns. A new reading of the basic texts leads to the conclusion that in Plato the gods aren't metaphysical principles but souls who transmit the metaphysical order to sensible reality. The metaphysical principles play the role of a fated order to which the gods have to comply. This book will be invaluable to readers interested in philosophical theology and intellectual history.

Descartes and Augustine

Descartes and Augustine
Author: Stephen Menn,Stephen Philip Menn
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 415
Release: 2002-01-28
ISBN: 9780521012843
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Descartes and Augustine Book Excerpt:

This book is a systematic study of Descartes' relation to Augustine. It offers a complete reevaluation of Descartes' thought and as such will be of major importance to all historians of medieval, neo-Platonic, or early modern philosophy. Stephen Menn demonstrates that Descartes uses Augustine's central ideas as a point of departure for a critique of medieval Aristotelian physics, which he replaces with a new, mechanistic anti-Aristotelian physics. Special features of the book include a reading of the Meditations, a comprehensive historical and philosophical introduction to Augustine's thought, a detailed account of Plotinus, and a contextualization of Descartes' mature philosophical project which explores both the framework within which it evolved and the early writings, to show how the collapse of the early project drove Descartes to the writings of Augustine.

Philosophical Mysticism in Plato Hegel and the Present

Philosophical Mysticism in Plato  Hegel  and the Present
Author: Robert M. Wallace
Publsiher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2019-12-26
ISBN: 1350082880
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophical Mysticism in Plato Hegel and the Present Book Excerpt:

Few twenty-first century academics take seriously mysticism's claim that we have direct knowledge of a higher or more “inner” reality or God. But Philosophical Mysticism argues that such leading philosophers of earlier epochs as Plato, G. W. F. Hegel, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Alfred North Whitehead were, in fact, all philosophical mystics. This book discusses major versions of philosophical mysticism beginning with Plato. It shows how the framework of mysticism's higher or more inner reality allows nature, freedom, science, ethics, the arts, and a rational religion-in-the-making to work together rather than conflicting with one another. This is how philosophical mysticism understands the relationships of fact to value, rationality to ethics, and the rest. And this is why Plato's notion of ascent or turning inward to a higher or more inner reality has strongly attracted such major figures in philosophy, religion, and literature as Aristotle, Plotinus, St Augustine, Dante Alighieri, Immanuel Kant, Hegel, William Wordsworth, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Emily Dickinson, Whitehead, and Wittgenstein. Wallace's Philosophical Mysticism brings this central strand of western philosophy and culture into focus in a way unique in recent scholarship.

The Immediacy of Mystical Experience in the European Tradition

The Immediacy of Mystical Experience in the European Tradition
Author: Miklós Vassányi,Enikő Sepsi,Anikó Daróczi
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 274
Release: 2017-01-19
ISBN: 3319450697
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Immediacy of Mystical Experience in the European Tradition Book Excerpt:

This volume examines mystical experiences as portrayed in various ways by “authors” such as philosophers, mystics, psychoanalysts, writers, and peasant women. These “mystical authors” have, throughout the ages, attempted to convey the unsayable through writings, paintings, or oral stories. The immediate experience of God is the primary source and ultimate goal of these mystical expressions. This experience is essentially ineffable, yet all mystical authors, either consciously or unconsciously, feel an urge to convey what they have undergone in the moments of rapture. At the same time they are in the role of intermediaries: the goal of their self-expression – either written, painted or oral – is to make others somehow understand or feel what they have experienced, and to lead others toward the spiritual goal of human life. This volume studies the mystical experiences and the way they have been described or portrayed in West-European culture, from Antiquity to the present, from an interdisciplinary perspective, and approaches the concept of “immediate experience” in various ways.

Plotinus the Platonist

Plotinus the Platonist
Author: David J. Yount
Publsiher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2014-10-23
ISBN: 1472575229
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plotinus the Platonist Book Excerpt:

In this insightful new book David J. Yount argues, against received wisdom, that there are no essential differences between the metaphysics of Plato and Plotinus. Yount covers the core principles of Plotinian thought: The One or Good, Intellect, and All-Soul (the Three Hypostases), Beauty, God(s), Forms, Emanation, Matter, and Evil. After addressing the interpretive issues that surround the authenticity of Plato's works, Plotinus: The Platonist deftly argues against the commonly held view that Plotinus is best interpreted as a Neo-Platonist, proposing he should be thought of as a Platonist proper. Yount presents thorough explanations and quotations from the works of each classical philosopher to demonstrate his thesis, concluding comprehensively that Plato and Plotinus do not essentially differ on their metaphysical conceptions. This is an ideal text for Plato and Plotinus scholars and academics, and excellent supplementary reading for upper-level undergraduates students and postgraduate students of ancient philosophy.

Kant and the Question of Theology

Kant and the Question of Theology
Author: Chris L. Firestone,Nathan A. Jacobs,James H. Joiner
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 270
Release: 2017-09-21
ISBN: 1107116813
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Kant and the Question of Theology Book Excerpt:

Kant scholars and analytic philosophers use varied perspectives to address problems surrounding Kant's theories of God and religion.

The Philosophy of the Church Fathers

The Philosophy of the Church Fathers
Author: Harry Austryn Wolfson
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 680
Release: 1956
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Christian heresies
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Philosophy of the Church Fathers Book Excerpt:

Plato Laws 10

Plato  Laws 10
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: OUP Oxford
Total Pages: 248
Release: 2008-02-07
ISBN: 0191527564
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plato Laws 10 Book Excerpt:

The Laws is Plato's last and longest dialogue. Although it has been neglected (compared to such works as the Republic and Symposium), it is beginning to receive a great deal of scholarly attention. Book 10 of the Laws contains Plato's fullest defence of the existence of the gods, and his last word on their nature, as well as a presentation and defence of laws against impiety (e.g. atheism). Plato's primary aim is to defend the idea that the gods exist and that they are good - this latter meaning that they do not neglect human beings and cannot be swayed by prayers and sacrifices to overlook injustice. As such, the Laws is an important text for anyone interested in ancient Greek religion, philosophy, and politics generally, and the later thought of Plato in particular. Robert Mayhew presents a new translation, with commentary, of Book 10 of the Laws . His primary aim in the translation is fidelity to the Greek. His commentary focuses on philosophical issues (broadly understood to include religion and politics), and deals with philological matters only when doing so serves to better explain those issues. Knowledge of Greek is not assumed, and the Greek that does appear has been transliterated. It is the first commentary in English of any kind on Laws 10 for nearly 140 years.

Exploring Gregory of Nyssa

Exploring Gregory of Nyssa
Author: Anna Marmodoro,Neil B. McLynn
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 351
Release: 2018-10-18
ISBN: 0192568833
Category: Religion
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Exploring Gregory of Nyssa Book Excerpt:

Exploring Gregory of Nyssa: Philosophical, Theological, and Historical Studies brings together an interdisciplinary team of historians, classicists, philosophers, and theologians to offer a holistic exploration of the thought of Gregory of Nyssa. The volume considers Gregory's role in the main philosophical and religious controversies of his era, such as his ecclesiastical involvement in the Neo-Nicene apologetical movement. It looks at his complex relationships-for example with his brother Basil of Caesarea and with Gregory of Nazianzus. Contributors highlight Gregory's debt to Origen, but also the divergence between the two thinkers, and their relationships to Platonism. They also examine Gregory of Nyssa's wider philosophy and metaphysics; deep questions in philosophy of language such as the nature of predication and singular terms that inform our understanding of Gregory's thought; and the role of metaphysical concepts such as the nature of powers and identity. The study paints a picture of Gregory as a ground-breaking philosopher-theologian. It analyses the nature of the soul, and connection to theological issues such as resurrection; questions that are still of interest in the philosophy of religion today, such as divine impassibility and the nature of the Trinity; and returning to more immediately humane concerns, Gregory also has profound thoughts on topics such as vulnerability and self-direction. The volume will be of primary interest to researchers, lecturers, and postgraduate students in philosophy, classics, history, and theology, and can be recommended as secondary reading for undergraduates, especially those studying classics and theology.

Flow and Flux in Plato s Philosophy

Flow and Flux in Plato   s Philosophy
Author: Andrew J. Mason
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 228
Release: 2016-03-02
ISBN: 1317421884
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Flow and Flux in Plato s Philosophy Book Excerpt:

In this bold new study, Andrew J. Mason seeks both to shed light on the key issue of flux in Plato’s work, and to show that there is also in Plato a notion of flow that needs to be distinguished from flux. Mason brings out the importance of this hitherto neglected distinction, and proposes on its basis a new way of understanding the development of Plato’s thought. The opposition between the ‘being’ of Forms and the ‘becoming’ or ‘flux’ of sensibles has been fundamental to the understanding of Plato from Aristotle to the present day. One key concern of this volume is to clarify which kinds or levels of flux Plato accepts in sensibles. In addition, Mason argues that this traditional approach is unsatisfactory, as it leaves out the important notion of flow. Unlike flux, flow is a kind of motion that does not entail intrinsic change. It is also not restricted to the sensible, but covers motions of soul as well, including the circular motion of nous (intelligence) that is crucial in Plato’s later thought, particularly his cosmology. In short, flow is not incompatible with ‘being’, and in this study Plato’s development is presented, largely, as his arrival at this view, in correction of his earlier conflation of flux and flow in establishing the dichotomy between being and becoming. Mason’s study offers fresh insights into many dialogues and difficult passages in Plato’s oeuvre, and situates Plato’s conception and usage of ‘flow’ and ‘flux’ in relation to earlier usage in the Greek poetic tradition and the Presocratic thinkers, particularly Heraclitus. The first study of its kind, Flow and Flux uncovers dimensions of Plato’s thinking that may reshape the way his philosophy is understood.

Plato s Cosmology and its Ethical Dimensions

Plato s Cosmology and its Ethical Dimensions
Author: Gabriela Roxana Carone
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2005-10-31
ISBN: 1107320739
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plato s Cosmology and its Ethical Dimensions Book Excerpt:

Although a great deal has been written on Plato's ethics, his cosmology has not received so much attention in recent times and its importance for his ethical thought has remained underexplored. By offering accounts of Timaeus, Philebus, Politicus and Laws X, the book reveals a strongly symbiotic relation between the cosmic and human sphere. It is argued that in his late period Plato presents a picture of an organic universe, endowed with structure and intrinsic value, which both urges our respect and calls for our responsible intervention. Humans are thus seen as citizens of a university that can provide a context for their flourishing even in the absence of good political institutions. The book sheds light on many intricate metaphysical issues in late Plato and brings out the close connections between his cosmology and the development of his ethics.

The Emergent Metaphysics in Plato s Theory of Disorder

The Emergent Metaphysics in Plato s Theory of Disorder
Author: Sarai Robin Charles
Publsiher: Lexington Books
Total Pages: 324
Release: 2006
ISBN: 9780739109113
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Emergent Metaphysics in Plato s Theory of Disorder Book Excerpt:

The Emergent Metaphysics in Plato's Theory of Disorder presents for the first time Plato's theory of disorder as it pertains to his understanding of powerful causal forces at work within and outwith the cosmos and the soul of man. Divided into two Parts and presenting passages in both Greek and English, Plato's cosmology, the Timaeus, and his chief theological work, Laws X, are discussed in detail. In the Timaeus 'Ananke' is introduced as one of two powerful primal causes, a disordering force second only to the 'Demiurgos, ' an ordering power and 'father' of the universe. Ananke is presented as being responsible for the physical chaos that existed prior to the generation of the universe, as well as for any residual disorder left within the cosmos after its formation. However, later, in Laws X Plato hypothesizes a different sort of disordering power, a destructive force active long after the cosmos has been generated, a primal 'Soul' capable of endangering not just the physical universe, but also the soul of man. What ultimately arises from the juxtaposition of these two dialogues is a dynamic theory of disorder in which an epistemology is outlined, an ontology is given and from which, it is argued, a metaphysics of disorder emerges. Charles's work is a rich addition to the study of Plato and philosophy

Plato s Phaedo

Plato s Phaedo
Author: Gabriele Cornelli,Thomas M. Robinson,Francisco Bravo
Publsiher: Academia Verlag
Total Pages: 407
Release: 2019-01-04
ISBN: 3896657461
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plato s Phaedo Book Excerpt:

Der Tagungsband enthält eine Auswahl von 41 Vorträgen, welche von den Wissenschaftlern der IPS am 11. Symposium Platonicum in Brasilien unter der Schirmherrschaft der University of Brasília gehalten wurden. Der Band behandelt alle wichtigen Fragen im Zusammenhang mit der Interpretation von Platons Phaidon und der Rezeption dieses zentralen Dialogs in der gesamten Antike.

Philo of Alexandria and the Timaeus of Plato

Philo of Alexandria and the Timaeus of Plato
Author: Douwe (David) Runia
Publsiher: BRILL
Total Pages: 630
Release: 1986-06-01
ISBN: 9004320660
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philo of Alexandria and the Timaeus of Plato Book Excerpt:

Plato s Philosophy of Science

Plato s Philosophy of Science
Author: Andrew Gregory
Publsiher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2015-03-02
ISBN: 147250237X
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plato s Philosophy of Science Book Excerpt:

In this illuminating book Andrew Gregory takes an original approach to Plato's philosophy of science by reassessing Plato's views on how we might investigate and explain the natural world. He demonstrates that many of the common charges against Plato - disinterest, ignorance, dismissal of observation - are unfounded, and shows instead that Plato had a series of important and cogent criticisms to make of the early atomists and other physiologoi. Plato's views on science, and on astronomy and cosmology in particular, are shown to have developed in interesting ways. Thus, the book argues, Plato can best be seen as a philosopher struggling with the foundations of scientific realism, and as someone, moreover, who has interesting epistemological, cosmological and nomological reasons for his approach. Plato's Philosophy of Science is important reading for all those with an interest in Ancient Philosophy and the History of Science.

The Theological and Miscellaneous Works of Joseph Priestley

The Theological and Miscellaneous Works of Joseph Priestley
Author: Joseph Priestley
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1786
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Theological and Miscellaneous Works of Joseph Priestley Book Excerpt:

Plato and the Creation of the Hebrew Bible

Plato and the Creation of the Hebrew Bible
Author: Russell E. Gmirkin
Publsiher: Taylor & Francis
Total Pages: 338
Release: 2016-08-12
ISBN: 113485451X
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plato and the Creation of the Hebrew Bible Book Excerpt:

Plato and the Creation of the Hebrew Bible for the first time compares the ancient law collections of the Ancient Near East, the Greeks and the Pentateuch to determine the legal antecedents for the biblical laws. Following on from his 2006 work, Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus, Gmirkin takes up his theory that the Pentateuch was written around 270 BCE using Greek sources found at the Great Library of Alexandria, and applies this to an examination of the biblical law codes. A striking number of legal parallels are found between the Pentateuch and Athenian laws, and specifically with those found in Plato's Laws of ca. 350 BCE. Constitutional features in biblical law, Athenian law, and Plato's Laws also contain close correspondences. Several genres of biblical law, including the Decalogue, are shown to have striking parallels with Greek legal collections, and the synthesis of narrative and legal content is shown to be compatible with Greek literature. All this evidence points to direct influence from Greek writings, especially Plato's Laws, on the biblical legal tradition. Finally, it is argued that the creation of the Hebrew Bible took place according to the program found in Plato's Laws for creating a legally authorized national ethical literature, reinforcing the importance of this specific Greek text to the authors of the Torah and Hebrew Bible in the early Hellenistic Era. This study offers a fascinating analysis of the background to the Pentateuch, and will be of interest not only to biblical scholars, but also to students of Plato, ancient law, and Hellenistic literary traditions.

Plato s Laws

Plato s  Laws
Author: Christopher Bobonich
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2010-11-11
ISBN: 1139493566
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plato s Laws Book Excerpt:

Long understudied, Plato's Laws has been the object of renewed attention in the past decade and is now considered to be his major work of political philosophy besides the Republic. In his last dialogue, Plato returns to the project of describing the foundation of a just city and sketches in considerable detail its constitution, laws and other social institutions. Written by leading Platonists, the essays in this volume cover a wide range of topics central for understanding the Laws, such as the aim of the Laws as a whole, the ethical psychology of the Laws, especially its views of pleasure and non-rational motivations, and whether and, if so, how the strict law code of the Laws can encourage genuine virtue. They make an important contribution to ongoing debates and will open up fresh lines of inquiry for further research.

About the King s Choice to Build His Palace Right on Top of the Dunghill

About the King s Choice to Build His Palace Right on Top of the Dunghill
Author: John McGinley
Publsiher: iUniverse
Total Pages: 640
Release: 2006-01
ISBN: 0595379788
Category: Religion
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

About the King s Choice to Build His Palace Right on Top of the Dunghill Book Excerpt:

ISRAEL; the people, the nation, the religion. While remaining acutely aware of the shortcomings of both Heidegger and Derrida, the writer nevertheless uses insights and terminology from their discourse in the service of exposing the historical and thought trends of hegemonic proportions which have had the effect of deracinating Judaism from ISRAEL. The writer makes the claim that a "critical/spelunkative" analysis of what went into that final and anonymous redaction of the Babylonian Talmud points the way towards a retrieval of Judaism's "burning living center." The writer further contends that such a retrieval can have the effect of "returning" [teshuba] Judaism back to ISRAEL.