Precision Additive Metal Manufacturing

Precision Additive Metal Manufacturing
Author: Richard Leach,Simone Carmignato
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2020-09-22
ISBN: 9781138347717
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Precision Additive Metal Manufacturing Book Excerpt:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a fast-growing sector with the ability to evoke a revolution in manufacturing due to its almost unlimited design freedom and its capability to produce personalised parts locally and with efficient material use. AM companies, however, still face technological challenges such as limited precision due to shrinkage, built-in stresses, and limited process stability and robustness. Moreover, often post-processing is needed due to the high roughness and remaining porosity. Qualified, trained personnel are also in short supply. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in AM design methods, process control, post-processing, material properties and material range. However, if AM is going to gain a significant market share it must be developed into a true precision manufacturing method. The production of precision parts relies on three principles: 1. Production is robust (i.e. that all sensitive parameters can be controlled). 2. Production is predictable (for example, the shrinkage that occurs is acceptable because it can be predicted and compensated in the design). 3. Parts are measurable (as without metrology, accuracy, repeatability and quality assurance cannot be known). AM of metals is inherently a high-energy process, with many of sensitive and inter-related process parameters, making it susceptible to thermal distortions, defects and process drift. The complete modelling of these processes is beyond current computational power and novel methods are needed to practicably predict performance and inform design. In addition, metal AM produces highly textured surfaces and complex surface features that stretch the limits of contemporary metrology. With so many factors to consider, there is a significant shortage of background material on how to inject precision into AM processes. Shortage in such material is an important barrier for a wider uptake of advanced manufacturing technologies and a comprehensive book is thus needed. This book aims to inform the reader how to improve the precision of metal AM processes by tackling the three principles of robustness, predictability and metrology, and by developing computer-aided engineering methods that empower rather than limit AM design.

Precision Metal Additive Manufacturing

Precision Metal Additive Manufacturing
Author: Richard Leach,Simone Carmignato
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 404
Release: 2020-09-21
ISBN: 0429791275
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Precision Metal Additive Manufacturing Book Excerpt:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a fast-growing sector with the ability to evoke a revolution in manufacturing due to its almost unlimited design freedom and its capability to produce personalised parts locally and with efficient material use. AM companies, however, still face technological challenges such as limited precision due to shrinkage, built-in stresses and limited process stability and robustness. Moreover, often post-processing is needed due to high roughness and remaining porosity. Qualified, trained personnel are also in short supply. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in AM design methods, process control, post-processing, material properties and material range. However, if AM is going to gain a significant market share, it must be developed into a true precision manufacturing method. The production of precision parts relies on three principles: Production is robust (i.e. all sensitive parameters can be controlled). Production is predictable (for example, the shrinkage that occurs is acceptable because it can be predicted and compensated in the design). Parts are measurable (as without metrology, accuracy, repeatability and quality assurance cannot be known). AM of metals is inherently a high-energy process with many sensitive and inter-related process parameters, making it susceptible to thermal distortions, defects and process drift. The complete modelling of these processes is beyond current computational power, and novel methods are needed to practicably predict performance and inform design. In addition, metal AM produces highly textured surfaces and complex surface features that stretch the limits of contemporary metrology. With so many factors to consider, there is a significant shortage of background material on how to inject precision into AM processes. Shortage in such material is an important barrier for a wider uptake of advanced manufacturing technologies, and a comprehensive book is thus needed. This book aims to inform the reader how to improve the precision of metal AM processes by tackling the three principles of robustness, predictability and metrology, and by developing computer-aided engineering methods that empower rather than limit AM design. Richard Leach is a professor in metrology at the University of Nottingham and heads up the Manufacturing Metrology Team. Prior to this position, he was at the National Physical Laboratory from 1990 to 2014. His primary love is instrument building, from concept to final installation, and his current interests are the dimensional measurement of precision and additive manufactured structures. His research themes include the measurement of surface topography, the development of methods for measuring 3D structures, the development of methods for controlling large surfaces to high resolution in industrial applications and the traceability of X-ray computed tomography. He is a leader of several professional societies and a visiting professor at Loughborough University and the Harbin Institute of Technology. Simone Carmignato is a professor in manufacturing engineering at the University of Padua. His main research activities are in the areas of precision manufacturing, dimensional metrology and industrial computed tomography. He is the author of books and hundreds of scientific papers, and he is an active member of leading technical and scientific societies. He has been chairman, organiser and keynote speaker for several international conferences, and received national and international awards, including the Taylor Medal from CIRP, the International Academy for Production Engineering.

Precision Metal Additive Manufacturing

Precision Metal Additive Manufacturing
Author: Richard Leach,Simone Carmignato
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 404
Release: 2020-09-21
ISBN: 0429791283
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Precision Metal Additive Manufacturing Book Excerpt:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a fast-growing sector with the ability to evoke a revolution in manufacturing due to its almost unlimited design freedom and its capability to produce personalised parts locally and with efficient material use. AM companies, however, still face technological challenges such as limited precision due to shrinkage, built-in stresses and limited process stability and robustness. Moreover, often post-processing is needed due to high roughness and remaining porosity. Qualified, trained personnel are also in short supply. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in AM design methods, process control, post-processing, material properties and material range. However, if AM is going to gain a significant market share, it must be developed into a true precision manufacturing method. The production of precision parts relies on three principles: Production is robust (i.e. all sensitive parameters can be controlled). Production is predictable (for example, the shrinkage that occurs is acceptable because it can be predicted and compensated in the design). Parts are measurable (as without metrology, accuracy, repeatability and quality assurance cannot be known). AM of metals is inherently a high-energy process with many sensitive and inter-related process parameters, making it susceptible to thermal distortions, defects and process drift. The complete modelling of these processes is beyond current computational power, and novel methods are needed to practicably predict performance and inform design. In addition, metal AM produces highly textured surfaces and complex surface features that stretch the limits of contemporary metrology. With so many factors to consider, there is a significant shortage of background material on how to inject precision into AM processes. Shortage in such material is an important barrier for a wider uptake of advanced manufacturing technologies, and a comprehensive book is thus needed. This book aims to inform the reader how to improve the precision of metal AM processes by tackling the three principles of robustness, predictability and metrology, and by developing computer-aided engineering methods that empower rather than limit AM design. Richard Leach is a professor in metrology at the University of Nottingham and heads up the Manufacturing Metrology Team. Prior to this position, he was at the National Physical Laboratory from 1990 to 2014. His primary love is instrument building, from concept to final installation, and his current interests are the dimensional measurement of precision and additive manufactured structures. His research themes include the measurement of surface topography, the development of methods for measuring 3D structures, the development of methods for controlling large surfaces to high resolution in industrial applications and the traceability of X-ray computed tomography. He is a leader of several professional societies and a visiting professor at Loughborough University and the Harbin Institute of Technology. Simone Carmignato is a professor in manufacturing engineering at the University of Padua. His main research activities are in the areas of precision manufacturing, dimensional metrology and industrial computed tomography. He is the author of books and hundreds of scientific papers, and he is an active member of leading technical and scientific societies. He has been chairman, organiser and keynote speaker for several international conferences, and received national and international awards, including the Taylor Medal from CIRP, the International Academy for Production Engineering.

Handbook of Research on Advancements in Manufacturing Materials and Mechanical Engineering

Handbook of Research on Advancements in Manufacturing  Materials  and Mechanical Engineering
Author: Burstein, Leonid
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 462
Release: 2020-09-18
ISBN: 1799849406
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Research on Advancements in Manufacturing Materials and Mechanical Engineering Book Excerpt:

Production, new materials development, and mechanics are the central subjects of modern industry and advanced science. With a very broad reach across several different disciplines, selecting the most forward-thinking research to review can be a hefty task, especially for study in niche applications that receive little coverage. For those subjects, collecting the research available is of utmost importance. The Handbook of Research on Advancements in Manufacturing, Materials, and Mechanical Engineering is an essential reference source that examines emerging obstacles in these fields of engineering and the methods and tools used to find solutions. Featuring coverage of a broad range of topics including fabricating procedures, automated control, and material selection, this book is ideally designed for academics; tribology and materials researchers; mechanical, physics, and materials engineers; professionals in related industries; scientists; and students.

Science Technology and Applications of Metals in Additive Manufacturing

Science  Technology and Applications of Metals in Additive Manufacturing
Author: Bhaskar Dutta,Sudarsanam Babu,Bradley H. Jared
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 354
Release: 2019-08-15
ISBN: 0128166436
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Science Technology and Applications of Metals in Additive Manufacturing Book Excerpt:

Science, Technology and Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing provides a holistic picture of metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) that encompasses the science, technology and applications for the use of metal AM. Users will find design aspects, various metal AM technologies commercially available, a focus on merits and demerits, implications for qualification and certification, applications, cost modeling of AM, and future directions. This book serves as an educational guide, providing a holistic picture of metal AM that encompasses science, technology and applications for the real-life use of metal AM. Includes an overall understanding of metal additive manufacturing, Including steps involved (process flow) Discusses available commercial metal AM technologies and their relative strengths and weaknesses Reviews the process of qualification of AM parts, various applications, cost modeling, and the future directions of metal AM

Remanufacturing of Precision Metal Components Using Additive Manufacturing Technology

Remanufacturing of Precision Metal Components Using Additive Manufacturing Technology
Author: Xinchang Zhang
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 160
Release: 2019
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Remanufacturing of Precision Metal Components Using Additive Manufacturing Technology Book Excerpt:

"Critical metallic components such as jet engine turbine blades and casting die/mold may be damaged after servicing for a period at harsh working environments such as elevated temperature and pressure, impact with foreign objects, wear, corrosion, and fatigue. Additive manufacturing has a promising application for the refurbishment of such high-costly parts by depositing materials at the damaged zone to restore the nominal geometry. However, several issues such as pre-processing of worn parts to assure the repairability, reconstructing the repair volume to generate a repair tool path for material deposition, and inspection of repaired parts are challenging. The current research aims to address crucial issues associated with component repair based on three research topics. The first topic is focusing on the development of pre-repair processing strategies which includes pre-repair machining to guarantee the damaged parts are ready for material deposition and pre-repair heat-treatment to restore the nominal mechanical properties. For this purpose, some damaged parts with varied defects were processed based on the proposed strategies. The second topic presents algorithms for obtaining the repair volume on damaged parts by comparing the damaged 3D models with the nominal models. Titanium compressor blades and die/mold were used as case studies to illustrate the damage detection and reconstructing algorithms. The third topic is the evaluation of repaired components through material inspection and mechanical testing to make sure the repair is successful. The current research contributes to metallic component remanufacturing by providing knowledge to solve key issues coupled with repair. Moreover, the research results could benefit a wide range of industries, such as aerospace, automotive, biomedical, and die casting"--Abstract, page iv.

Electromechanical Control Technology and Transportation

Electromechanical Control Technology and Transportation
Author: Xiaoling Jia,Feng Wu
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 518
Release: 2017-05-12
ISBN: 1351656988
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electromechanical Control Technology and Transportation Book Excerpt:

The 2017 2nd International Conference on Electromechanical Control Technology and Transportation (ICECTT 2017) was held on January 14–15, 2017 in Zhuhai, China. ICECTT 2017 brought together academics and industrial experts in the field of electromechanical control technology and transportation to a common forum. The primary goal of the conference was to promote research and developmental activities in electromechanical control technology and transportation. Another goal was to promote exchange of scientific information between researchers, developers, engineers, students, and practitioners working all around the world. The conference will be held every year thus making it an ideal platform for people to share views and experiences in electromechanical control technology and transportation and related areas.

Advanced Additive Manufacturing

Advanced Additive Manufacturing
Author: Igor V. Shishkovsky
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 306
Release: 2022-07-20
ISBN: 1839628200
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Additive Manufacturing Book Excerpt:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is now being used to produce series components for the most demanding applications. It is a disruptive, if not revolutionary, manufacturing technology. The biggest advantage of this technology is its capacity to make parts with any free form, thus paving the way for free and complex part design. Components and integrated structures with complex designs that would not have been possible just a few years ago can now be made according to various requirements. The net-shape manufacturing capacity of AM allows a considerable saving of materials, conventional thermomechanical processing, and machining processes, making it an environmentally friendly manufacturing technology. This book includes two sections that cover new approaches in AM for biomedical applications and advanced technological solutions.

From Additive Manufacturing to 3D 4D Printing 1

From Additive Manufacturing to 3D 4D Printing 1
Author: Jean-Claude André
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 354
Release: 2017-11-29
ISBN: 1786301199
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

From Additive Manufacturing to 3D 4D Printing 1 Book Excerpt:

In 1984, additive manufacturing represented a new methodology for manipulating matter, consisting of harnessing materials and/or energy to create three-dimensional physical objects. Today, additive manufacturing technologies represent a market of around 5 billion euros per year, with an annual growth between 20 and 30%. Different processes, materials and dimensions (from nanometer to decameter) within additive manufacturing techniques have led to 70,000 publications on this topic and to several thousand patents with applications as wide-ranging as domestic uses. Volume 1 of this series of books presents these different technologies with illustrative industrial examples. In addition to the strengths of 3D methods, this book also covers their weaknesses and the developments envisaged in terms of incremental innovations to overcome them.

Additive Manufacturing Technologies and Applications

Additive Manufacturing Technologies and Applications
Author: Salvatore Brischetto,Paolo Maggiore,Carlo Giovanni Ferro
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 188
Release: 2018-07-09
ISBN: 3038425486
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Additive Manufacturing Technologies and Applications Book Excerpt:

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Additive Manufacturing Technologies and Applications" that was published in Technologies

Additive Manufacturing Technologies

Additive Manufacturing Technologies
Author: Ian Gibson,David Rosen,Brent Stucker,Mahyar Khorasani
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 675
Release: 2020-11-10
ISBN: 3030561275
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Additive Manufacturing Technologies Book Excerpt:

This textbook covers in detail digitally-driven methods for adding materials together to form parts. A conceptual overview of additive manufacturing is given, beginning with the fundamentals so that readers can get up to speed quickly. Well-established and emerging applications such as rapid prototyping, micro-scale manufacturing, medical applications, aerospace manufacturing, rapid tooling and direct digital manufacturing are also discussed. This book provides a comprehensive overview of additive manufacturing technologies as well as relevant supporting technologies such as software systems, vacuum casting, investment casting, plating, infiltration and other systems. Reflects recent developments and trends and adheres to the ASTM, SI and other standards; Includes chapters on topics that span the entire AM value chain, including process selection, software, post-processing, industrial drivers for AM, and more; Provides a broad range of technical questions to ensure comprehensive understanding of the concepts covered.

Additive Manufacturing of Metals Fundamentals and Testing of 3D and 4D Printing

Additive Manufacturing of Metals  Fundamentals and Testing of 3D and 4D Printing
Author: Hisham Abdel-Aal
Publsiher: McGraw Hill Professional
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2021-10-29
ISBN: 1260464350
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Additive Manufacturing of Metals Fundamentals and Testing of 3D and 4D Printing Book Excerpt:

3D and 4D metallic printing principles, practices, and applications This practical guide clearly explains the tools and methods necessary to bridge the performance gap between conventionally produced and printed parts. Written by a metals expert and experienced educator, Additive Manufacturing of Metals: Fundamentals and Testing of 3- and 4-D Printing starts by explaining the basics, including components, metals, and production processes before progressing to more advanced topics. You will get complete discussions on issues related to the lack of regulation and standardization, mechanical behavior of printed parts, defects, measurements, and quality control. In addition, the book also discusses predictions for the future of the technology. It presents the potential obstacles that may limit its universal adoption across the manufacturing landscape. Coverage includes: Additive manufacturing fundamentals History of additive manufacturing Metal properties and data Feedstock for metal additive manufacturing processes Power considerations in metal additive manufacturing Technical gaps Powder morphology Powder characterization and measurement of properties Defects encountered in the build Mechanical behavior of printed parts Metrology and surface roughness issues in metal printing Future trends

Materials and Technologies in Dentistry Defects Processing and Characterization

Materials and Technologies in Dentistry  Defects  Processing and Characterization
Author: Iulian Antoniac
Publsiher: Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Total Pages: 132
Release: 2017-07-25
ISBN: 3035700362
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Materials and Technologies in Dentistry Defects Processing and Characterization Book Excerpt:

The goal of this special issue is to provide material scientists and clinicians from dentistry with an appreciation of the fundamental aspects of dental biomaterials from materials science point of view, as well as their clinical applications in the dentistry.

Fused Filament Fabrication of Filled Polymers for Metal Additive Manufacturing

Fused Filament Fabrication of Filled Polymers for Metal Additive Manufacturing
Author: Brenton Barmore
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 179
Release: 2016
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Metal powders
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fused Filament Fabrication of Filled Polymers for Metal Additive Manufacturing Book Excerpt:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a relatively new manufacturing technique that can create high complexity parts out of many materials in low volume. The fused filament fabrication (FFF) is the lowest cost AM process and is capable of producing only thermoplastic components. Powder injection molding (PIM) is a high volume low cost manufacturing technique for producing complex high precision parts from ceramic or metal powders. This research focuses on applying PIM material systems to the FFF process. Enabling the printing of a high powder loaded thermoplastic binder system which is capable of being printed by FFF methods, and be processed and sintered into a metal component. This new 3d printing process would be much less expensive than current AM of metal materials because of FFF’s low cost and low post processing costs to produce densified parts. To achieve this, the goal was to develop a powder-polymer feedstock that could be made into FFF filament, 3D printed, solvent debound, thermally debound, and sintered. Materials for developing the feedstock were selecting from existing FFF and PIM polymers and powders. The developed feedstock was varied to improve ease of printing. The feedstocks were then tested to determine their ability to perform the intended processing steps. The results from experimentation showed FFF printing of materials with a high powder loading of 54.9vol% was possible, and the printed parts can be solvent and thermally debound. Preliminary sintering testing indicated densification occurred but was hindered by improper processing parameters.

Advanced Engineering Forum

Advanced Engineering Forum
Author: Mihai Demian,Claudiu Nicolicescu
Publsiher: Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Total Pages: 356
Release: 2019-10-04
ISBN: 3035735336
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Engineering Forum Book Excerpt:

Volume 34 of Advanced Engineering Forum presents best full peer-reviewed papers from the 5th International Conference Advances in Engineering and Management (ADEM 2018) was held on November 2018 in Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Romania. The presented book is a scientific papers collection from various areas of modern engineering science and we hope that this collection will be useful for many specialists, researches and students.

Precision Metal Molding

Precision Metal Molding
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1952
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Die-casting
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Precision Metal Molding Book Excerpt:

Monitoring the Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Through Thermographic Data Analysis

Monitoring the Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Through Thermographic Data Analysis
Author: Jacob B. Raplee
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 138
Release: 2017
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Monitoring the Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Through Thermographic Data Analysis Book Excerpt:

Metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the formation of a solid metal part through the layer-wise melting of metal powder, wire, or thin sheets using various heat sources or other bonding methods. This manufacturing method provides nearly limitless complexity with decreased waste, energy needs, and lead time. However, the process faces challenges in part consistency and validation especially for high precision fields such as aerospace and defense. Research has sought to implement robust process monitoring techniques to increase consistency and the reliability of the AM process and detect vital information about the part such as microstructural development, and porosity formation so that eventually the proper control systems can be created to control the desired outcome. The research performed in this thesis seeks to utilize one of the more promising monitoring techniques for the metal PBF processes (selective laser sintering and electron beam melting), infrared (IR) thermography. However, little research has been performed using the technology, and therefore few monitoring applications for AM have been developed. The methods and results in this research will show two potential applications for the use of IR thermography to monitor AM materials: microstructural monitoring and porosity detection. The research will also discuss an algorithmic method for calibrating IR signals for in-situ emissivity change of the material to obtain a more accurate temperature history of a part during the build and direction for future work that needs to be addressed to advance the technology further.

Product Design

Product Design
Author: Andrew Dent,Leslie H. Sherr,Material ConneXion (Firm)
Publsiher: Material Innovation
Total Pages: 208
Release: 2014
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Design
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Product Design Book Excerpt:

Focuses on Product Design. This book features carefully selected products that showcase the use of a particular material. It includes six specially commissioned visual narratives by experts in the field, and an extensive illustrated materials directory with detailed information on almost 100 materials.

Testbeds for Quality and Porosity Control in Metal Additive Manufacturing by Selective Laser Melting

Testbeds for Quality and Porosity Control in Metal Additive Manufacturing by Selective Laser Melting
Author: Jonathan Sutton Gibbs
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 283
Release: 2018
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Testbeds for Quality and Porosity Control in Metal Additive Manufacturing by Selective Laser Melting Book Excerpt:

Selective laser melting (SLM) is a metal additive manufacturing process that can achieve high local density and near-net shape geometric accuracy. The dynamics of the meltpool and stability of the melt track upon cooling are critical to the microstructure, porosity, and final properties of the solidified material. Recent studies are replete with optimization of SLM scan parameters, yet there is need to develop a more fundamental understanding of how meltpool dynamics influence the SLM process, which may lead to new means of process control. First, a custom-built SLM testbed is presented integrating precision recoating, high resolution thermal metrology, and the capability to fabricate novel hybrid composites through selective doping of the powder bed by inkjet deposition. An initial demonstration of this testbed relates basic scan strategies to thermal history and resultant porosity in as-built alloy 316L austenitic stainless steel. Second, the thesis will investigate the influence of elevated ambient gas pressure on the meltpool and solidified track to elucidate how pressure may be used as a control variable to influence surface quality, porosity and material loss due to evaporation with the ultimate objective of improving processing throughput for 316L. Third, a preliminary study is performed on the generation of fine porosity by SLM, using powder feedstock mixed with a gassing agent, in combination with control of build environment pressure.

AMI Light Metals Conference 2014

AMI Light Metals Conference 2014
Author: Heinrich Möller,Ulyate Andries Curle
Publsiher: Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Total Pages: 468
Release: 2014-10-20
ISBN: 3038266183
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

AMI Light Metals Conference 2014 Book Excerpt:

Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the AMI Light Metals 2014 Conference,October 15-17, 2014, Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa. The 59 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter 1: Plenary, Chapter 2: Light Metals: Aluminium and Magnesium, Chapter 3: Light Metals: Titanium, Chapter 4: Ferrous & Base Metals, Chapter 5: Precious Metals, Chapter 6: Nuclear Materials