Description : From the Foreword: "Predator-prey interactions are among the most significant of all organism-organism interactions....It will only be by compiling and evaluating data on predator-prey relations as they are recorded in the fossil record that we can hope to tease apart their role in the tangled web of evolutionary interaction over time. This volume, compiled by a group of expert specialists on the evidence of predator-prey interactions in the fossil record, is a pioneering effort to collate the information now accumulating in this important field. It will be a standard reference on which future study of one of the central dynamics of ecology as seen in the fossil record will be built." (Richard K. Bambach, Professor Emeritus, Virginia Tech, Associate of the Botanical Museum, Harvard University)
Description : Predatory gastropods have left signs of boring predation in the fossil record as early as the Cambrian (McMenamin and Schulte McMenamin, 1990; putative Proterozoic examples [e.g., Bengtson and Zhao, 1992] remain controversial). Through studying drill holes in prey, we can better understand predator-prey interactions in marine communities. It has been proposed that further study of the interior of drill holes yields microtraces left by the radular teeth during the drilling process (Schiffbauer et al., 2008; Tyler and Schiffbauer, 2012). The pattern and orientation of the traces can be used to associate predator with prey and act as a diagnostic feature to identify the predator. Trace fossils can provide great insight into past environments, but only when they are well preserved. Through assessing one hundred and eighty drill holes using scanning electron microscopy, I provide here evidence suggesting the limited presence of predatory microtraces. Interpreting shell deterioration and extrapolating the observed degradation of modern specimens to hypothetical paleoenvironments suggests that preservation of such minute traces would be poor and would thus negate the purpose of creating such a diagnostic. Additionally, the current understanding of the drilling process suggests that the preservation of microtraces within the drill hole margins is an infrequent occurrence. This may be due to the fact that before utilizing their radular teeth, predatory gastropods deploy secretions from the accessory boring organ (ABO) to break down the shell surface, lessening the preservation potential of predatory microtraces (Carriker, 1969). This study has discovered porcellaneous rims surrounding the drill holes in the Miocene Saxolucina. Further study into these rims may provide additional insight into the drilling strategy of naticid gastropods.
Description : Predation is considered one of the distinct phenomena related to the interrelationships between species on the Earth. In general, predation is widespread not only in wildlife but also in marine environments where big fishes eat small fishes and other organisms of the sea. This book considers predation in organisms and is aimed at the prevention of predation in wildlife and marine environments.
Description : This volume addresses major evolutionary changes that took place during the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic. These include discussions on major evolutionary radiations and ecological innovations on land and at sea, such as the Mesozoic marine revolution, the Mesozoic radiation of vertebrates, the Mesozoic lacustrine revolution, the Cenozoic radiation of mammals, the evolution of paleosol biotas, and the evolution of hominins. The roles of mass extinctions at the end of the Triassic and at the end of the Cretaceous are assessed. This volume set provides innovative reviews of the major evolutionary events in the history of life from an ichnologic perspective. Because the long temporal range of trace fossils has been commonly emphasized, biogenic structures have been traditionally overlooked in macroevolution. However, comparisons of ichnofaunas through geologic time do reveal the changing ecology of organism-substrate interactions. The use of trace fossils in evolutionary paleoecology represents a new trend that is opening a window for our understanding of major evolutionary radiations and mass extinctions. Trace fossils provide crucial evidence for the recognition of spatial and temporal patterns and processes associated with paleoecologic breakthroughs.
Description : “A fascinating blend of culinary history and the science of taste” (Publishers Weekly, starred review), from the first bite taken by our ancestors to ongoing scientific advances in taste and today’s “foodie” revolution. Can’t resist the creamy smoothness of butter? Blame Darwinian natural selection. Crave the immediate zing of sweets? They bathe your brain in a seductive high. Enjoy the savory flavors of grilled meat? So did your ancestor Homo erectus. Coffee? You had to overcome your hardwired aversion to its hint of bitterness and learn to like it. Taste is a whole-body experience, and breakthroughs in genetics and microbiology are casting light not only on the experience of french fries and foie gras, but on the mysterious interplay of body, brain, and mind. Reporting from kitchens, supermarkets, farms, restaurants, huge food corporations, and science labs, Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist John McQuaid tells the story of the still-emerging concept of flavor and how our sense of taste will evolve in the coming decades. Tasty explains why children have bizarre and stubborn tastes, how the invention of cooking changed our brains and physiology, why artificial sweeteners never taste quite right, why name brands really do taste better, how a 100,000-year-old walkabout by early humans is responsible for George H.W. Bush’s broccoli-hatred, why “supertasters” like salt, and why “nontasters” are more likely to be alcoholics. “A fascinating story with a beginning some half a billion years ago…McQuaid’s tale is about science, but also about culture, history and, one senses, our future” (Scientific American). Tasty offers a delicious smorgasbord of where taste originated and where it’s going—and why it changes by the day.
Description : This book provides a comprehensive review of the evolution of traits associated with predation and predator defense for bats and all of their prey, both invertebrates (e.g. insects) and vertebrates (e.g. frogs), in the context of co-evolution. It reviews current knowledge of how echolocation and passive hearing are used by bats to hunt prey in complete darkness. Also it highlights how prey have evolved counter measures to bat echolocation to avoid detection and capture. This includes the whole range of prey responses from being active at times when bats are inactive to the use of acoustic signals of their own to interfere with the echolocation system of bats.
Description : Evidence of predator-prey interactions in the fossil record offers important insights into extinct ecosystems. As direct predator-prey relationships are rarely preserved, records of failed predation upon prey species are often considered. The biomineralized exoskeleton of trilobites is exemplary for recording injuries that have resulted from predation. Despite the extensive documentation of trilobite injuries, abnormal specimens are often documented in isolation, with examples of injuries among clustered individuals being poorly known. Here we document a well-preserved body cluster of 18 individuals of the large lichid trilobite Arctinurus boltoni from the mid-Silurian (Wenlock) Rochester Shale of New York, with eight specimens showing injuries. Landmark geometric morphometrics of the specimens is used to explore possible patterns between injured and noninjured specimens. Results of the morphometric analysis indicate that injured and noninjured specimens do not show any systematic difference in overall shape of the exoskeleton, but many of the larger specimens have injuries. The majority of injuries are posteriorly located and right-side dominant, highlighting the possibility of predator or prey lateralization. Biostratinomic evidence suggests that the cluster represents a biological aggregation that was rapidly buried in situ. Potential reasons for this gregarious behavior are discussed, including the possibility that individuals of A. boltoni grouped together to provide "safety in numbers" against predatory attack.
Description : McGraw-Hill's world-renowned annual publication continues its tradition of making information on the latest advances in science and technology accessible to non-specialists through concise, well-illustrated articles. * Approximately 150 articles from 200 leaders in their respective fields cover technical disciplines from Agriculture to Zoology * 225 images and two-color illustrations enhance the text * Features numerous cross-references to the "McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, 9th Edition," and references of key literature after each article * An extensive subject index makes finding information a snap * Up-to-date coverage of forefront topics such as bioterrorism, earth simulator, electric power systems, extreme programming, HIV vaccines, human impact on vertebrate extinction, polymers for micro-electronics, solar storms, and Voice-over IP.