Principles and Applications of Aquatic Chemistry

Principles and Applications of Aquatic Chemistry
Author: François M. M. Morel,Janet G. Hering
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 610
Release: 1993-03-10
ISBN: 9780471548966
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Principles and Applications of Aquatic Chemistry Book Excerpt:

Presents aquatic chemistry in a way that is truly useful to those with diverse backgrounds in the sciences. Major improvements to this edition include a complete rewrite of the first three background chapters making them user-friendly. There is less emphasis on mathematics and concepts are illustrated with actual examples to facilitate understanding.

Aquatic Chemistry

Aquatic Chemistry
Author: Werner Stumm,James J. Morgan
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 1040
Release: 2013-09-23
ISBN: 047167303X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Aquatic Chemistry Book Excerpt:

The authoritative introduction to natural water chemistry THIRDEDITION Now in its updated and expanded Third Edition, Aquatic Chemistryremains the classic resource on the essential concepts of naturalwater chemistry. Designed for both self-study and classroom use,this book builds a solid foundation in the general principles ofnatural water chemistry and then proceeds to a thorough treatmentof more advanced topics. Key principles are illustrated with a widerange of quantitative models, examples, and problem-solvingmethods. Major subjects covered include: * Chemical Thermodynamics * Solid-Solution Interface and Kinetics * Trace Metals * Acids and Bases * Kinetics of Redox Processes * Dissolved Carbon Dioxide * Photochemical Processes * Atmosphere-Water Interactions * Kinetics at the Solid-Water * Metal Ions in Aqueous Solution Interface * Precipitation and Dissolution * Particle-Particle Interaction * Oxidation and Reduction * Regulation of the Chemical * Equilibria and Microbial Mediation Composition of Natural Waters

Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry

Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry
Author: Eugene R. Weiner
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 625
Release: 2012-12-07
ISBN: 1439853320
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry Book Excerpt:

Professionals and students who come from disciplines other than chemistry need a concise yet reliable guide that explains key concepts in environmental chemistry, from the fundamental science to the necessary calculations for applying them. Updated and reorganized, Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry: A Practical Guide, Third Edition provides the essential background for understanding and solving the most frequent environmental chemistry problems. Diverse and self-contained chapters offer a centralized and easily navigable framework for finding useful data tables that are ordinarily scattered throughout the literature. Worked examples provide step-by-step details for frequently used calculations, drawing on case histories from real-world environmental applications. Chapters also offer tools for calculating quick estimates of important quantities and practice problems that apply the principles to different conditions. This practical guide provides an ideal basis for self-study, as well as short courses involving the movement and fate of contaminants in the environment. In addition to extensive reorganization and updating, the Third Edition includes a new chapter, Nutrients and Odors: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur, two new appendices, Solubility of Slightly Soluble Metal Salts and Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in this Book, and new material and case studies on remediation, stormwater management, algae growth and treatment, odor control, and radioisotopes.

Environmental Chemistry

Environmental Chemistry
Author: Stanley Manahan,Stanley E. Manahan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 786
Release: 2009-12-17
ISBN: 1439882479
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Chemistry Book Excerpt:

The field of environmental chemistry has evolved significantly since the publication of the first edition of Environmental Chemistry. Throughout the book's long life, it has chronicled emerging issues such as organochloride pesticides, detergent phosphates, stratospheric ozone depletion, the banning of chlorofluorocarbons, and greenhouse warming. D

Fundamentals Of Aquatic Toxicology

Fundamentals Of Aquatic Toxicology
Author: Gary M. Rand
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1933
Release: 2020-08-06
ISBN: 100016294X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals Of Aquatic Toxicology Book Excerpt:

This text is divided into three parts. The first part describes basic toxicological concepts and methodologies used in aquatic toxicity testing, including the philosophies underlying testing strategies now required to meet and support regulatory standards. The second part of the book discusses various factors that affect transport, transformation, ultimate distribution, and accumulation of chemicals in the aquatic environment, along with the use of modelling to predict fate.; The final section of the book reviews types of effects or endpoints evaluated in field studies and the use of structure-activity relationships in aquatic toxicology to predict biological activity and physio-chemical properties of a chemical. This section also contains an extensive background of environmental legislation in the USA and within the European Community, and an introduction to hazard/risk assessment with case studies.

Water Chemistry

Water Chemistry
Author: Stanley E. Manahan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2010-08-19
ISBN: 1439894345
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Water Chemistry Book Excerpt:

Carefully crafted to provide a comprehensive overview of the chemistry of water in the environment, Water Chemistry: Green Science and Technology of Nature's Most Renewable Resource examines water issues within the broad framework of sustainability, an issue of increasing importance as the demands of Earth’s human population threaten to overwhelm the planet’s carrying capacity. Renowned environmental author Stanley Manahan provides more than just basic coverage of the chemistry of water. He relates the science and technology of this amazing substance to areas essential to sustainability science, including environmental and green chemistry, industrial ecology, and green (sustainable) science and technology. The inclusion of a separate chapter that comprehensively covers energy, including renewable and emerging sources, sets this book a part. Manahan explains how the hydrosphere relates to the geosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and anthrosphere. His approach views Planet Earth as consisting of these five mutually interacting spheres. He covers biogeochemical cycles and the essential role of water in these basic cycles of materials. He also defines environmental chemistry and green chemistry, emphasizing water’s role in the practice of each. Manahan highlights the role of the anthrosphere, that part of the environment constructed and operated by humans. He underscores its overwhelming influence on the environment and its pervasive effects on the hydrosphere. He also covers the essential role that water plays in the sustainable operation of the anthrosphere and how it can be maintained in a manner that will enable it to operate in harmony with the environment for generations to come. Written at an intermediate level, this is an appropriate text for the study of current affairs in environmental chemistry. It provides a review and grounding in basic and organic chemistry for those students who need it and also fills a niche for an aquatic chemistry book that relates the hydrosphere to the four other environmental spheres.

Trace Metals in Aquatic Systems

Trace Metals in Aquatic Systems
Author: Robert P. Mason
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 450
Release: 2013-02-20
ISBN: 111827458X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Trace Metals in Aquatic Systems Book Excerpt:

This book provides a detailed examination of the concentration, form and cycling of trace metals and metalloids through the aquatic biosphere, and has sections dealing with the atmosphere, the ocean, lakes and rivers. It discusses exchanges at the water interface (air/water and sediment/water) and the major drivers of the cycling, concentration and form of trace metals in aquatic systems. The initial chapters focus on the fundamental principles and modelling approaches needed to understand metal concentration, speciation and fate in the aquatic environment, while the later chapters focus on specific environments, with case studies and research highlights. Specific examples deal with metals that are of particular scientific interest, such as mercury, iron, arsenic and zinc, and the book deals with both pollutant and required (nutrient) metals and metalloids. The underlying chemical principles controlling toxicity and bioavailability of these elements to microorganisms and to the aquatic food chain are also discussed. Readership: Graduate students studying environmental chemistry and related topics, as well as scientists and managers interested in the cycling of trace substances in aqueous systems Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/mason/tracemetals.

Ionic Equilibrium

Ionic Equilibrium
Author: James N. Butler
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 582
Release: 1998-04-13
ISBN: 9780471585268
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ionic Equilibrium Book Excerpt:

A celebrated classic in the field updated and expanded to includethe latest computerized calculation techniques In 1964, James N. Butler published a book in which he presentedsome simple graphical methods of performing acid-base, solubility,and complex formation equilibrium calculations. Today, both thebook and these methods have become standard for generations ofstudents and professionals in fields ranging from environmentalscience to analytical chemistry. Named a "Citation Classic" by theScience Citation Index in 1990, the book, Ionic Equilibrium,continues to be one of the most widely used texts on the subject.So why tamper with near-perfection by attempting a revision of thatclassic? The reason is simple-- the recent rapid development andwide availability of personal computers. In the revised Ionic Equilibrium, Dr. Butler updates his 1964 workby abandoning the slide rule and graph paper for the PCspreadsheet. He also expands the original coverage with extensivematerial on basic principles and recent research. The first part of Ionic Equilibrium is devoted to the fundamentalsof acid-base, solubility, and complex formation equilibria. In thesecond part, the author discusses oxidation-reduction equilibria,develops the principles of carbon dioxide equilibria, presents casestudies demonstrating the ways in which carbon dioxide equilibriaare used in physiology and oceanography, and explores thepossibility of a pH scale for brines. The concluding chapter,written by David R. Cogley, gives examples of general computerprograms that are capable of performing equilibrium calculations onsystems of many components. Replete with real-world examples, details of importantcalculations, and practical problems, Ionic Equilibrium is an idealcourse text for students of environmental chemistry, engineering,or health; analytical chemistry; oceanography; geochemistry;biochemistry; physical chemistry; and clinical chemistry. It isalso a valuable working resource for professionals in those fieldsas well as industrial chemists involved with solution chemistry.

Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment

Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment
Author: Harold F. Hemond,Elizabeth J. Fechner
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 529
Release: 2022-07-21
ISBN: 0128222530
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment Book Excerpt:

Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment, Fourth Edition explains the fundamental principles of mass transport, chemical partitioning, and chemical/biological transformations in surface waters, in soil and groundwater, and in air. Each of these three major environmental media is introduced by descriptive overviews, followed by a presentation of the controlling physical, chemical, and biological processes. The text emphasizes intuitively based mathematical models for chemical transport and transformations in the environment and serves both as a textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate courses in environmental science and engineering, and as a standard reference for environmental practitioners. Following on the previous edition, which won a 2015 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty) from The Text and Academic Authors Association, this edition expands the discussion of applications for sustainability, adds coverage of the hyperheic zone discussion in Chapter 3, highlights the relationships between chemical structures and properties, and includes new and/or previously underestimated classes of pollutants, such as PCPs, pfos, pfoa, microplastics, microfibers, and nanoparticles. Additionally, it updates tables, figures, and references and includes worked problems and exercises ad the end of each chapter. Includes many worked examples and extensive exercises at the end of each chapter, as well as a solutions manual for instructors Illustrates the interconnections, similarities, and contrasts among the three major environmental media: surface waters, groundwater, and the atmosphere Discusses and builds upon fundamental concepts, thereby constructing a foundation upon which students can realistically address environmental problems as well as proceed to more advanced studies

Trace Environmental Quantitative Analysis

Trace Environmental Quantitative Analysis
Author: Paul R. Loconto
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 766
Release: 2020-12-27
ISBN: 1000244830
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Trace Environmental Quantitative Analysis Book Excerpt:

A thorough and timely update, this new edition presents principles, techniques, and applications in this sub-discipline of analytical chemistry for quantifying traces of potentially toxic organic and inorganic chemical substances found in air, soil, fish, and water, as well as serum, plasma, urine, and other body fluids. The author addresses regulatory aspects, calibration, verification, and the statistical treatment of analytical data including instrument detection limits; quality assurance/quality control; sampling and sample preparation; and techniques that are used to quantify trace concentrations of organic and inorganic chemical substances. Key Features: Fundamental principles are introduced for the more significant experimental approaches to sample preparation Principles of instrumental analysis (determinative techniques) for trace organics and trace inorganics analysis An introduction to the statistical treatment of trace analytical data How to calculate instrument detection limits based on weighted least squares confidence band calibration statistics Includes an updated series of student-tested experiments

The Surface Chemistry of Natural Particles

The Surface Chemistry of Natural Particles
Author: Garrison Sposito
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2004-03-25
ISBN: 0190283602
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Surface Chemistry of Natural Particles Book Excerpt:

This book covers the development of both experiment and theory in natural surface particle chemistry. It emphasizes insights gained over the past few years, and concentrates on molecular spectroscopy, kinetics, and equilibrium as they apply to natural particle surface reactions in aqueous media. The discussion, divided among five chapters, is complemented by lengthy annotations, reading suggestions, and end-of-chapter problem sets that require a critical reading of important technical journal articles.

Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia

Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia
Author: Frank M. Dunnivant,Elliot Anders
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 424
Release: 2019-03-28
ISBN: 1119414652
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia Book Excerpt:

Bridges the gaps between regulatory, engineering, and science disciplines in order to comprehensively cover pollutant fate and transport in environmental multimedia This book presents and integrates all aspects of fate and transport: chemistry, modeling, various forms of assessment, and the environmental legal framework. It approaches each of these topics initially from a conceptual perspective before explaining the concepts in terms of the math necessary to model the problem so that students of all levels can learn and eventually contribute to the advancement of water quality science. The first third of Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia is dedicated to the relevant aspects of chemistry behind the fate and transport processes. It provides relatively simple examples and problems to teach these principles. The second third of the book is based on the conceptual derivation and the use of common models to evaluate the importance of model parameters and sensitivity analysis; complex equation derivations are given in appendices. Computer exercises and available simulators teach and enforce the concepts and logic behind fate and transport modeling. The last third of the book is focused on various aspects of assessment (toxicology, risk, benefit-cost, and life cycle) and environmental legislation in the US, Europe, and China. The book closes with a set of laboratory exercises that illustrate chemical and fate and transport concepts covered in the text, with example results for most experiments. Features more introductory material on past environmental disasters and the continued need to study environmental chemistry and engineering Covers chemical toxicology with various forms of assessment, United States, European, and Chinese regulations, and advanced fate and transport modeling and regulatory implications Provides a conceptual and relatively simple mathematical approach to fate and transport modeling, yet complex derivations of most equations are given in appendices Integrates the use of numerous software packages (pC-pH, EnviroLab Simulators, Water, Wastewater, and Global Issues), and Fate©2016 Contains numerous easy-to-understand examples and problems along with answers for most end-of-the-chapter problems, and simulators for answers to fate and transport questions Includes numerous companion laboratory experiments with EnviroLab Requiring just a basic knowledge of algebra and first-year college chemistry to start, Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia is an excellent textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate faculty and students studying environmental engineering and science.

Chemistry of the Environment

Chemistry of the Environment
Author: Ronald A. Bailey,Herbert M. Clark,James P. Ferris,Sonja Krause,Robert L. Strong
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 835
Release: 2002-04-23
ISBN: 0080488471
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chemistry of the Environment Book Excerpt:

Emphasizing new science essential to the practice of environmental chemistry at the beginning of the new millennium, Chemistry of the Environment describes the atmosphere as a distinct sphere of the environment and the practice of industrial ecology as it applies to chemical science. It includes extensive coverage of nuclear chemistry, covering both natural environmental sources and anthropogenic sources, their impacts on health, and their role in energy production, that goes well beyond the newspaper coverage to discuss nuclear chemistry and disposal in a balanced and scientifically rational way. This is the only environmental chemistry text to adequately discuss nuclear chemistry and disposal in a balanced and scientifically rational way. The overall format allows for particular topics to be omitted at the discretion of the instructor without loss of continuity. Contains a discussion of climate history to put current climate concerns in perspective, an approach that makes current controversy about climate change more understandable.

Geochemistry

Geochemistry
Author: William M. White
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 960
Release: 2020-07-17
ISBN: 1119438101
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Geochemistry Book Excerpt:

A Comprehensive Introduction to the “Geochemist Toolbox” – the Basic Principles of Modern Geochemistry In the new edition of William M. White’s Geochemistry, undergraduate and graduate students will find each of the core principles of geochemistry covered. From defining key principles and methods to examining Earth’s core composition and exploring organic chemistry and fossil fuels, this definitive edition encompasses all the information needed for a solid foundation in the earth sciences for beginners and beyond. For researchers and applied scientists, this book will act as a useful reference on fundamental theories of geochemistry, applications, and environmental sciences. The new edition includes new chapters on the geochemistry of the Earth’s surface (the “critical zone”), marine geochemistry, and applied geochemistry as it relates to environmental applications and geochemical exploration. ● A review of the fundamentals of geochemical thermodynamics and kinetics, trace element and organic geochemistry ● An introduction to radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry and applications such as geologic time, ancient climates, and diets of prehistoric people ● Formation of the Earth and composition and origins of the core, the mantle, and the crust ● New chapters that cover soils and streams, the oceans, and geochemistry applied to the environment and mineral exploration In this foundational look at geochemistry, new learners and professionals will find the answer to the essential principles and techniques of the science behind the Earth and its environs.

Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry

Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry
Author: Eugene R. Weiner
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 458
Release: 2008-01-17
ISBN: 1420008374
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry Book Excerpt:

Professionals and students who come from disciplines other than chemistry need a concise, yet reliable guide that explains key concepts in environmental chemistry, from the fundamental science to the necessary calculations for applying them. Updated and reorganized, Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry: A Practical Guide, Second Editi

Environmental Organic Chemistry

Environmental Organic Chemistry
Author: René P. Schwarzenbach,Philip M. Gschwend,Dieter M. Imboden
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 1330
Release: 2005-06-24
ISBN: 0471743992
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Organic Chemistry Book Excerpt:

Environmental Organic Chemistry focuses on environmental factors that govern the processes that determine the fate of organic chemicals in natural and engineered systems. The information discovered is then applied to quantitatively assessing the environmental behaviour of organic chemicals. Now in its 2nd edition this book takes a more holistic view on physical-chemical properties of organic compounds. It includes new topics that address aspects of gas/solid partitioning, bioaccumulation, and transformations in the atmosphere. Structures chapters into basic and sophisticated sections Contains illustrative examples, problems and case studies Examines the fundamental aspects of organic, physical and inorganic chemistry - applied to environmentally relevant problems Addresses problems and case studies in one volume

Geochemical Processes Weathering and Groundwater Recharge in Catchments

Geochemical Processes  Weathering and Groundwater Recharge in Catchments
Author: O.M. Saether,P. de Caritat
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 479
Release: 2020-08-19
ISBN: 1000150593
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Geochemical Processes Weathering and Groundwater Recharge in Catchments Book Excerpt:

Geochemical Processes, Weathering and Groundwater Recharge in Catchments is a specialist book concerned with the natural processes taking place where water interacts with minerals and organic matter at the earth’s surface, in soils or within aquifers. It focuses on the all important interface between the hydrological and geochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, and is thus particularly relevant to understanding the environment. The book is intended primarily as a reference text for graduate students in Earth Sciences, Hydrology or Environmental Sciences, but will be a useful introduction to those studying Chemistry, Biology or Forestry Studies. Geochemical Processes, Weathering and Groundwater Recharge in Catchments presents an overview of the current status of knowledge of catchment studies, with an outline of the challenges of future research. .

The Physics and Chemistry of Mineral Surfaces

The Physics and Chemistry of Mineral Surfaces
Author: Patrick V. Brady
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 309
Release: 2020-12-18
ISBN: 1000142310
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Physics and Chemistry of Mineral Surfaces Book Excerpt:

The last two decades have brought a near exponential increase in the amount known about mineral surfaces. Get a handle on this overwhelming mountain of information with The Physics and Chemistry of Mineral Surfaces. This much-needed text will save you hours of tedious journal searches by providing an excellent condensation and overview of the entire field, including its future direction. Top researchers outline atomistic controls on mineral surface structure and reactions; apply these concepts to explain sorption, mineral corrosion and growth; and ultimately consider the role of surfaces in environmental and geochemical processes. This unique text provides a rich and rigorous treatment of these subjects by combining surface physics and chemistry - highlighting their useful, yet often ignored, complementary nature. Unlike other texts, The Physics and Chemistry of Mineral Surfaces also stresses the linkage between fundamentals of mineral surface science and specific real-world problems. This connection facilitates the application of surface physics and chemistry to macroscopic, global processes, such as the origins of life, global warming, and environment degradation. Nowhere else will you find a text on this topic that combines expansive coverage with clear-cut practical applications. Don't miss out! The Physics and Chemistry of Mineral Surfaces has it all.

Chemical Processes for Pollution Prevention and Control

Chemical Processes for Pollution Prevention and Control
Author: Paul Mac Berthouex,Linfield C. Brown
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2017-10-04
ISBN: 1351589628
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chemical Processes for Pollution Prevention and Control Book Excerpt:

This book examines how chemistry, chemical processes, and transformations are used for pollution prevention and control. Pollution prevention reduces or eliminates pollution at the source, whereas pollution control involves destroying, reducing, or managing pollutants that cannot be eliminated at the source. Applications of environmental chemistry are further illustrated by nearly 150 figures, numerous example calculations, and several case studies designed to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The book presents a variety of practical applications and is unique in its integration of pollution prevention and control, as well as air, water, and solid waste management.

Water Quality Engineering

Water Quality Engineering
Author: Mark M. Benjamin,Desmond F. Lawler
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 906
Release: 2013-07-01
ISBN: 1118169654
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Water Quality Engineering Book Excerpt:

Explains the fundamental theory and mathematics of water and wastewater treatment processes By carefully explaining both the underlying theory and the underlying mathematics, this text enables readers to fully grasp the fundamentals of physical and chemical treatment processes for water and wastewater. Throughout the book, the authors use detailed examples to illustrate real-world challenges and their solutions, including step-by-step mathematical calculations. Each chapter ends with a set of problems that enable readers to put their knowledge into practice by developing and analyzing complex processes for the removal of soluble and particulate materials in order to ensure the safety of our water supplies. Designed to give readers a deep understanding of how water treatment processes actually work, Water Quality Engineering explores: Application of mass balances in continuous flow systems, enabling readers to understand and predict changes in water quality Processes for removing soluble contaminants from water, including treatment of municipal and industrial wastes Processes for removing particulate materials from water Membrane processes to remove both soluble and particulate materials Following the discussion of mass balances in continuous flow systems in the first part of the book, the authors explain and analyze water treatment processes in subsequent chapters by setting forth the relevant mass balance for the process, reactor geometry, and flow pattern under consideration. With its many examples and problem sets, Water Quality Engineering is recommended as a textbook for graduate courses in physical and chemical treatment processes for water and wastewater. By drawing together the most recent research findings and industry practices, this text is also recommended for professional environmental engineers in search of a contemporary perspective on water and wastewater treatment processes.