Description : CMOS technology has now reached a state of evolution, in terms of both frequency and noise, where it is becoming a serious contender for radio frequency (RF) applications in the GHz range. Cutoff frequencies of about 50 GHz have been reported for 0.18 æm CMOS technology, and are expected to reach about 100 GHz when the feature size shrinks to 100 nm within a few years. This translates into CMOS circuit operating frequencies well into the GHz range, which covers the frequency range of many of today's popular wireless products, such as cell phones, GPS (Global Positioning System) and Bluetooth. Of course, the great interest in RF CMOS comes from the obvious advantages of CMOS technology in terms of production cost, high-level integration, and the ability to combine digital, analog and RF circuits on the same chip. This book discusses many of the challenges facing the CMOS RF circuit designer in terms of device modeling and characterization, which are crucial issues in circuit simulation and design.
Description : Proven processes for ensuring semiconductor device reliability Co-written by experts in the field, Semiconductor Process Reliability in Practice contains detailed descriptions and analyses of reliability and qualification for semiconductor device manufacturing and discusses the underlying physics and theory. The book covers initial specification definition, test structure design, analysis of test structure data, and final qualification of the process. Real-world examples of test structure designs to qualify front-end-of-line devices and back-end-of-line interconnects are provided in this practical, comprehensive guide. Coverage includes: Basic device physics Process flow for MOS manufacturing Measurements useful for device reliability characterization Hot carrier injection Gate-oxide integrity (GOI) and time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) Negative bias temperature instability Plasma-induced damage Electrostatic discharge protection of integrated circuits Electromigration Stress migration Intermetal dielectric breakdown