Description : Race still matters in Canada, and in the context of crime and criminal justice, it matters a lot. In this book, the authors focus on the ways in which racial minority groups are criminalized, as well as the ways in which the Canadian criminal justice system is racialized. Employing an intersectional analysis, Chan and Chunn explore how the connection between race and crime is further affected by class, gender, and other social relations.The text covers not only conventional topics such as policing, sentencing, and the media, but also neglected areas such as the criminalization of immigration, poverty, and mental illness.
Description : This dissertation examines different manifestations of inequality for people with mental illness who come into contact with the criminal justice system. The type of inequality I examine ranges from racial/ethnic disparities in how individuals with mental illness killed by police are portrayed in the news; to the stigmatization of these individuals; and finally how low socioeconomic status is associated with rates of mental health-related 911 calls. Despite widespread news coverage about individuals with mental illness killed by police, we know little about how these individuals are portrayed in the news. This is a significant omission because of the ability of the media to shape public opinion and policy debate. The first empirical chapter answers the question: are there differences in how individuals are portrayed by race/ethnicity? To do so, I examine news reports about men with mental illness killed by police. I find that people of color are not portrayed in the same manner when race/ethnicity and mental illness intersect, with African-Americans being more likely to be portrayed as victims of police actions than Hispanics. For African-American men, journalists may be privileging community members who question police actions. The second empirical chapter answers the question: is mental illness in the context of fatal police shootings stigmatized in the news, and if so, how? In this chapter I analyze news reports about both men and women with mental illness who were killed by police. To date, research on stigmatizing language has focused on explicit types. However, a failure to recognize implicit forms provides an incomplete perspective. I propose and apply a framework for stigma identification and find that implicit types of stigmatization are more common than explicit types in news reports about persons with mental illness killed by police. The final empirical chapter examines a different type of inequality for those who come into contact with the criminal justice system and asks: is socioeconomic status a predictor of mental health-related 911 calls independent of mental health? Answering this question is important because knowing which factors are associated with mental health-related calls could influence effective resource allocation. I analyze census tract-level data across three cities and find that a lack of financial resources is positively associated with mental health-related calls, independent of poor mental health. I argue that individuals of low socioeconomic status rely on this public safety net more so than affluent individuals, and that this is an under-recognized mechanism by which individuals of low socioeconomic status with mental illness come into contact with police.
Description : Reveals how gender intersects with race, class, and sexual orientation in ways that impact the legal status and well-being of women and girls in the justice system. Women and girls’ contact with the justice system is often influenced by gender-related assumptions and stereotypes. The justice practices of the past 40 years have been largely based on conceptual principles and assumptions—including personal theories about gender—more than scientific evidence about what works to address the specific needs of women and girls in the justice system. Because of this, women and girls have limited access to equitable justice and are increasingly caught up in outdated and harmful practices, including the net of the criminal justice system. Gender, Psychology, and Justice uses psychological research to examine the experiences of women and girls involved in the justice system. Their experiences, from initial contact with justice and court officials, demonstrate how gender intersects with race, class, and sexual orientation to impact legal status and well-being. The volume also explains the role psychology can play in shaping legal policy, ranging from the areas of corrections to family court and drug court. Gender, Psychology, and Justice provides a critical analysis of girls’ and women’s experiences in the justice system. It reveals the practical implications of training and interventions grounded in psychological research, and suggests new principles for working with women and girls in legal settings.
Description : The complicated relationship between defendants with mental health disorders and the criminal justice system The American criminal justice system is based on the bedrock principles of fairness and justice for all. In striving to ensure that all criminal defendants are treated equally under the law, it endeavors to handle similar cases in similar fashion, attempting to apply rules and procedures even-handedly regardless of a defendant’s social class, race, ethnicity, or gender. Yet, the criminal justice system has also recognized exceptions when special circumstances underlie a defendant’s behavior or are likely to skew the defendant’s trial. One of the most controversial set of exceptions –often poorly articulated and inconsistently applied – involves criminal defendants with a mental disorder. A series of special rules and procedures has evolved over the centuries, often without fanfare and even today with little systematic examination, that lawyers and judges apply to cases involving defendants with a mental disorder. This book provides an analysis of the key issues in this dynamic interplay between individuals with a mental disorder and the criminal justice system. The volume identifies the various stages of criminal justice proceedings when the mental status of a defendant may be relevant, associated legal and policy issues, the history and evolution of these issues, and how they are currently resolved. To assist this exploration, the text also offers an overview of mental disorders, their relevance to criminal proceedings, how forensic mental health assessments are conducted and employed during these proceedings, and their application to competency and responsibility determinations. In sum, this book provides an important resource for students and scholars with an interest in mental health, law, and criminal justice.
Description : There are many controversial aspects of our criminal justice system, and this encyclopedia examines the most significant controversies throughout American history with emphasis on current debates, trends, and issues. Arranged alphabetically, approximately 100 entries cover background, explanations, notable cases and events, various sides of an issue, and what to expect in the future. Entries are objective and factual, allowing readers to formulate their own conclusions. Sidebars and case examples help to illustrate each entry, and sources for further reading point readers to other important materials. Given the prevalance of controversial criminal justice topics in the news, this timely reference is an important resource for anyone interested in crime and justice. Entries include: Boot Camps, Corporal Punishment, DNA Evidence, Domestic Violence, Expert Testimony, Eye Witness Identifications, Gun Control, Homeland Security, International Criminal Court, Legalization of Marijuana, Mental Health and Insanity, Police Brutality, Prison Violence, Racial Profiling, School Violence, Sex Offender Laws, Stalking Laws, Supermax Prisons, Three Strikes, Treating Juveniles as Adults, War on Drugs, and more.
Description : Correctional Mental Health is a broad-based, balanced guide for students who are learning to treat criminal offenders in a correctional mental health practice. Featuring a wide selection of readings, this edited text offers a thorough grounding in theory, current research, professional practice, and clinical experience. It emphasizes a biopsychosocial approach to caring for the estimated 20% of all U.S. prisoners who have a serious mental disorder. Providing a balance between theoretical and practical perspectives throughout, the text also provides readers with a big-picture framework for assessing current correctional mental health and criminal justice issues, offering clear strategies for addressing these challenges.
Description : It has long been known that the pathway through the criminal justice system for those with mental health needs is fraught with difficulty. This interdisciplinary collection explores key issues in mental health, crime and criminal justice, including: offenders' rights; intervention designs; desistance; health-informed approaches to offending and the medical needs of offenders; psychological jurisprudence, and; collaborative and multi-agency practice. This volume draws on the knowledge of professionals and academics working in this field internationally, as well as the experience of service users. It offers a solution-focused response to these issues, and promotes both equality and quality of experience for service users. It will be essential reading for practitioners, scholars and students with an interest in forensic mental health and criminal justice.
Description : Forensic psychiatry is the discipline which distinguishes the 'mad' from the 'bad', but are its values inherently racist? Why are individuals from non-Western backgrounds over-represented statistically in those diagnosed with schizophrenia and other serious illnesses? The authors argue that the values on which psychiatry is based are firmly rooted in ethnocentric Western culture, with profound implications for individual diagnosis and systems of care. Through detailed exploration of the history of psychiatry, current clinical issues and present public policy, this powerful book traces the growth of a system in which non-conformity to the prevailing cultural norms risks alienation and diagnosis of mental disorder.