Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment

Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment
Author: George Shaw
Publsiher: Elsevier Science Limited
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2007
ISBN: 9780080438726
Category: Nature
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment Book Excerpt:

The Radioactivity in the Environment Series addresses the key aspects of this socially important and complex interdisciplinary subject. Presented objectively and with the ultimate authority gained from the many contributions by the world's leading experts, the negative and positive consequences of having a radioactive world around us is documented and given perspective. In a world in which nuclear science is not only less popular than in the past, but also less extensively taught in universities and colleges, this book series will fill a significant educational gap. Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment presents an updated and critical review of designing, siting, constructing and demonstrating the safety and environmental impact of deep repositories for radioactive wastes. It is structured to provide a broad perspective of this multi-faceted, multi-disciplinary topic providing enough detail for a non-specialist to understand the fundamental principles involved. * Contains extensive references to sources of more detailed information * Provides a detailed summary of radioactivity in terrestrial ecosystems, providing a substantial and essential reference on the subject * Discusses lesser-known sources of radiation exposure that provide useful information for those seeking to place environmental radioactivity into perspective

Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment

Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 306
Release: 2007-03-02
ISBN: 9780080474892
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment Book Excerpt:

The Radioactivity in the Environment Series addresses the key aspects of this socially important and complex interdisciplinary subject. Presented objectively and with the ultimate authority gained from the many contributions by the world's leading experts, the negative and positive consequences of having a radioactive world around us is documented and given perspective. In a world in which nuclear science is not only less popular than in the past, but also less extensively taught in universities and colleges, this book series will fill a significant educational gap. Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment presents an updated and critical review of designing, siting, constructing and demonstrating the safety and environmental impact of deep repositories for radioactive wastes. It is structured to provide a broad perspective of this multi-faceted, multi-disciplinary topic providing enough detail for a non-specialist to understand the fundamental principles involved. Contains extensive references to sources of more detailed information Provides a detailed summary of radioactivity in terrestrial ecosystems, providing a substantial and essential reference on the subject Discusses lesser-known sources of radiation exposure that provide useful information for those seeking to place environmental radioactivity into perspective

Radioecology and the Restoration of Radioactive Contaminated Sites

Radioecology and the Restoration of Radioactive Contaminated Sites
Author: F.F. Luykx,Martin J. Frissel
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 291
Release: 2011-09-28
ISBN: 9789401066204
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Radioecology and the Restoration of Radioactive Contaminated Sites Book Excerpt:

Most of the nuclear facilities built since the Second World War have ceased active operation and have been decommissioned. Some of the sites are heavily contaminated with radioactive substances. Correct and efficient action to mitigate the radiological consequences of such contamination will only be possible when the behaviour of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment is sufficiently well known. Yet radioecologists often find it difficult to study the transfer of radioactivity in agricultural land and semi-natural ecosystems, because of the complexity and diversity of such environments. The present book presents an analysis of all the factors that affect the behaviour of radionuclides as they move from their point of release through the environment and then enter the tissues of biota living in the ecosystems, in particular plants and animals consumed by humans. The course on which the book is based was held in a region that is heavily contaminated by radioactive discharges into the environment during nuclear weapons fabrication in the 1950s and '60s, and due to a severe accidental release following the explosion of a rad-waste tank in 1957. This allowed in situ training of the students. The book's main emphasis is on specific radioecological problems in severely contaminated areas in the former Soviet Union: the Southern Urals Trail, the rivers Techa-Isert-Tobol-Irtis-Ob, and the 30 km zone around Chernobyl. Systems examined include soils, arable and pasture land, forests, lakes and rivers. Special attention is paid to the effects of radiation on natural ecosystems: trees, soil-dwelling organisms, and aquatic organisms. Synergistic effects are also considered. Short, medium and long term countermeasures are discussed.

Environmental Radionuclides

Environmental Radionuclides
Author: Klaus Froehlich
Publsiher: Elsevier Science
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2009-11-05
ISBN: 9780080438733
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Radionuclides Book Excerpt:

Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth's environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers

Cosmogenic Radionuclides

Cosmogenic Radionuclides
Author: Jürg Beer,Ken McCracken,Rudolf von Steiger
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 424
Release: 2012-01-19
ISBN: 3642146503
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cosmogenic Radionuclides Book Excerpt:

Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. The book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any field of modern science, and how these tools may assist in the solution of many present and future problems that we face here on Earth. The book provides a comprehensive discussion of the basic principles behind the applications of cosmogenic (and other) radionuclides as environmental tracers and dating tools. The second section of the book discusses in some detail the production of radionuclides by cosmic radiation, their transport and distribution in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, their storage in natural archives, and how they are measured. The third section of the book presents a number of examples selected to illustrate typical tracer and dating applications in a number of different spheres (atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, solar physics and astronomy). At the same time the authors have outlined the limitations of the use of cosmogenic radionuclides. Written on a level understandable by graduate students without specialist skills in physics or mathematics, the book addresses a wide audience, ranging from archaeology, biophysics, and geophysics, to atmospheric physics, hydrology, astrophysics and space science.

Terrestrial Space Radiation and Its Biological Effects

Terrestrial Space Radiation and Its Biological Effects
Author: Percival D. McCormack,Charles E. Swenberg,Horst Bucker
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 888
Release: 1988
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Terrestrial Space Radiation and Its Biological Effects Book Excerpt:

This volume is based on the proceedings of an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) held October 1987 in Corfu, Greece. The Institute received financial support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S.A. Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, U.S.A. Department of Energy, U.S.A. Deutsche Forschungs-und Versuchanstalt fur Luft und Raumfahrt e.v., Kaln, Germany The advent of the shuttle era is providing fresh impetus for large space ventures such as communication centers, solar power stations, astronomical observatories, orbiting factories, and space based radar. Such ventures will rely heavily on an extensive and prolonged human presence in space doing in-orbit construction, maintenance, and opera tion. Among the advantages of location in space are the near zero gravity environment, commanding location, and the reception of solar energy and astronomical signals unattenuated by the atmosphere. Central to long-term manned space missions are the problems associated with the effects of exposure to ionizing radiations on humans. Manned space mis sions in the past have encountered relatively benign radiation environ ments because of their very short duration and orbit configuration. However, crew stay time of up to a year has been recently achieved by the Soviet space program; and Mars missions lasting several years are under serious consideration.

Transfer of Radioactive Materials from the Terrestrial Environment to Animals and Man

Transfer of Radioactive Materials from the Terrestrial Environment to Animals and Man
Author: Reuben John Garner
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 68
Release: 1972
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Radioactive contamination of food
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transfer of Radioactive Materials from the Terrestrial Environment to Animals and Man Book Excerpt:

Radiological Issues for Fukushima s Revitalized Future

Radiological Issues for Fukushima   s Revitalized Future
Author: Tomoyuki Takahashi
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2016-01-19
ISBN: 9784431558477
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Radiological Issues for Fukushima s Revitalized Future Book Excerpt:

This book overviews environmental issues 4 years after the Fukushima nuclear accident, covering a wide range of areas related to radiation and radioactivity. The topics discussed are necessary to make clear the relationship between the results of research and Fukushima’s revitalized future. The chapters are divided into four parts: Part 1 presents the identification of radionuclides in soil and migration of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment; Part 2 describes the safety decontamination system and treatment of radioactive waste; Part 3 explains the development of the system of measurement of environmental radiation and evaluation of external exposure; and Part 4 discusses the identification of radionuclides in farm products, control of root uptake, identification of decreasing radionuclides by food processing, and evaluation of internal exposure. Since the accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in 2011, gradual steps have been taken toward environmental recovery in the area. However, there are still many issues that need to be tackled in order to achieve the full revitalization of Fukushima. These issues encompass many different disciplines such as economics, psychology, and sociology. In this kind of situation, the role of science in relation to radiation and radioactivity is especially important. This book aims to contribute to planning countermeasures against nuclear disasters in the future. It will be of particular interest to governmental officials who are engaged with the Fukushima nuclear accident; researchers, including those in international sectors, who are interested in radiological issues; and those who need comprehensive and reliable information about the Fukushima accident.

Radiological Issues for Fukushima s Revitalized Future

Radiological Issues for Fukushima   s Revitalized Future
Author: Tomoyuki Takahashi
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 230
Release: 2016-02-11
ISBN: 9789812879592
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Radiological Issues for Fukushima s Revitalized Future Book Excerpt:

This book overviews environmental issues 4 years after the Fukushima nuclear accident, covering a wide range of areas related to radiation and radioactivity. The topics discussed are necessary to make clear the relationship between the results of research and Fukushima’s revitalized future. The chapters are divided into four parts: Part 1 presents the identification of radionuclides in soil and migration of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment; Part 2 describes the safety decontamination system and treatment of radioactive waste; Part 3 explains the development of the system of measurement of environmental radiation and evaluation of external exposure; and Part 4 discusses the identification of radionuclides in farm products, control of root uptake, identification of decreasing radionuclides by food processing, and evaluation of internal exposure. Since the accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in 2011, gradual steps have been taken toward environmental recovery in the area. However, there are still many issues that need to be tackled in order to achieve the full revitalization of Fukushima. These issues encompass many different disciplines such as economics, psychology, and sociology. In this kind of situation, the role of science in relation to radiation and radioactivity is especially important. This book aims to contribute to planning countermeasures against nuclear disasters in the future. It will be of particular interest to governmental officials who are engaged with the Fukushima nuclear accident; researchers, including those in international sectors, who are interested in radiological issues; and those who need comprehensive and reliable information about the Fukushima accident.

Handbook of the Solar Terrestrial Environment

Handbook of the Solar Terrestrial Environment
Author: Yohsuke Kamide,Abraham C.-L. Chian
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 539
Release: 2007-08-02
ISBN: 3540463143
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of the Solar Terrestrial Environment Book Excerpt:

As a star in the universe, the Sun is constantly releas- cover a wide range of time and spatial scales, making ?? ing energy into space, as much as ?. ? ?? erg/s. Tis observations in the solar-terrestrial environment c- energy emission basically consists of three modes. Te plicated and the understanding of processes di?cult. ?rst mode of solar energy is the so-called blackbody ra- In the early days, the phenomena in each plasma diation, commonly known as sunlight, and the second region were studied separately, but with the progress mode of solar electromagnetic emission, such as X rays of research, we realized the importance of treating and UV radiation, is mostly absorbed above the Earth’s the whole chain of processes as an entity because of stratosphere. Te third mode of solar energy emission is strong interactions between various regions within in the form of particles having a wide range of energies the solar-terrestrial system. On the basis of extensive from less than ? keV to more than ? GeV. It is convenient satellite observations and computer simulations over to group these particles into lower-energy particles and thepasttwo decades, it hasbecomepossibleto analyze higher-energy particles, which are referred to as the so- speci?cally the close coupling of di?erent regions in the lar wind and solar cosmic rays, respectively. solar-terrestrial environment.

Radioactive Aerosols

Radioactive Aerosols
Author: Constantin Papastefanou
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 186
Release: 2011-07-28
ISBN: 9780080555980
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Radioactive Aerosols Book Excerpt:

Whenever radioactivity is released to the atmosphere, for example by the detonation of nuclear weapons or the testing of nuclear weapons or from nuclear reactor accidents that fraction of it which remains airborne for more than a few hours is liable to be attached to aerosol particles. The resulting radioactive aerosols are carried by atmospheric mixing processes until they settle out or are scavenged by precipitation. The radiation exposure pathway of maximum concern to humans is by inhalation of aerosols and their deposition in the respiratory tract. In this context, it is important to note that radioactive aerosols are commonly of natural origin alos. In particular, the associated radionuclides can be of natural terrestrial origin, such as the decay products of radon gas, or they can e cosmogenic, such as beryllium-7. The exposure of miners of uranium and other ores and minerals to radon and its aerosol-borne decay products is of major significance. The book describes the formation of aerosols, their aerodynamic size distribution, their atmospheric residence time, their sampling and measurement, the range of radioactive aerosols found and studied thus far, including man-made nuclides and radon decay products and their interaction with man, including deposition in the lung and subsequent health effects. Advanced level science handbook for researchers, scientists and academics Covers all aspects of radiation exposure in humans, including subsequent health implications Presents the latest findings and analysis in this highly topical area

Remediation of Contaminated Environments

Remediation of Contaminated Environments
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2009-05-12
ISBN: 0080914152
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Remediation of Contaminated Environments Book Excerpt:

Remediation of Contaminated Environments summarises - amongst other things - what happened to the people and environment around Chernobyl (and other nuclear sites) and what measures need to be taken in future in the event of nuclear accidents etc. plus it has a very important and currently topical use in detailing what to do in the event of a terrorist dirty bomb attack on a city. Remediation, including characterization of contaminated sites; safety requirements; remediation planning; effectiveness of individual measures in different environments; social, ethical and economic considerations; application of modern decision aiding technologies Applicable to different categories of contaminated environments and contaminants, comprising areas contaminated by radiation accidents and incidents, nuclear weapon tests, natural radionuclides associated with nuclear fuel cycle, fossil material mining and gas and oil production Associated side effects (environmental and social) and human based remediation measures, comprising perception of this activity by the population; with particular regard to stakeholders and population involvement in making decisions on environmental safety and remediation of contaminated sites

Environmental Radioactivity from Natural Industrial and Military Sources

Environmental Radioactivity from Natural  Industrial and Military Sources
Author: Merrill Eisenbud,Thomas F. Gesell
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 656
Release: 1997-03-26
ISBN: 9780080505800
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Radioactivity from Natural Industrial and Military Sources Book Excerpt:

Environmental Radioactivity from Natural, Industrial, and Military Sources is the comprehensive source of information on radiation in the environment and human exposure to radioactivity. This Fourth Edition isa complete revision and extension of the classic work, reflecting major new developments and concerns as the Cold War ended, nuclear weapons began to be dismantled, and cleanup of the nuclear weapons facilities assumed center stage. Contamination from accidents involving weapons, reactors, and radionuclide sources are discussed in an updated chapter, including the latest information about the effects of the Chernobyl accident. Important revisions are also made to the chapters on natural radioactivity, nuclear fuels and power reactors, radioactive waste management, and various other sources of exposure. Several chapters provide primers for readers who may not be familiar with the fundamentals of radiation biology, protection standards, and pathways for the environmental transport of radionuclides. An Appendix lists the properties of the more important radionuclides found in the environment. The book concludes with a commentary on contemporary social aspects of radiation exposure and risks that offers analternative view to current, often excessive concerns over radiation, nuclear technology, and waste. Describes every important source of environmental radioactivity Reviews the vexing problems of radioactive waste management and clean-up of contaminated sites Contains measured or projected radiation dose estimates for the major sources Features 126 figures, 80 tables, and more than 1200 references Discusses current problems in historical context The two authors bring more than 75 years of combined experience with environmental radioactivity Provides an understanding of the sources of environmental radioactivity and human exposure from the mining of ores to final disposal of wastes Thoroughly reviews important contamination accidents

Nuclear Safety

Nuclear Safety
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 884
Release: 1981
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Nuclear engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nuclear Safety Book Excerpt:

Tropical Radioecology

Tropical Radioecology
Author: J.R. Twining
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 365
Release: 2012-12-31
ISBN: 0080914306
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Tropical Radioecology Book Excerpt:

Tropical Radioecology is a guide to the wide range of scientific practices and principles of this multidisciplinary field. It brings together past and present studies in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, highlighting the unique aspects of tropical systems. Until recently, radioecological models for tropical environments have depended upon data derived from temperate environments, despite the differences of these regions in terms of biota and abiotic conditions. Since radioactivity can be used to trace environmental processes in humans and other biota, this book offers examples of studies in which radiotracers have been used to assess biokinetics in tropical biota. Features chapters, co-authored by world experts, that explain the origins, inputs, distribution, behaviour, and consequences of radioactivity in tropical and subtropical systems. Provides comprehensive lists of relevant data and identifies current knowledge gaps to allow for targeted radioecological research in the future. Integrates radioecological information into the most recent radiological consequences modelling and best-practice probabilistic ecological risk analysis methodology, given the need to understand the implications of enhanced socio-economic development in the world’s tropical regions.

Behavior of Radionuclides in the Environment III

Behavior of Radionuclides in the Environment III
Author: Kenji Nanba,Alexei Konoplev,Toshihiro Wada
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 501
Release: 2022-03-14
ISBN: 9811667993
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Behavior of Radionuclides in the Environment III Book Excerpt:

This book, the third in the series Behavior of Radionuclides in the Environment, is dedicated to Fukushima. Major findings from research since 2011 are reviewed concerning the behavior of radionuclides released into the environment due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, including atmospheric transport and fallout of radionuclides, their fate, and transport in the soil-water environment, behavior in freshwater, coastal and marine environment, transfer in the terrestrial and agricultural environment. Volume III discusses not only radionuclides dynamics in the environment in the short- and mid-term, but also modeling and prediction of long-term time changes. Along with reviews, the book contains original data and results not published previously. It was spearheaded by the authors from the Institute of Environmental Radioactivity at Fukushima University, established two years after the Fukushima accident, with their collaborators from Japan, Russia, and Ukraine. The knowledge emerging from the studies of the environmental behavior of Fukushima-derived radionuclides enables us to move forward in understanding mechanisms of environmental contamination and leads to better modeling and prediction of long-term pollution effects in general.

Radioactive Waste Management

Radioactive Waste Management
Author: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 85
Release: 1973
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Bibliographies
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Radioactive Waste Management Book Excerpt:

Environmental Protection Research Catalog Indexes

Environmental Protection Research Catalog  Indexes
Author: Smithsonian Science Information Exchange
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1972
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Environmental protection
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Protection Research Catalog Indexes Book Excerpt:

Toxicology Research Projects Directory

Toxicology Research Projects Directory
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 1048
Release: 1978
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Toxicology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Toxicology Research Projects Directory Book Excerpt:

Proceedings of Southern Conference on Environmental Radiation Protection from Nuclear Power Plants April 21 22 1971

Proceedings of Southern Conference on Environmental Radiation Protection from Nuclear Power Plants  April 21 22  1971
Author: United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Radiation Programs. Surveillance and Inspection Division
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 252
Release: 1972
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Environmental health
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proceedings of Southern Conference on Environmental Radiation Protection from Nuclear Power Plants April 21 22 1971 Book Excerpt: