Radiographic Image Analysis E Book

Radiographic Image Analysis   E Book
Author: Kathy McQuillen Martensen
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2014-12-02
ISBN: 0323280692
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Radiographic Image Analysis E Book Book Excerpt:

Learn to produce the most accurate radiographic images on the first try with Radiographic Image Analysis, 4th Edition. This thoroughly updated guide walks you through the steps of how to carefully evaluate an image, how to identify the improper positioning or technique that caused a poor image, and how to correct the problem. For each procedure, there is a diagnostic-quality radiograph along with several examples of unacceptable radiographs, a complete list of radiographic evaluation guidelines, and detailed discussions on how each of the evaluation points is related to positioning and technique. Each unacceptable radiograph is accompanied by a description of the misaligned anatomical structures, how the patient was mis-positioned, and how to adjust technique to obtain an acceptable radiograph. "The whole text is well presented." Reviewed by Jenny May on behalf of Radiography, July 2015 Poorly positioned example images appear at the end of procedures to test your knowledge. Spotlights concepts boxes highlight the most important information as it appears in the chapters and directs readers to more information on these topics. Chapter objectives, key terms, and outlines help in mastering important concepts and information. NEW! Expanded sections on pediatric, obesity, and trauma digital radiography provides the most pertinent and up-to-date information needed for clinical success. NEW! Reformatted content surrounding procedures includes the following to help you identify correctly and incorrectly positioned patients: accurately positioned projection with labeled anatomy photograph of an accurately positioned model table that provides a detailed one-to-one correlation between the positioning procedures and image analysis guidelines discussion, with correlating images, on identifying how the patient, central ray, or image receptor were poorly positioned if the projection does not demonstrate an image analysis guideline discussion of topics relating to positioning for patient condition variations and non-routine situations photographs of bones and models positioned as indicated to clarify information and demonstrate anatomy alignment when distortion makes it difficult practice images of the projection that demonstrate common procedural errors NEW! Two-color design helps you read and retain pertinent information. NEW! Updated boxed material summarizes important analysis details and provides a quick reference. NEW! Highlighted table data offers a new format to aid in the understanding of field size requirements using direct-capture digital radiography.

Workbook for Radiographic Image Analysis E Book

Workbook for Radiographic Image Analysis   E Book
Author: Kathy McQuillen Martensen
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2014-03-27
ISBN: 0323292631
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Workbook for Radiographic Image Analysis E Book Book Excerpt:

The companion workbook for Radiographic Analysis, 3rd Edition, provides you with ample opportunities to practice and apply information from the text. With study questions, additional suboptimal images for analysis, and an answer key to guide you through the problems, you’ll have all the tools you need to hone your imaging and evaluation skills. UNIQUE! Content devoted entirely to improving radiographic positioning and technique. Study questions for each procedure ensure you know what features need to be visible in an image and how to adjust when your images are suboptimal. Extra images ensure you can identify poor quality images and recognize how they were produced. Positioning and technique exercises prepare you for success in radiography practice. Chapter on digital radiography keeps you up-to-date with changes in the field. Analysis criteria boxes act as a quick reference guide and allow you to fill in portions of the criteria.

Radiographic Image Analysis

Radiographic Image Analysis
Author: Kathy McQuillen-Martensen
Publsiher: Saunders
Total Pages: 540
Release: 2006
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Radiographic Image Analysis Book Excerpt:

This comprehensive guide shows how to reduce the need for repeat radiographs. It teaches how to carefully evaluate an image, how to identify the improper positioning or technique that caused a poor image, and how to correct the problem. This text equips radiographers with the critical thinking skills needed to anticipate and adjust for positioning and technique challenges before a radiograph is taken, so they can produce the best possible diagnostic quality radiographs. Provides a complete guide to evaluating radiographs and troubleshooting positioning and technique errors, increasing the likelihood of getting a good image on the first try. Offers step-by-step descriptions of all evaluation criteria for every projection along with explanations of how to reposition or adjust technique to produce an acceptable image. Familiarizes technologists with what can go wrong, so they can avoid retakes and reduce radiation exposure for patients and themselves. Provides numerous critique images for evaluation, so that readers can study poor images and understand what factors contributed to their production and what adjustments need to be made. Combines coverage of both positioning and technique errors, as these are likely to occur together in the clinical environment. Student workbook available for separate purchase for more practice with critique of radiographs. Provides Evolve website with a course management platform for instructors who want to post course materials online. Expanded coverage to include technique and positioning adjustments required by computed radiography. Pediatric radiography, covering radiation protection and special problems of obtaining high-quality images of pediatric patients. Evaluation criteria related to technique factors, which historically account for 60%-70% of retakes. New chapter on evaluation of images of the gastrointestinal system. Pitfalls of trauma and mobile imaging to encourage quick thinking and problem-solving in trauma situations. Improved page design and formatting to call attention to most important content.

Radiographic Image Analysis E Book

Radiographic Image Analysis   E Book
Author: Kathy McQuillen Martensen
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 592
Release: 2013-09-30
ISBN: 0323277136
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Radiographic Image Analysis E Book Book Excerpt:

This comprehensive guide provides all the tools you need to accurately evaluate radiographic images and make the adjustments needed to acquire the best possible diagnostic quality images. You’ll discover how to evaluate an image, identify any improper positioning or techniques that caused poor quality, and correct the problem. No other text is devoted to equipping you with the critical thinking skills needed to properly position patients for optimal radiographs and help minimize the need for repeat images. Chapter outlines give you an at-a-glance summary of chapter content Labeled images with analysis and correction help you develop your skills for producing optimal images, thus reducing the need for repeat procedures Student workbook provides additional opportunities to apply what you’ve learned in the text Expanded digital radiography content includes advances in digital imaging to keep you up-to-date in the field Chapter objectives help you master key content Quick reference tables highlight significant information More bone photographic images better illustrate difficult-to-evaluate procedures More pediatric and trauma images improve your ability to produce optimal images of different procedures

Workbook for Radiographic Image Analysis E Book

Workbook for Radiographic Image Analysis E Book
Author: Kathy McQuillen Martensen
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 513
Release: 2018-12-13
ISBN: 0323544649
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Workbook for Radiographic Image Analysis E Book Book Excerpt:

Get all the tools you need to hone your imaging and evaluation skills with Kathy Martensen’s Workbook for Radiographic Image Analysis, 5th Edition. This complete workbook offers ample opportunities to practice and apply information from the main Radiographic Image Analysis text via study questions for each procedure, positioning and technique exercises, and additional suboptimal images to identify. This new workbook edition features updated content that reflects the latest ARRT guidelines plus additional images not found in the main text. Workbook users can easily check your work in the answer key found in the back of the book. Study questions reinforce text material and prepare you for certification. Incorrectly positioned images with questions ensure you understand what features need to be visible in an image and how to adjust when the images are poor. Additional images not included in the main text offer additional practice with identifying poor quality images and recognizing how they are produced. Positioning and technique exercises prepare you for success in radiography practice. NEW! Updated content reflects the latest ARRT guidelines. NEW! Additional images offer further visual guidance to help you better critique and correct positioning errors. NEW! More robust digital halftones across images paint a clearer picture of proper technique.

Workbook for Radiographic Image Analysis

Workbook for Radiographic Image Analysis
Author: Kathy McQuillen Martensen
Publsiher: Saunders
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2019-01-15
ISBN: 9780323544634
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Workbook for Radiographic Image Analysis Book Excerpt:

Get all the tools you need to hone your imaging and evaluation skills with Kathy Martensen's Workbook for Radiographic Image Analysis, 5th Edition. This complete workbook offers ample opportunities to practice and apply information from the main Radiographic Image Analysis text via study questions for each procedure, positioning and technique exercises, and additional suboptimal images to identify. This new workbook edition features updated content that reflects the latest ARRT guidelines plus additional images not found in the main text. Workbook users can easily check your work in the answer key found in the back of the book. Study questions reinforce text material and prepare you for certification. Incorrectly positioned images with questions ensure you understand what features need to be visible in an image and how to adjust when the images are poor. Additional images not included in the main text offer additional practice with identifying poor quality images and recognizing how they are produced. Positioning and technique exercises prepare you for success in radiography practice. NEW! Updated content reflects the latest ARRT guidelines. NEW! Additional images offer further visual guidance to help you better critique and correct positioning errors. NEW! More robust digital halftones across images paint a clearer picture of proper technique.

Oral Radiology E Book

Oral Radiology   E Book
Author: Stuart C. White,Michael J. Pharoah
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 696
Release: 2014-05-01
ISBN: 0323096344
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oral Radiology E Book Book Excerpt:

With more than 1,000 high-quality radiographs and illustrations, this bestselling book visually demonstrates the basic principles of oral and maxillofacial radiology as well as effective clinical application. You’ll be able to diagnose and treat patients effectively with the coverage of imaging techniques, including specialized techniques such as MRI and CT, and the comprehensive discussion of the radiographic interpretation of pathology. The book also covers radiation physics, radiation biology, and radiation safety and protection — helping you provide state-of-the-art care! A consistent format makes it easy to follow and comprehend clinical material on each pathologic condition, including a definition, synonyms, clinical features, radiographic features, differential diagnosis, and management/treatment. Updated photos show new equipment and radiographs in the areas of intraoral radiographs, normal radiographic anatomy, panoramic imaging, and advanced imaging. Updated Digital Imaging chapter expands coverage of PSP plates and its use in cephalometric and panoramic imaging, examining the larger latitudes of photostimulable phosphor receptors and their linear response to the five orders of magnitude of x-ray exposure. Updated Guidelines for Prescribing Dental Radiographs chapter includes the latest ADA guidelines, and also discusses the European Guidelines. Updated information on radiographic manifestations of diseases in the orofacial region includes the latest data on etiology and diagnosis, with an emphasis on advanced imaging. Expert contributors include many authors with worldwide reputations. Cone Beam Computed Tomography chapter covers machines, the imaging process, and typical clinical applications of cone-beam imaging, with examples of examinations made from scans. Evolve website adds more coverage of cases, with more examples of specific issues.

White and Pharoah s Oral Radiology E Book

White and Pharoah s Oral Radiology E Book
Author: Sanjay Mallya,Ernest Lam
Publsiher: Elsevier India
Total Pages: 708
Release: 2019-05-15
ISBN: 8131256782
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

White and Pharoah s Oral Radiology E Book Book Excerpt:

Over 1,500 high quality dental radiographs, full color photos, and illustrations clearly demonstrate core concepts and reinforce the essential principles and techniques of oral and maxillofacial radiology. updated Extensive coverage of all aspects of oral radiology for the entire predoctoral curriculum. NEW! Chapter Radiological Anatomy includes all radiological anatomy content allowing students to better visualize and understand normal appearances of structures on conventional and contemporary imaging, side-by-side. NEW! Chapter! Beyond 3D Imaging: introduces applications of 3D imaging such as stereolithic models. UPDATED Comprehensive coverage of diseases affecting the teeth and jaws, relating their pathogenesis to their key imaging features and image interpretation. NEW! New editors Drs. Sanjay Mallya and Ernest Lam along with new contributors bring a fresh perspective on oral radiology. A wide array of radiographs including advanced imaging such as MRI and CT. An easy-to-follow format simplifies the key radiographic features of each pathologic condition, including location, periphery, shape, internal structure, and effects on surrounding structures are placed in context with clinical features, differential interpretation, and management. Expert contributors include many authors with worldwide reputations. Case studies apply imaging concepts to real-world scenarios.

Medical Imaging E Book

Medical Imaging   E Book
Author: Elizabeth Carver,Barry Carver,Karen Knapp
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 580
Release: 2021-05-28
ISBN: 0702085308
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Medical Imaging E Book Book Excerpt:

The third edition of Carvers’ Medical Imaging supports radiography students to take a reflective, evidence-based approach that will enhance their practice. This important textbook comprehensively covers the full range of medical imaging methods and techniques in one volume, and discusses them in relation to imaging principles, radiation dose, patient condition, body area and pathologies. It encourages the student to critically analyse their work rather than simply carrying out tasks. The book has been updated by an impressive team of contributors to align with developments in both radiographic techniques and the role of the radiographer. It is an essential companion for students of BSc (Hons) diagnostic radiography, those undertaking a foundation degree in radiographic practice or bachelor of medicine, and postgraduates alike. Comprehensive, fully illustrated and well referenced discussion of all imaging techniques. Full image evaluation for radiographic examinations, including common errors New material on potential impact of errors on accuracy of the radiographic report New sections on preliminary clinical evaluation for projection radiography examinations, which prepares students for UK professional standards Section on cross infection implications (relevant post COVID-19) Includes imaging of children with suspected physical abuse

Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging E Book

Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging   E Book
Author: James Johnston,Terri L. Fauber
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2015-10-09
ISBN: 0323339670
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging E Book Book Excerpt:

Written by radiographers for radiographers, Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging, 2nd Edition follows the ASRT recommended curriculum and focuses on what the radiographer needs to understand to safely and competently perform radiographic examinations. This comprehensive radiologic physics and imaging text links the two subjects together so that you understand how they relate to each other — and to clinical practice. Prepare for success on the ARRT exam and the job with just the right amount of information on radiation production and characteristics, imaging equipment, film screen image acquisition and processing, digital image acquisition and display, image analysis, and the basic principles of computed tomography. 345 photos and line drawings encourage you to visualize important concepts. Strong pedagogy, including chapter objectives, key terms, outlines, bulleted chapter summaries, and specialty boxes, help you organize information and focus on what is most important in each chapter. Make the Physics Connection and Make the Imaging Connection boxes link physics and imaging concepts so you fully appreciate the importance of both subjects. Educator resources on Evolve, including lesson plans, an image collection, PowerPoint presentations, and a test bank, provide additional resources for instructors to teach the topics presented in the text. Theory to Practice boxes succinctly explain the application of concepts and describe how to use the information in clinical practice. Critical Concept boxes further explain and emphasize key points in the chapters. Math Application boxes use examples to show how mathematical concepts and formulas are applied in the clinical setting. An emphasis on the practical information highlights just what you need to know to ace the ARRT exam and become a competent practitioner. Numerous critique exercises teach you how to evaluate the quality of radiographic images and determine which factors produce poor images. A glossary of key terms serves as a handy reference.

Radiographic Image Analysis Text and Workbook Package

Radiographic Image Analysis   Text and Workbook Package
Author: Kathy McQuillen Martensen
Publsiher: Saunders
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2014-12-15
ISBN: 9780323357265
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Radiographic Image Analysis Text and Workbook Package Book Excerpt:

Radiographic Image Analysis Pageburst on Vitalsource Retail Access Code

Radiographic Image Analysis Pageburst on Vitalsource Retail Access Code
Author: Kathy Mcquillen Martensen
Publsiher: W B Saunders Company
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2014-12-15
ISBN: 9780323280679
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Radiographic Image Analysis Pageburst on Vitalsource Retail Access Code Book Excerpt:

This is a Pageburst digital textbook; the product description may vary from the print textbook. This comprehensive guide provides all the tools you need to accurately evaluate radiographic images and make the adjustments needed to acquire the best possible diagnostic quality images. You'll discover how to evaluate an image, identify any improper positioning or techniques that caused poor quality, and correct the problem. No other text is devoted to equipping you with the critical thinking skills needed to properly position patients for optimal radiographs and help minimize the need for repeat images. Chapter outlines give you an at-a-glance summary of chapter content Labeled images with analysis and correction help you develop your skills for producing optimal images, thus reducing the need for repeat procedures Student workbook provides additional opportunities to apply what you've learned in the text Expanded digital radiography content includes advances in digital imaging to keep you up-to-date in the field Chapter objectives help you master key content Quick reference tables highlight significant information More bone photographic images better illustrate difficult-to-evaluate procedures More pediatric and trauma images improve your ability to produce optimal images of different procedures

Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging

Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging
Author: James Johnston,Terri L. Fauber
Publsiher: Mosby
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2019-08-22
ISBN: 9780323566681
Category: Diagnostic imaging
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging Book Excerpt:

Prepare for success on the ARRT exam and in the practice of radiography! Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging, 3rd Edition follows the ASRT recommended curriculum and focuses on what the radiographer needs to understand to safely and competently perform radiographic examinations. This comprehensive text gives you a foundational understanding of basic physics principles such as atom structure, electricity and magnetism, and electromagnetic radiation. It then covers imaging principles, radiation production and characteristics, digital image quality, imaging equipment, digital image acquisition and display, image analysis, and more- linking physics to the daily practice of radiographers. New for the third edition is updated information on radiation classifications, a shift in focus to SI units, and a thoroughly updated chapter on Fluoroscopic Imaging. UPDATED! Content reflects the newest standards outlined by the ARRT and ASRT, providing you with the information you needed to pass the boards. Chapter Review Questions at the end of every chapter allow you to evaluate how well you have mastered the material in each chapter. Critical Thinking Questions at the end of every chapter offer opportunity for review and greater challenge. Critical Concept boxes further explain and emphasize key points in the chapters. Radiation Protection callout boxes help you understand the ethical obligations to minimize radiation dosages, shielding, time and distance, how to limit the field of exposure and what that does to minimize dose, and technical factors and how they affect the primary beam and image quality. More than 400 photos and line drawings encourage you to visualize important concepts. Strong pedagogy, including chapter objectives, key terms, outlines, bulleted chapter summaries, and specialty boxes, help you to organize information and focus on what is most important in each chapter. An emphasis on the practical information?highlights just what you need to know to ace the ARRT exam and become a competent practitioner. Numerous critique exercises teach you how to evaluate the quality of radiographic images and determine which factors produce poor images. NEW! A shift in focus to SI units aligns with international system of measurement. UPDATED Information regarding radiation classifications helps you to understand radiation levels. NEW! Inclusion of advances in digital imaging helps familiarize you with state-of-the-art images. NEW and UPDATED! Expanded Digital Fluoroscopy chapter, familiarizes you with the equipment you will encounter.

Modeling and Inverse Problems in Imaging Analysis

Modeling and Inverse Problems in Imaging Analysis
Author: Bernard Chalmond
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 314
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 0387216626
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modeling and Inverse Problems in Imaging Analysis Book Excerpt:

More mathematicians have been taking part in the development of digital image processing as a science and the contributions are reflected in the increasingly important role modeling has played solving complex problems. This book is mostly concerned with energy-based models. Most of these models come from industrial projects in which the author was involved in robot vision and radiography: tracking 3D lines, radiographic image processing, 3D reconstruction and tomography, matching, deformation learning. Numerous graphical illustrations accompany the text.

Annual Book of ASTM Standards

Annual Book of ASTM Standards
Author: American Society for Testing and Materials
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2007
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Materials
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Annual Book of ASTM Standards Book Excerpt:

Annual Book of ASTM Standards 1990

Annual Book of ASTM Standards  1990
Author: ASTM.
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 880
Release: 1990-11
ISBN: 9780803115804
Category: Materials
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Annual Book of ASTM Standards 1990 Book Excerpt:

Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging Access Card

Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging Access Card
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN: 9780323594509
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging Access Card Book Excerpt:

Workbook for Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology E Book

Workbook for Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology   E Book
Author: Ronald L. Eisenberg,Nancy M. Johnson
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2014-04-23
ISBN: 0323292232
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Workbook for Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology E Book Book Excerpt:

Make sure you understand the pathologies most frequently diagnosed with medical imaging! Corresponding to the chapters in Eisenberg and Johnson's Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology, 5th Edition, this workbook includes practical activities that help you understand disease processes, their radiographic appearance, and their likely treatment. Each chapter offers anatomy labeling exercises, multiple-choice, matching, and fill-in-the-blank questions, as well as a self-test. Case studies are included in the Body Systems chapters. An answer key is provided at the end of the book. Thorough review reflects the material in the Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology textbook and helps you understand disease processes and their radiographic appearance, and produce optimal diagnostic images. Anatomic images let you review A&P and gain practice with examination, labeling, and analysis. A wide variety of exercises help you learn anatomy, technique adjustment, and pathology identification. Case studies with pathology images make it easier to notice relevant details on the image and become familiar with the appearance of pathologies in different imaging modalities. Self-tests at the end of each chapter allow you to assess your understanding. Updated content prepares you for today's practice.

Annual Book of ASTM Standards

Annual Book of ASTM Standards
Author: ASTM International,American Society for Testing and Materials
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2003
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Materials
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Annual Book of ASTM Standards Book Excerpt:

Quality Management in the Imaging Sciences E Book

Quality Management in the Imaging Sciences   E Book
Author: Jeffrey Papp
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2013-08-07
ISBN: 0323277101
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Quality Management in the Imaging Sciences E Book Book Excerpt:

With this single resource, you can access quality management and quality control information for all major imaging modalities! Updated with the latest changes in technology and federal regulations, Quality Management in the Imaging Sciences provides a thorough description of Quality Management and explains why it is so important to imaging technology. Step-by-step QM procedures include full-size evaluation forms, with instructions on how to evaluate equipment and document results. This book also helps you prepare effectively for the ARRT advanced certification exam in quality management. Coverage of quality management is included for ALL imaging sciences, with chapters devoted to QM for fluoroscopy, CT, MRI, sonography, and mammography. Step-by-step QM procedures offer instructions on how to evaluate equipment, and full-sized sample evaluation forms offer practice in documenting results. Student-friendly features include learning objectives, chapter outlines, key terms (with definitions in glossary), and review questions at the end of each chapter. A special icon identifies current government regulations important to quality management. A practice exam on Evolve includes 200 randomizable, practice exam questions for the ARRT advanced certification examination in QM, and includes answers with rationales. Student experiments on Evolve let students complete lab assignments and print out answers on computer, and may be modified by instructors to fit their classroom needs. Includes new FDA and American College of Radiology (ACR) requirements. Adds more material covering digital imaging artifacts. Updated mammography guidelines and the latest MQSA and ACR standards. Includes updated coverage of multi-slice scanners and electron beam units. Adds information on 3D and 4D probes and volume imaging QA. Updated PET/CT material. Includes overall updates to match the recent guideline changes to the ARRT Advanced Level Exam on Quality Management. Includes Evolve online resources such as mock Registry exams, sample documentation forms, lab experiments, and additional analysis and critical thinking questions.