Ramanujan S Notebooks

Author by : Bruce C. Berndt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 69
Total Download : 209
File Size : 52,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Srinivasa Ramanujan is, arguably, the greatest mathematician that India has produced. His story is quite unusual: although he had no formal education inmathematics, he taught himself, and managed to produce many important new results. With the support of the English number theorist G. H. Hardy, Ramanujan received a scholarship to go to England and study mathematics. He died very young, at the age of 32, leaving behind three notebooks containing almost 3000 theorems, virtually all without proof. G. H. Hardy and others strongly urged that notebooks be edited and published, and the result is this series of books. This volume dealswith Chapters 1-9 of Book II; each theorem is either proved, or a reference to a proof is given.


Ramanujan S Notebooks

Author by : Bruce C. Berndt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 21
Total Download : 945
File Size : 49,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The fifth and final volume to establish the results claimed by the great Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan in his "Notebooks" first published in 1957. Although each of the five volumes contains many deep results, the average depth in this volume is possibly greater than in the first four. There are several results on continued fractions - a subject that Ramanujan loved very much. It is the authors wish that this and previous volumes will serve as springboards for further investigations by mathematicians intrigued by Ramanujans remarkable ideas.


Ramanujan S Lost Notebook

Author by : George E Andrews
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 68
Total Download : 455
File Size : 55,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Ramanujan S Lost Notebook

Author by : George E. Andrews
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 74
Total Download : 631
File Size : 54,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : In the spring of 1976, George Andrews of Pennsylvania State University visited the library at Trinity College, Cambridge, to examine the papers of the late G.N. Watson. Among these papers, Andrews discovered a sheaf of 138 pages in the handwriting of Srinivasa Ramanujan. This manuscript was soon designated, "Ramanujan's lost notebook." Its discovery has frequently been deemed the mathematical equivalent of finding Beethoven's tenth symphony. This fifth and final installment of the authors’ examination of Ramanujan’s lost notebook focuses on the mock theta functions first introduced in Ramanujan’s famous Last Letter. This volume proves all of the assertions about mock theta functions in the lost notebook and in the Last Letter, particularly the celebrated mock theta conjectures. Other topics feature Ramanujan’s many elegant Euler products and the remaining entries on continued fractions not discussed in the preceding volumes. Review from the second volume:"Fans of Ramanujan's mathematics are sure to be delighted by this book. While some of the content is taken directly from published papers, most chapters contain new material and some previously published proofs have been improved. Many entries are just begging for further study and will undoubtedly be inspiring research for decades to come. The next installment in this series is eagerly awaited."- MathSciNet Review from the first volume:"Andrews and Berndt are to be congratulated on the job they are doing. This is the first step...on the way to an understanding of the work of the genius Ramanujan. It should act as an inspiration to future generations of mathematicians to tackle a job that will never be complete."- Gazette of the Australian Mathematical Society


Ramanujan S Notebooks

Author by : Bruce C. Berndt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 46
Total Download : 263
File Size : 55,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : During the years 1903-1914, Ramanujan worked in almost complete isolation in India. During this time, he recorded most of his mathematical discoveries without proofs in notebooks. Although many of his results were already found in the literature, most were not. Almost a decade after Ramanujan's death in 1920, G.N. Watson and B.M. Wilson began to edit Ramanujan's notebooks, but they never completed the task. A photostat edition, with no editing, was published by the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Bombay in 1957. This book is the fourth of five volumes devoted to the editing of Ramanujan's notebooks. Parts I, II, and III, published in 1985, 1989, and 1991, contain accounts of Chapters 1-21 in Ramanujan's second notebook as well as a description of his quarterly reports. This is the first of two volumes devoted to proving the results found in the unorganized portions of the second notebook and in the third notebook. The author also proves those results in the first notebook that are not found in the second or third notebooks. For those results that are known, references in the literature are provided. Otherwise, complete proofs are given. Over 1/2 of the results in the notebooks are new. Many of them are so startling and different that there are no results akin to them in the literature.


Ramanujan S Lost Notebook

Author by : George E Andrews
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 42
Total Download : 944
File Size : 41,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : In the spring of 1976, George Andrews of Pennsylvania State University visited the library at Trinity College, Cambridge, to examine the papers of the late G.N. Watson. Among these papers, Andrews discovered a sheaf of 138 pages in the handwriting of Srinivasa Ramanujan. This manuscript was soon designated "Ramanujan's lost notebook." The "lost notebook" contains considerable material on mock theta functions and so undoubtedly emanates from the last year of Ramanujan's life. It should be emphasized that the material on mock theta functions is perhaps Ramanujan's deepest work.


Ramanujan S Notebooks

Author by : Bruce C. Berndt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 34
Total Download : 186
File Size : 44,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The fifth and final volume to establish the results claimed by the great Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan in his "Notebooks" first published in 1957. Although each of the five volumes contains many deep results, the average depth in this volume is possibly greater than in the first four. There are several results on continued fractions - a subject that Ramanujan loved very much. It is the authors wish that this and previous volumes will serve as springboards for further investigations by mathematicians intrigued by Ramanujans remarkable ideas.


Ramanujan S Lost Notebook

Author by : George E. Andrews
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 79
Total Download : 292
File Size : 53,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : In the library at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1976, George Andrews of Pennsylvania State University discovered a sheaf of pages in the handwriting of Srinivasa Ramanujan. Soon designated as "Ramanujan’s Lost Notebook," it contains considerable material on mock theta functions and undoubtedly dates from the last year of Ramanujan’s life. In this book, the notebook is presented with additional material and expert commentary.


Ramanujan S Lost Notebook

Author by : George E. Andrews
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 79
Total Download : 446
File Size : 48,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : ​​​​In the spring of 1976, George Andrews of Pennsylvania State University visited the library at Trinity College, Cambridge, to examine the papers of the late G.N. Watson. Among these papers, Andrews discovered a sheaf of 138 pages in the handwriting of Srinivasa Ramanujan. This manuscript was soon designated, "Ramanujan's lost notebook." Its discovery has frequently been deemed the mathematical equivalent of finding Beethoven's tenth symphony. This volume is the fourth of five volumes that the authors plan to write on Ramanujan’s lost notebook.​ In contrast to the first three books on Ramanujan's Lost Notebook, the fourth book does not focus on q-series. Most of the entries examined in this volume fall under the purviews of number theory and classical analysis. Several incomplete manuscripts of Ramanujan published by Narosa with the lost notebook are discussed. Three of the partial manuscripts are on diophantine approximation, and others are in classical Fourier analysis and prime number theory. Most of the entries in number theory fall under the umbrella of classical analytic number theory. Perhaps the most intriguing entries are connected with the classical, unsolved circle and divisor problems. Review from the second volume: "Fans of Ramanujan's mathematics are sure to be delighted by this book. While some of the content is taken directly from published papers, most chapters contain new material and some previously published proofs have been improved. Many entries are just begging for further study and will undoubtedly be inspiring research for decades to come. The next installment in this series is eagerly awaited." - MathSciNet Review from the first volume: "Andrews and Berndt are to be congratulated on the job they are doing. This is the first step...on the way to an understanding of the work of the genius Ramanujan. It should act as an inspiration to future generations of mathematicians to tackle a job that will never be complete." - Gazette of the Australian Mathematical Society​


Ramanujan S Notebooks

Author by : Srinivasa Ramanujan Aiyangar
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 40
Total Download : 793
File Size : 55,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : During the time period between 1903 and 1914, Ramanujan worked in almost complete isolation in India. Throughout these years, he recorded his mathematical results without proofs in notebooks. Upon Ramanujan's death in 1920, G.H. Hardy strongly urged that Ramanujan's notebooks be published and edited. The English mathematicians G.N. Watson and B.M. Wilson began this task in 1929, but although they devoted nearly ten years to the project, the work was never completed. In 1957, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Bombay published a photostat edition of the notebooks, but no editing was undertaken. In 1977, Berndt began the tasks of editing Ramanujan's notebooks. Proofs are provided to theorems not yet proven in previous literature, and many results are so startling and different that there are no results akin to them in the literature.


Ramanujan S Notebooks

Author by : Bruce C. Berndt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 59
Total Download : 225
File Size : 40,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : During the years 1903-1914, Ramanujan recorded many of his mathematical discoveries in notebooks without providing proofs. Although many of his results were already in the literature, more were not. Almost a decade after Ramanujan's death in 1920, G.N. Watson and B.M. Wilson began to edit his notebooks but never completed the task. A photostat edition, with no editing, was published by the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Bombay in 1957. This book is the second of four volumes devoted to the editing of Ramanujan's Notebooks. Part I, published in 1985, contains an account of Chapters 1-9 in the second notebook as well as a description of Ramanujan's quarterly reports. In this volume, we examine Chapters 10-15 in Ramanujan's second notebook. If a result is known, we provide references in the literature where proofs may be found; if a result is not known, we attempt to prove it. Not only are the results fascinating, but, for the most part, Ramanujan's methods remain a mystery. Much work still needs to be done. We hope readers will strive to discover Ramanujan's thoughts and further develop his beautiful ideas.


Special Functions And Orthogonal Polynomials

Author by : Diego Dominici
Languange : en
Publisher by : American Mathematical Soc.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 793
File Size : 52,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This volume contains fourteen articles that represent the AMS Special Session on Special Functions and Orthogonal Polynomials, held in Tucson, Arizona in April of 2007. It gives an overview of the modern field of special functions with all major subfields represented, including: applications to algebraic geometry, asymptotic analysis, conformal mapping, differential equations, elliptic functions, fractional calculus, hypergeometric and $q$-hypergeometric series, nonlinear waves, number theory, symbolic and numerical evaluation of integrals, and theta functions. A few articles are expository, with extensive bibliographies, but all contain original research. This book is intended for pure and applied mathematicians who are interested in recent developments in the theory of special functions. It covers a wide range of active areas of research and demonstrates the vitality of the field.


Q Series From A Contemporary Perspective

Author by : Mourad Ismail
Languange : en
Publisher by : American Mathematical Soc.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
Total Download : 663
File Size : 50,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This volume presents the proceedings of the Joint Summer Research Conference on $q$-series, combinatorics, and computer algebra held at Mount Holyoke College (South Hadley, MA). All of the papers were contributed by participants and offer original research on topics of current interest. Articles in the book reflect the diversity of areas that overlap with $q$-series, as well as the usefulness of $q$-series across the mathematical sciences. The conference was held in honor of Richard Askey on the occasion of his 65th birthday and the proceedings contain an article about Askey's contributions to special functions.


Notebooks Of Srinivasa Ramanujan

Author by : Srinivasa Ramanujan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 89
Total Download : 876
File Size : 48,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : ;l ~,~. . . 0 7 ~S-5' p 7; t, ,_, t l. . ~ o I . . . -


George Andrews

Author by : Krishnaswami Alladi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 29
Total Download : 239
File Size : 44,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Number Theory And Modular Forms

Author by : Bruce C. Berndt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
Total Download : 516
File Size : 47,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Robert A. Rankin, one of the world's foremost authorities on modular forms and a founding editor of The Ramanujan Journal, died on January 27, 2001, at the age of 85. Rankin had broad interests and contributed fundamental papers in a wide variety of areas within number theory, geometry, analysis, and algebra. To commemorate Rankin's life and work, the editors have collected together 25 papers by several eminent mathematicians reflecting Rankin's extensive range of interests within number theory. Many of these papers reflect Rankin's primary focus in modular forms. It is the editors' fervent hope that mathematicians will be stimulated by these papers and gain a greater appreciation for Rankin's contributions to mathematics. This volume would be an inspiration to students and researchers in the areas of number theory and modular forms.


Number Theory

Author by : R.P. Bambah
Languange : en
Publisher by : Birkhäuser
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 37
Total Download : 852
File Size : 42,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The Indian National Science Academy on the occasion ofthe Golden Jubilee Celebration (Fifty years of India's Independence) decided to publish a number of monographs on the selected fields. The editorial board of INS A invited us to prepare a special monograph in Number Theory. In reponse to this assignment, we invited several eminent Number Theorists to contribute expository/research articles for this monograph on Number Theory. Al though some ofthose invited, due to other preoccupations-could not respond positively to our invitation, we did receive fairly encouraging response from many eminent and creative number theorists throughout the world. These articles are presented herewith in a logical order. We are grateful to all those mathematicians who have sent us their articles. We hope that this monograph will have a significant impact on further development in this subject. R. P. Bambah v. C. Dumir R. J. Hans-Gill A Centennial History of the Prime Number Theorem Tom M. Apostol The Prime Number Theorem Among the thousands of discoveries made by mathematicians over the centuries, some stand out as significant landmarks. One of these is the prime number theorem, which describes the asymptotic distribution of prime numbers. It can be stated in various equivalent forms, two of which are: x (I) K(X) '" -I - as x --+ 00, ogx and Pn '" n log n as n --+ 00. (2) In (1), K(X) denotes the number of primes P ::s x for any x > O.


Special Functions 2000 Current Perspective And Future Directions

Author by : Joaquin Bustoz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 60
Total Download : 605
File Size : 48,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The Advanced Study Institute brought together researchers in the main areas of special functions and applications to present recent developments in the theory, review the accomplishments of past decades, and chart directions for future research. Some of the topics covered are orthogonal polynomials and special functions in one and several variables, asymptotic, continued fractions, applications to number theory, combinatorics and mathematical physics, integrable systems, harmonic analysis and quantum groups, Painlevé classification.


Rational Number Theory In The 20th Century

Author by : Władysław Narkiewicz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 21
Total Download : 105
File Size : 44,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The last one hundred years have seen many important achievements in the classical part of number theory. After the proof of the Prime Number Theorem in 1896, a quick development of analytical tools led to the invention of various new methods, like Brun's sieve method and the circle method of Hardy, Littlewood and Ramanujan; developments in topics such as prime and additive number theory, and the solution of Fermat’s problem. Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century: From PNT to FLT offers a short survey of 20th century developments in classical number theory, documenting between the proof of the Prime Number Theorem and the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. The focus lays upon the part of number theory that deals with properties of integers and rational numbers. Chapters are divided into five time periods, which are then further divided into subject areas. With the introduction of each new topic, developments are followed through to the present day. This book will appeal to graduate researchers and student in number theory, however the presentation of main results without technicalities will make this accessible to anyone with an interest in the area.


Mathematical Analysis And Analytic Number Theory 2019

Author by : Rekha Srivastava
Languange : en
Publisher by : MDPI
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 56
Total Download : 754
File Size : 50,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This volume is a collection of investigations involving the theory and applications of the various tools and techniques of mathematical analysis and analytic number theory, which are remarkably widespread in many diverse areas of the mathematical, biological, physical, chemical, engineering, and statistical sciences. It contains invited and welcome original as well as review-cum-expository research articles dealing with recent and new developments on the topics of mathematical analysis and analytic number theory as well as their multidisciplinary applications.


An Invitation To Q Series

Author by : Hei-Chi Chan
Languange : en
Publisher by : World Scientific
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
Total Download : 198
File Size : 50,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The aim of these lecture notes is to provide a self-contained exposition of several fascinating formulas discovered by Srinivasa Ramanujan. Two central results in these notes are: (1) the evaluation of the Rogers–Ramanujan continued fraction — a result that convinced G H Hardy that Ramanujan was a “mathematician of the highest class”, and (2) what G. H. Hardy called Ramanujan's “Most Beautiful Identity”. This book covers a range of related results, such as several proofs of the famous Rogers–Ramanujan identities and a detailed account of Ramanujan's congruences. It also covers a range of techniques in q-series. Contents:Jacob's Triple Product IdentityThe Rogers-Ramanujan IdentitiesThe rogers-Ramanujan continued FractionFrom the “Most Beautiful Identity” to Ramanujan's Congruences Readership: Graduate students and researchers in number theory. Keywords:Rogers–Ramanujan Continued Fraction;Rogers–Ramanujan Identities;Ramanujan's “Most Beautiful Identity”;Ramanujan CongruencesReviews: “A great strength of this book is that almost every major result is proven in several different ways, illustrating the breadth of approaches to q-series … This book is well written with results that are well motivated and clearly explained. It is an excellent and statisfying introduction to q-series.” Mathematical Reviews


Guide To Information Sources In Mathematics And Statistics

Author by : Martha A. Tucker
Languange : en
Publisher by : ABC-CLIO
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 82
Total Download : 848
File Size : 46,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This book is a reference for librarians, mathematicians, and statisticians involved in college and research level mathematics and statistics in the 21st century. We are in a time of transition in scholarly communications in mathematics, practices which have changed little for a hundred years are giving way to new modes of accessing information. Where journals, books, indexes and catalogs were once the physical representation of a good mathematics library, shelves have given way to computers, and users are often accessing information from remote places. Part I is a historical survey of the past 15 years tracking this huge transition in scholarly communications in mathematics. Part II of the book is the bibliography of resources recommended to support the disciplines of mathematics and statistics. These are grouped by type of material. Publication dates range from the 1800's onwards. Hundreds of electronic resources-some online, both dynamic and static, some in fixed media, are listed among the paper resources. Amazingly a majority of listed electronic resources are free.


The Power Of Q

Author by : Michael D. Hirschhorn
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 99
Total Download : 664
File Size : 54,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This unique book explores the world of q, known technically as basic hypergeometric series, and represents the author’s personal and life-long study—inspired by Ramanujan—of aspects of this broad topic. While the level of mathematical sophistication is graduated, the book is designed to appeal to advanced undergraduates as well as researchers in the field. The principal aims are to demonstrate the power of the methods and the beauty of the results. The book contains novel proofs of many results in the theory of partitions and the theory of representations, as well as associated identities. Though not specifically designed as a textbook, parts of it may be presented in course work; it has many suitable exercises. After an introductory chapter, the power of q-series is demonstrated with proofs of Lagrange’s four-squares theorem and Gauss’s two-squares theorem. Attention then turns to partitions and Ramanujan’s partition congruences. Several proofs of these are given throughout the book. Many chapters are devoted to related and other associated topics. One highlight is a simple proof of an identity of Jacobi with application to string theory. On the way, we come across the Rogers–Ramanujan identities and the Rogers–Ramanujan continued fraction, the famous “forty identities” of Ramanujan, and the representation results of Jacobi, Dirichlet and Lorenz, not to mention many other interesting and beautiful results. We also meet a challenge of D.H. Lehmer to give a formula for the number of partitions of a number into four squares, prove a “mysterious” partition theorem of H. Farkas and prove a conjecture of R.Wm. Gosper “which even Erdős couldn’t do.” The book concludes with a look at Ramanujan’s remarkable tau function.


Theta Functions

Author by : Maruti Ram Murty
Languange : en
Publisher by : American Mathematical Soc.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 20
Total Download : 489
File Size : 55,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This book contains lectures on theta functions written by experts well known for excellence in exposition. The lectures represent the content of four courses given at the Centre de Recherches Mathematiques in Montreal during the academic year 1991-1992, which was devoted to the study of automorphic forms. Aimed at graduate students, the book synthesizes the classical and modern points of view in theta functions, concentrating on connections to number theory and representation theory. An excellent introduction to this important subject of current research, this book is suitable as a text in advanced graduate courses.


The Continued Fractions Found In The Unorganized Portions Of Ramanujan S Notebooks

Author by : George E. Andrews
Languange : en
Publisher by : American Mathematical Soc.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 99
Total Download : 362
File Size : 55,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Among his thirty-three published papers, Ramanujan had only one continued fraction, the Rogers-Ramanujan continued fraction. However, his notebooks contain over 100 results on continued fractions. At the end of his second notebook are 100 pages of unorganized material, and the third notebook comprises thirty-three pages of disorganized results. In these 133 pages of material are approximately sixty theorems on continued fractions, most of them new results. In this monograph, the authors discuss and prove each of these theorems. Aimed at those interested in Ramanujan and his work, this monograph will be of special interest to those who work in continued fractions, $q$-series, special functions, theta-functions, and combinatorics. The work is likely to be of interest to those in number theory as well. The only required background is some knowledge of continued fractions and a course in complex analysis.


Symbolic Computation Number Theory Special Functions Physics And Combinatorics

Author by : Frank G. Garvan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 68
Total Download : 907
File Size : 43,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : These are the proceedings of the conference "Symbolic Computation, Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics" held at the Department of Mathematics, University of Florida, Gainesville, from November 11 to 13, 1999. The main emphasis of the conference was Com puter Algebra (i. e. symbolic computation) and how it related to the fields of Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics. A subject that is common to all of these fields is q-series. We brought together those who do symbolic computation with q-series and those who need q-series in cluding workers in Physics and Combinatorics. The goal of the conference was to inform mathematicians and physicists who use q-series of the latest developments in the field of q-series and especially how symbolic computa tion has aided these developments. Over 60 people were invited to participate in the conference. We ended up having 45 participants at the conference, including six one hour plenary speakers and 28 half hour speakers. There were talks in all the areas we were hoping for. There were three software demonstrations.


Encyclopaedia Of The History Of Science Technology And Medicine In Non Westen Cultures

Author by : Helaine Selin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
Total Download : 384
File Size : 42,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The Encyclopaedia fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural stud ies. Reference works on other cultures tend either to omit science completely or pay little attention to it, and those on the history of science almost always start with the Greeks, with perhaps a mention of the Islamic world as a trans lator of Greek scientific works. The purpose of the Encyclopaedia is to bring together knowledge of many disparate fields in one place and to legitimize the study of other cultures' science. Our aim is not to claim the superiority of other cultures, but to engage in a mutual exchange of ideas. The Western aca demic divisions of science, technology, and medicine have been united in the Encyclopaedia because in ancient cultures these disciplines were connected. This work contributes to redressing the balance in the number of reference works devoted to the study of Western science, and encourages awareness of cultural diversity. The Encyclopaedia is the first compilation of this sort, and it is testimony both to the earlier Eurocentric view of academia as well as to the widened vision of today. There is nothing that crosses disciplinary and geographic boundaries, dealing with both scientific and philosophical issues, to the extent that this work does. xi PERSONAL NOTE FROM THE EDITOR Many years ago I taught African history at a secondary school in Central Africa.