Description : The philosophy of religion, once considered a deviation from an otherwise analytically rigorous discipline, has flourished over the past two decades. This collection of new essays by twelve distinguished philosophers of religion explores three broad themes: religious attitudes of belief, acceptance, and love; human and divine freedom; and the rationality of religious belief.
Description : This collection of essays in support of the theory of evolutionary epistemology includes articles by Karl Popper, Peter Munz and Gerhard Vollmer. This volume attempts to show how an evolutionary and non-justificational approach affects the sociology of knowledge.
Description : An important division in the human mind is between perception and reasoning. Perceptual experiences are conscious, but much of our reasoning is unconscious. Reasoning can be better or worse, but perception is considered beyond reproach. We reason from information that we have already, butperception is a means of getting new information. The Rationality of Perception argues that these two divergent aspects of the mind become deeply intertwined when beliefs, fears, desires, or prejudice influence what we perceive. When the influences reach all the way to perceptual appearances, weface a philosophical problem: is it reasonable to strengthen what one believes, fears, or suspects, on the basis of an experience that was generated, unbeknownst to the perceiver, by those very same beliefs, fears, or suspicions? Susanna Siegel argues that it is not reasonable - even though it mayseem that way to the perceiver. Drawing on examples involving racism, emotion, self-defense law, and scientific theories, The Rationality of Perception makes the case that perception itself can be irrational. Siegel systematically distinguishes "cognitive penetration" from several other kinds of influence on perception, builds atheory of how such influences on perception determine what it's rational or irrational to believe, and uses the main conclusions to analyze perceptual manifestations of anti-black racism in the U.S. This book makes vivid the far-reaching consequences of psychological and cultural influences onperception. Its method shows how analytic philosophy, social psychology, history and politics can be mutually illuminating.
Description : Repeatedly and successfully, the celebrated Harvard philosopher Robert Nozick has reached out to a broad audience beyond the confines of his discipline, addressing ethical and social problems that matter to every thoughtful person. Here Nozick continues his search for the connections between philosophy and "ordinary" experience. In the lively and accessible style that his readers have come to expect, he offers a bold theory of rationality, the one characteristic deemed to fix humanity's "specialness." What are principles for? asks Nozick. We could act simply on whim, or maximize our self-interest and recommend that others do the same. As Nozick explores rationality of decision and rationality of belief, he shows how principles actually function in our day-to-day thinking and in our efforts to live peacefully and productively with each other. Throughout, the book combines daring speculations with detailed investigations to portray the nature and status of rationality and the essential role that imagination plays in this singular human aptitude.
Description : The literature on theoretical reason has been dominated by epistemological concerns, treatments of practical reason by ethical concerns. This book overcomes the limitations of dealing with each separately. It sets out a comprehensive theory of rationality applicable to both practical and theoretical reason. In both domains, Audi explains how experience grounds rationality, delineates the structure of central elements, and attacks the egocentric conception of rationality. He establishes the rationality of altruism and thereby supports major moral principles. The concluding part describes the pluralism and relativity his conception of rationality accommodates and, taking the unified account of theoretical and practical rationality in that light, constructs a theory of global rationality--the overall rationality of persons. Rich in narrative examples, intriguing analogies, and intuitively appealing arguments, this beautifully crafted book will spur advances in ethics and epistemology as well in philosophy of mind and action and the theory of rationality itself.
Description : The volume Rationality and Decision Making: From Normative Rules to Heuristics analyses rational and irrational decision making by individuals as well as by groups. The contributors adopt methodological, logical, linguistic, psychological, historical, and evolutionary perspectives.
Description : Throughout the ages one of the central topics in philosophy of religion has been the rationality of theistic belief. This book proposes that parties on both sides of this debate might shift their attention in a different direction, by focusing on the question of whether it is rational to be a religious theist. Explaining that having theistic beliefs is primarily a cognitive affair but being a religious theist involves a whole way of life that includes one's beliefs, Golding argues that it can be pragmatically rational to be a religious theist even if the evidence for God’s existence is minimal. The argument is applied to the case of Judaism, articulating what is involved in religious Judaism and arguing that it is rationally defensible to be a religious Jew. The book concludes with a discussion of whether a similar argument might be constructed for other versions of religious theism such as Christianity or Islam, and for non-theistic religions such as Taoism or Buddhism. Joshua Golding offers a carefully wrought explanation of how it can be rational for someone to live a religious life, in particular (but not necessarily only), a traditional Jewish life.
Description : Rationality can answer a number of the most central questions about our existence and our universe: Why are we here? How did the universe come into existence and how will it end? What is the purpose and where will we go after death? In Philosophy of life - Connecting Dots, author Ashok Kumar Sood explores a rational and analytical approach to answer these fundamental questions about human nature and existence and he looks to the facts about our universe and about human psychology to find rational answers. Philosophy of life starts with a curiosity and uses a methodology grounded in rationality to investigate both the physical aspects of the universe as well as the psychological aspects of the human mind. It further explores the role of perception and imagination in human life and it shows how maintaining physical, mental, social and environmental health can improve quality of life. While religion and spirituality have offered traditional answers to life`s most important questions, a rational approach grounded in the facts of our existence can provide a more concrete foundation for optimal living. Philosophy of life connecting dots can show you how to use this rationality to accomplish the ultimate goals of life and live with tranquility, happiness and satisfaction.
Description : This stimulating work takes the concept of 'rationality', a concept that more than any other is supposed to express the essence of what it means to be human, and submits it to a careful and penetrating analysis. The conclusions drawn often challenge those previously suggested by both philosophers and psychologists.
Description : In a career spanning sixty years, Sir Karl Popper has made some of the most important contributions to the twentieth century discussion of science and rationality. The Myth of the Framework is a new collection of some of Popper's most important material on this subject. Sir Karl discusses such issues as the aims of science, the role that it plays in our civilization, the moral responsibility of the scientist, the structure of history, and the perennial choice between reason and revolution. In doing so, he attacks intellectual fashions (like positivism) that exagerrate what science and rationality have done, as well as intellectual fashions (like relativism) that denigrate what science and rationality can do. Scientific knowledge, according to Popper, is one of the most rational and creative of human achievements, but it is also inherently fallible and subject to revision. In place of intellectual fashions, Popper offers his own critical rationalism - a view that he regards both as a theory of knowlege and as an attitude towards human life, human morals and democracy. Published in cooperation with the Central European University.