Description : This book reveals what happens to applications for post-conviction review when those in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland who believe they are wrongfully convicted apply to the Criminal Cases Review Commission, the only body that can refer a case back to the Court of Appeal once appellants opportunities for direct appeal are exhausted. While the Court is obliged to hear all such referrals, the Commission can only refer a case where it believes there is a real possibility that the Court will quash the conviction. The first empirical study of all stages of decision-making within the Commission, this book starts from the premise that the test applied by the Commission (the real possibility test) is not inflexible. Though created by statute and refined through case law, it must be determined on a case-by-case basis, drawing too on cultural and structural variables, alongside fresh evidence gathered by the Commission. Through in-depth analysis of case files and interviews, Hoyle and Sato scrutinize the Commissions operational practices, its working rules and assumptions, considering how these influence its understanding of the real possibility test. Situating their rich empirical data within a framework of the Commissions social, organizational, and legal contexts, this book demonstrates that in its open-ended investigations there is considerable scope for discretion; for thorough exploration of all possible avenues or for choosing a more superficial consideration of a case. It emerges that while structured internal guidance, drawing heavily on Court jurisprudence, shapes decision-making, creating consistency in approach, there remains some variability across cases, over time, that can be accounted for by the different professional backgrounds and personalities of Commission staff.
Description : Ian Shircore's lifelong interest in cover-ups and conspiracies was stirred by the stream of revelations in recent years in declassified documents and answers to Freedom of Information Act requests. And he was handed an amazing bonus, midway through writing his latest book, Conspiracy! 49 Reasons to Doubt, 50 Reasons to Believe, when WikiLeaks published its treasure trove of secret cables. He is amazed at the way WikiLeaks stories - like the evidence that there was probably a fifth 9/11 hijack team on a BA jet bound for London - seemed to be lost in the wash as the press struggled with the deluge of new information. Bizarrely, Ian was once accused by Sunday Times journalists of being Belle de Jour, author of the sex blog Diary of a London Call Girl. His books include Manage Yourself, Manage Your Life, an NLP survival guide that has been reprinted 17 times, and Douglas Adams: The First and Lost Tapes, a little ebook based on an early, pre-fame interview with the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy author. Ian is a trustee of an energetic musical charity, the MAE Foundation, that provides instruments and music teaching for the "kids between countries" - the young refugees from Burma living behind the wire in camps along the Thai border.
Description : Pseudoscience. Astrology. God. Skepticism isn't just a reliable way to access and assess the world, it's healthy, too, for body and most certainly for mind. Why believe this, though? Surely you should be skeptical! Well, here are 13 good reasons. Evidence, if you will. From miracles to archaeology, free will to science denialism, within these pages there is something for everyone.
Description : The assumption that Jesus existed as a historical person has occasionally been questioned in the course of the last hundred years or so, but any doubts that have been raised have usually been put to rest in favor of imagining a blend of the historical, the mythical and the theological in the surviving records of Jesus. Carrier re-examines the whole question and finds compelling reasons to suspect the more daring assumption is correct. He lays out extensive research on the evidence for Jesus and the origins of Christianity and poses the key questions that must now be answered if the historicity of Jesus is to survive as a dominant paradigm. Carrier contrasts the most credible reconstruction of a historical Jesus with the most credible theory of Christian origins if a historical Jesus did not exist. Such a theory would posit that the Jesus figure was originally conceived of as a celestial being known only through private revelations and hidden messages in scripture; then stories placing this being in earth history were crafted to communicate the claims of the gospel allegorically; such stories eventually came to be believed or promoted in the struggle for control of the Christian churches that survived the tribulations of the first century. Carrier finds the latter theory more credible than has been previously imagined. He explains why it offers a better explanation for all the disparate evidence surviving from the first two centuries of the Christian era. He argues that we need a more careful and robust theory of cultural syncretism between Jewish theology and politics of the second-temple period and the most popular features of pagan religion and philosophy of the time. For anyone intent on defending a historical Jesus, this is the book to challenge.
Description : These areas are the promises of God, the reasons to doubt and the hope beyond reasons to doubt..
Description : When people encounter an argument for or against God's existence, it often raises more questions than it answers. In Letters to Doubting Thomas, C. Stephen Layman offers a fresh, insightful approach to the issue of God's existence--a way to organize what can seem like a blizzard of claims and concepts--bringing clarity to a debate often mired in confusion. Layman explores the evidence for the existence of God in a series of fictionalized letters between two characters--Zachary, a philosopher, and Thomas, an old college friend who appeals to Zach for help in sorting out his thoughts about God. As their correspondence grows, Zachary leads Thomas through an informal and highly readable comparison of Naturalism (the belief that there is no God and that ultimate reality is physical reality), and Theism (the idea that there is an almighty, perfectly good God). In engaging letters that break down complex philosophical arguments into easily digestible bits, the two friends delve into such weighty topics as the reliability of religious experience, various arguments for God's existence (such as the cosmological, design, and moral arguments), the question of free will, and the problem of evil. A piece at a time, they build an argument that shows that Theism, on balance, provides a better explanation of the world and human life than does Naturalism. Here then is a highly accessible account of the major arguments for and against the existence of God, capturing some of the best new insights of modern philosophy in a marvelously clear and engaging format.
Description : Many Christians claim to have faith in a Bible that doesn’t exist. That’s right, they say they believe the “original autographs” were without error, but they don’t have them! We need a Bible we can trust that we can actually hold in our hands. Here are 51 reasons why you can trust the King James. Be ready to give an answer! ----------- More: Our world is split between two camps: those with faith, and those with doubt. Right now, those with doubt are outnumbering those with faith. But God only blesses faith. It’s “the Christian faith” —not the Christian doubt. Are there reasons to trust that God kept His promise to preserve His own words? Yes! There are many. This book is a small collection of those. People have been finding, not only what faith looks like, but have actually made the move and left the doubting Bibles, with their contradictory doctrines, and come to the King James. There they found a consistent message, consistent doctrine, and a consistent faith. So they can hold the Bible up in their hands and say, “Thus saith the Lord! This is the words of God.” Trusting God’s Words Can Change Your Church! The result? An increase in holiness, faith, soul-winning, Christian growth and confidence in the Scriptures. Read "51 Reasons" today!
Description : Broadly speaking, this is a book about truth and the criteria thereof. Thus it is, in a sense, a book about justification and rationality. But it does not purport to be about the notion of justification or the notion of rationality. For the assumption that there is just one notion of justification, or just one notion of rationality, is, as the book explains, very misleading. Justification and rationality come in various kinds. And to that extent, at least, we should recognize a variety of notions of justification and rationality. This, at any rate, is one of the morals of Chapter VI. This book, in Chapters I-V, is mainly concerned with the kind of justification and rationality characteristic of a truth-seeker, specifically a seeker of truth about the world impinging upon the senses: the so-called empirical world. Hence the book's title. But since the prominent contemporary approaches to empirical justification are many and varied, so also are the epistemological issues taken up in the following chapters. For instance, there will be questions about so-called coherence and its role, if any, in empirical justification. And there will be questions about social consensus (whatever it is) and its significance, or the lack thereof, to empirical justification. Furthermore, the perennial question of whether, and if so how, empirical knowledge has so-called founda tions will be given special attention.
Description : Fundamentals of Critical Argumentation presents the basic tools for the identification, analysis, and evaluation of common arguments for beginners. The book teaches by using examples of arguments in dialogues, both in the text itself and in the exercises. Examples of controversial legal, political, and ethical arguments are analyzed. Illustrating the most common kinds of arguments, the book also explains how to analyze and evaluate each kind by critical questioning. Douglas Walton shows how arguments can be reasonable under the right dialogue conditions by using critical questions to evaluate them.
Description : Winner: 2012 The American Publishers Award for Professional and Scholarly Excellence in Theology and Religious Studies, PROSE Award. In this thought-provoking new work, the world renowned theologian Gary Dorrien reveals how Kantian and post-Kantian idealism were instrumental in the foundation and development of modern Christian theology. Presents a radical rethinking of the roots of modern theology Reveals how Kantian and post-Kantian idealism were instrumental in the foundation and development of modern Christian theology Shows how it took Kant's writings on ethics and religion to launch a fully modern departure in religious thought Dissects Kant's three critiques of reason and his moral conception of religion Analyzes alternative arguments offered by Schleiermacher, Schelling, Hegel, and others - moving historically and chronologically through key figures in European philosophy and theology Presents notoriously difficult and intellectual arguments in a lucid and accessible manner