Referendums And Representative Democracy

Author by : Maija Setälä
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : This volume analyses how the use of referendums affects the central functions and characteristics of representative democracy. It provides a balanced account of the interaction between referendums and representative institutions and actors, seeking to evaluate whether referendums supplement or undermine representative democracy. Considering both normative and empirical questions, the volume also examines the particular circumstances under which referendums strengthen or weaken representative democracy. Providing a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches used in the study of referendums, this book is divided into three sections: Referendums and the Models of Democracy, The Demand of Referendums: Party Ideologies and Strategies, and Referendum Campaigns and Voter Behaviour. It features case studies on Ireland, Israel, Canada, California, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, the Nordic Countries, the Netherlands, Spain and the EU Constitutional Treaty. In addition to system-level evaluations of referendums, studies on the ideological attitudes of political actors and strategic use of referendums, the volume also provides analyses of referendum campaigns and voters’ choices in referendums. Covering referendums on European integration, the volume also demonstrates how supra-national governance gives rise to the demand of referendums. This volume will be of interest to students and scholars of political science, political theory, comparative politics, and European studies.


Referendums As Representative Democracy

Author by : Leah Trueblood
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : "In referendums on fundamental constitutional issues, do the people come together to make decisions instead of representatives? This book argues no. It offers an alternative theory of referendums whereby they are one of many ordinary ways that voters give direction to their representatives. In this way, the book argues that referendums are better understood as exercises in representative democracy. The book challenges the current treatment of referendums in processes of constitutional change both in the United Kingdom and around the world. It argues that referendums have been increasingly used under the banner of popular sovereignty, in a way that undermines representative institutions. This book makes the case for the use of referendums stronger by showing how they can support, rather than undermine, institutions of representative democracy. The author argues that democratic constitutions are not contracts, and that the use of referendums on fundamental constitutional questions may be justified for a wide range of reasons. Rather than see the power to constitute constitutions as something that happens occasionally in constitutional moments through referendums, this book argues instead that voters constantly have the power to constitute and reconstitute their constitutions."--


The Routledge Handbook To Referendums And Direct Democracy

Author by : Laurence Morel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : Over the last 30 years referendums have played an increasingly important role in determining government policy. Recent high profile referendums in Scotland, Catalonia and Ukraine have continued the movement towards independence referendums following decolonization and the end of the Cold War. The Greek bailout referendum and Britain’s vote on membership of the EU reflect a tradition of European states giving their people a direct say in the transfer of sovereign powers to the European Union seen through the ratification of key treaties such as Maastricht, Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon. This Routledge Handbook covers key aspects and issues of direct democracy and referendums throughout the world including: •their history; •when, why, where, how and on which issues referendums are held; •why some referendums are more democratic than others; •how referendums are won; •whether they produce good policies; •if referendums increase participation and improve the quality of representative democracies; •do referendums increase trust in democracy and the political actors; •the impact of new technology on the possibilities, methods and frequency of direct public political participation; •how they should be regulated. Covering other related areas such as recall, citizen juries and random selection, this compendium is an indispensable guide to referendums and the workings of modern democracy.


The Politics Of Referendum Use In European Democracies

Author by : Saskia Hollander
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Description : This book demonstrates that the generally assumed dichotomy between referendums and representative democracy does not do justice to the great diversity of referendum types and of how referendums are used in European democracies. Although in all referendums citizens vote directly on issues rather than letting their political representatives do this for them, some referendums are more direct than others. Rather than reflecting the direct power of the People, most referendums in EU countries are held by, and serve the interests of, the political elites, most notably the executive. The book shows that these interests rarely match the justifications given in the public debate. Instead of being driven by the need to compensate for the deficiency of political parties, decision-makers use referendums primarily to protect the position of their party. In unravelling the strategic role played by national referendums in decision-making, this book makes an unconventional contribution to the debate on the impact of referendums on democracy.


Referendums And Democratic Government

Author by : Maija Setälä
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Total Read : 9
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Description : Referendums and Democratic Government is the most systematic analysis of the referendum so far. The referendum phenomenon is approached from different perspectives: social choice theory, theories of democracy, a comparative study on 22 democracies, and in-depth case studies of Sweden, Denmark and Switzerland. The referendum is not a unitary phenomenon but it serves various functions and different normative goals in the political systems studied. This variation may largely be explained by the differences in the initiating and agenda-setting procedures.


Referendum Democracy

Author by : M. Mendelsohn
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
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Description : As the referendum becomes a more regular component of decision making, it leaves few, if any, institutions, processes and values of democracy untouched. Political actors of all kinds - including political parties and interest groups - seek to use the referendum device to further their own objectives. The end result is a different kind of democracy than existed before. This book lays out the comparative research agenda on the impact of referendums on the practice of liberal democracy.


Referendums Around The World

Author by : Matt Qvortrup
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 16
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Description : Surveying all referendums around the world since 1793, Dr Qvortrup and contributors provide a thorough account of why and when citizens have been asked to vote on policy issues. Referendums Around the World is essential reading for political scientists and others interested in direct democracy as well as representative government.


Referendums In Canada

Author by : Pierre Marquis
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Do Referendums Enhance Or Threaten Democracy

Author by : Birte Müller-Heidelberg
Languange : en
Publisher by : GRIN Verlag
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 91
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Description : Essay from the year 2003 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: European Union, grade: B, University of Bath (European Studies and Modern Languages), 21 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: In some countries, the Euro has been established without consulting the citizens. Discussions on whether this has been a fair and fully legal step made by elected representatives in a democracy or whether people should have been asked before passing such a major reform are ongoing. The convent has come up with a first proposal for a European Constitution. While several countries are preparing their referendums on it, Germany’s chancellor Gerhard Schröder simply stated, he is against a referendum – no reasons given. Switzerland uses referendums as a regular instrument to let people decide about single political issues. Countries as Sweden and Denmark use them at least once in a while. Others, such as Germany, have never had a referendum in their history. Although these differences between nation states are obvious, there has been a revival of the idea of referendums as an instrument of direct democracy in the last decades. In some states used, in others only discussed, referendums are a topic again. This essay analyses the question whether referendums enhance or threaten democracy by taking a closer look at the pro and contra arguments used in the literature, essays and newspaper articles through which sociologists fight their battle about the subject. After pointing out some of the reasons for the current rise of referendums in general (2), chapter 3 will deal with the chances (3.1) and dangers (3.2) of referendums. This analysis will lead to a conclusion and judgement of referendums (4). In chapter 5, a short outlook will be given on the function of referendums in the ever closer European Union.


Constitutional Referendums

Author by : Stephen Tierney
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 67
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Description : The constitutional referendum has become a vital feature of modern constitution-making and reform. This book provides the first full-length analysis of the theoretical foundations of constitutional referendums, assessing their democratic credentials and the design decisions that affect the value and legitimacy of the referendum process.


Democracy Transformed

Author by : Bruce E. Cain
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press on Demand
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
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Description : An international team of distinguished scholars assembles evidence of how democratic institutions and processes are changing, and considers the larger implications of these reforms for the very nature of democracy.


Referendums In Canada

Author by : Pierre Marquis
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 18
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How Referendums Challenge European Democracy

Author by : Richard Rose
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Nature
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
Total Download : 323
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Description : This book explains how citizens are using referendums to challenge decisions taken by the European Union. The opening chapters compare the two chief institutions of electoral democracy: parliamentary elections to decide who governs, and referendums to decide policies. The EU relies on international treaties for its authority to make policies. Chapters analysing referendum voting on Europe in Britain, Greece and the Netherlands show that cultural values can have a stronger influence than class. The book uses Brexit – the British referendum in which a majority voted for the UK leaving the European Union – as the leading example of a conflict between national voters and the EU. However, taking back control of policymaking does not ensure effective policymaking when success depends not only on what the British Parliament does but also on decisions taken in Brussels, Washington and elsewhere. Boris Johnson’s electoral success is insufficient to deliver all his promises in the world beyond Brexit. The EU is challenged too, as its policies increasingly depend on what happens on other continents.


Direct Democracy In Belarus

Author by : Elzbieta Szumanska
Languange : en
Publisher by : GRIN Verlag
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Description : Seminar paper from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Russia, grade: 1.0, European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), course: Direct Democracy: Theory and Practice., language: English, abstract: In order to proof democratic developments in Belarus the following study will be divided into five different sections. The opening section positions Belarus within contemporary debate about the concept of the Direct Democracy, with a special focus on the relevance and functions of the institution of referendum and plebiscite. Next, the paper reviews the Belarusian referenda since president Lukashenko came to power. First, legal bases for this kind of institution must be presented. Further, detailed course within the timeframe of May 1995 and October 2004 in connection with a public reaction on them and an international appraisal will be shown. Section three of the paper then considers the historical context of Belarus with a special focus on the Soviet period in order to elucidate the issues mentioned. Long dependence may explain why there exists a big mistrust to international institutions and the West as such. This section presents also possible reasons of the weak Belarusian national identity and lack of the civil society in the country. Next chapter looks after possible ways Belarus should follow. Having in mind the way the direct democracy has been forced there via referendums that do not meet law standards, this part will consider possible reasons and challenges for the Belarusian governance in the domain of international relations with its biggest neighbors: Russia and the European Union, from a variety of perspectives. It is essential in the debate about democratization of Belarus without destroying so important economical ties with Russia. In conclusion it will be analyzed how the changes described can proof the concept of the Direct Democracy in Belarusian context. In doing so, answers on how the international community can


Referendums Around The World

Author by : Emeritus Professor Austin Ranney
Languange : en
Publisher by : American Enterprise Institute
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 51
Total Download : 245
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Description : This volume analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the referendum and the initiative and how they fit the requirements of democratic ideals. Focusing primarily on the experience of the past fifteen years.


The Politics Of Participation

Author by : Matt Qvortrup
Languange : en
Publisher by : Manchester University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 82
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Description : We live in an age of democracy. Very few people challenge the virtues of ‘government by the people’, yet politicians and commentators are fond of decrying the ‘crisis of democracy’. How do these views square up? This book provides the answer by surveying the philosophical history of democracy and its critics and by analysing empirical data about citizen participation in Britain and other developed democracies. In addition to analysis of major political thinkers like Plato, Machiavelli and J.S. Mill, the book analyses how modern technology has influenced democracy. Among the issues discussed in the book are why people vote and what determines their decisions, what prompts citizen involvement in riots and demonstrations, whether spin doctors and designer politics pose a threat to democracy and the influence of mass media on our political behaviour. More than merely providing an overview, the book also presents original analyses of timely issues such as referendums and the consequences of postal voting. An essential book for students of politics, history and media studies, this study puts the debate about democracy into perspective and offers a solid grounding for future discussions.


Citizens Initiatives In Europe

Author by : M. Setälä
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 74
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Description : An exploration and analysis of the regulation and practices of citizens' initiatives in eleven European democracies and the EU. The contributors to this volume shed light on how citizens' initiatives influence patterns of political agenda-setting in representative democracies and how they can contribute to participatory democracy.


A Comparative Study Of Referendums

Author by : Mads Qvortrup
Languange : en
Publisher by : Manchester University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 70
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Description : Combining an account of the political history and philosophy of the referendum, with a thorough assessment of the practical experiences with referendums in western democracies, this book has established itself as the unrivalled market-leader in the field. Fully revised and with new chapters on campaign spending and the administration of referendums, the second edition of this book provides a thorough overview of the theory and practice of referendums.


Ukraine After Euromaidan

Author by : Alexander Bedritskiy
Languange : en
Publisher by : CreateSpace
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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File Size : 41,6 Mb
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Description : The fact that the politicians brought to power by the Ukrainian Maidan revolutions turned out to be clearly anti-democratic, fully reliant on advantages of the moment stolen from opponents on the square, and not ready to compromise or stick to agreements made with opponents, is both the fault and a generic trait of the Maidan revolutions. It is this fact that eventually became the key factor in the collapse of the Ukrainian state. Indeed, if we imagine that the February 21 agreements between the opposition and Yanukovich had been implemented, there would not have been the referendum in Crimea, nor the Odessa massacre, nor the referendum in the Donbass, nor the bloody civil war, and most likely somebody other than Yanukovich would have become President of Ukraine. However, given the logic of ochlocracy, it is just as clear that this was impossible. For the leaders of opposition are through and through square-dwelling provocateurs, pushed from behind by a similar, though far more radical, breed. While elections tend to have a low turnout, with the procedures usually well defined, the turnout at referendums tends to be high, although there are often procedural questions. These are the realities one has to learn to evaluate correctly. The institution of representative democracy attracts less and less the attention of the citizens of different countries. If there is still some interest in elections for the head of state (although fatigue builds up because all politicians are the same), people rarely understand who to vote for and why, when it comes to parliamentary elections. The shows put on, or the intensified controversies between politicians before elections, only show that national leadership does everything possible to attract people's attention to a voting procedure that has become uninteresting or meaningless for them. On the other hand, the instruments of direct democracy, such as referendums that decide truly life-changing questions for a country or a region, draw more and more people. The answer to the question of why this is happening is obvious - people show their civic-mindedness when something is vital, when their voice defines the fate of their country, but they do not want to take part in meaningless games imposed on them. On the other hand, this suggests the more profound conclusion that the public conscience, the proverbial civil society is a real, sizeable phenomenon, rather than a "Frondesque" narrow circle of party activists. And the position of the true civil society, i.e. people who perceive themselves as citizens of their country who care about its future, has long since outgrown the meaningless formalism of liberal democracy.


The Referendum

Author by : Kris William Kobach
Languange : en
Publisher by : Dartmouth Publishing Company
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Description : Explores the impact of frequent referendums on the Swiss political system. Various institutions evolved to cope with the repeated challenging of government decisions in the arena of direct democracy. This study identifies phenomena which may occur in politics that use referenda less often.


Parties Without Partisans

Author by : Russell J. Dalton
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press on Demand
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 40
Total Download : 339
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Description : Parties Without Partisans provides a comprehensive cross-national study of parties in advanced industrial democracies in all their forms - in electoral politics, as organisations, and in government.


Stretching The Constitution

Author by : Andrew Blick
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 50
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Description : How far did the European Union (EU) referendum result of 23 June 2016 really justify and necessitate the policies executed in response to it? What are the implications of that vote and its prolonged aftermath for the United Kingdom (UK) constitution? What other challenges does our political system face? This book seeks to answer these questions. It considers from a constitutional perspective the way in which the decision to leave the EU was taken and then implemented, discussing in particular the role of Parliament. It includes a close analysis of the referendum legislation, and relevant Commons debates. Adapting methods from applied history, the author considers the wider implications of Brexit by assessing a series of proposals for constitutional reform produced in the UK since 1900. He addresses features of the UK system including referendums, representative democracy, Parliament, devolution, and the executive, from both an historic and contemporary point of view. The book assesses other issues that do not arise directly from Brexit but that have constitutional implications and a global aspect to them. They include political applications of the Internet and climate change. Finally, the author makes a series of proposals for reforms that will help the democratic system of the UK to adapt to its changing environment.


The Politics Of Direct Democracy

Author by : Lawrence LeDuc
Languange : en
Publisher by : Broadview Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 86
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Description : This book aims to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date survey of direct democratic institutions and devices as they have developed both in the thinking of modern political theorists and in actual political practice in the world's major democratic nations.


Reflections On The Future Of Democracy In Europe

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Council of Europe
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Description : This publication contains papers presented at a conference, held in November 2004 in Barcelona and organised by the Council of Europe. The purpose of the conference (held to mark the end of the three-year integrated project "Making democratic institutions work") was to discuss issues relating to the challenges and opportunities facing governments in Europe to strengthen democratic reform and encourage greater public participation. Topics covered include: promoting inclusive elections; financing of political parties; popular initiatives and referendums; and how modern communication technologies can affect the democratic process.


The People S Mandate

Author by : J. Patrick Boyer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Dundurn
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Description : A mood of anger with the political system has been stirring across Canada; yet rather than turning away from the system, many Canadians are actually seeking a greater say in matters that affect them. they want to become more effective participants in the political process. In this timely book, Patrick Boyer examines the important role that direct democracy -- through the occasional use of referendums, plebscites, and inniatives -- can play in concert with our existing institutions of representative democracy. This concept is not alien to our country, says Boyer, pointing to the two national plebiscites (on prohibition of alcohol in 1898 and consciption for overseas military service in 1942), some sixty provincial plebscites (on everything from sovereignty-association to abortion, medicare to women's suffrage, prohibition to ownership of power companies), and several thousand at the municipal level. Direct voting is an important instrument in a truly democratic society, Boyer argues, and it has a more important rold in the current reformation of Canada than some in the comfortable growing governing classes want to admit. In addition to clarifying an issue, it is an educational tool, as the plebiscite campaign becomes a national teach-in. Canadians can become participants, rathe rthan mere spectators, in the major changes and transcending isues that affect the future of our country. The People's Mandate is a helpful guide to understanding the distinctions between plebiscites and referendums in a purely Canadian context. It addresses some of the concerns about this unparliamentary practice, and makes a powerful and logical statement about democracy. In sum, Boyer believes it is essential to govern with the trust of the people.


Media And Democracy In Australia

Author by : Belinda Helmke
Languange : en
Publisher by : GRIN Verlag
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Total Read : 43
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Description : Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Other States, grade: 1, Macquarie University, language: English, abstract: When speaking about democracy one has to be careful to distinguish between its two key areas: direct democracy and representative democracy. Direct democracy is largely associated with self-government of the people in ancient Greece. This Athenian democracy is something which, as population of states grew, was increasingly difficult to sustain. In, for example, Australia with a population of 19 million people direct self-rule which implies "time-consuming and unwieldy procedures," with the likely effect of paralysing and not enhancing governmental decision-making processes, is largely unthinkable. Hence, today in the 21st century when one speaks of democracies what is largely meant is a representative democracy. Although remnants of direct democracy remain in aspects such as referendums, generally voters hand over their power in regular elections to representatives to rule on their behalf. The emergence of the internet has inspired many critics to believe that it can be the answer to overcoming what they see as the temporary solution of representative democracies. They believe that the new media, the internet, will lead to a future in which "major policy decisions can be instigated, formulated, and decided by direct democracy."


A Constitution Of Direct Democracy

Author by : Michael N Mautner, Ph. D.
Languange : en
Publisher by : Legacy Books
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Description : All people share the basic needs of survival and the social drives embedded in human nature. Survival demands sustenance, safety and procreation; and the social drives demand dignity, justice and freedom. These shared values emerge when the common will is distilled from the diverse wills of people. Where this communal wisdom governs, human dignity will be honored and our survival will be secure. This book describes a system of pure democracy where all major decision are done through referendums and statistically meaningful public opinion polls. The policies are then executed by expert agencies with oversight from public policy panels. The book also describes transition to Direct Democracy through Representatives pledged to "I shall vote in Congress or Parliament according to the instructions of my constituents."


Diploma Democracy

Author by : Mark Bovens
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
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Description : Lay politics lies at the heart of democracy. Political offices are the only offices for which no formal qualifications are required. Contemporary political practices are diametrically opposed to this constitutional ideal. Most democracies in Western Europe are diploma democracies - ruled by those with the highest formal qualifications. Citizens with low or medium educational qualifications currently make up about 70 percent of the electorates, yet they have become virtually absent from almost all political arenas. University graduates have come to dominate all political institutions and venues, from political parties, parliaments and cabinets, to organised interests, deliberative settings, and Internet consultations. This rise of a political meritocracy is part of larger trend. In the information society, educational background, like class or religion, is an important source of social and political divides. Those who are well educated tend to be cosmopolitans, whereas the lesser educated citizens are more likely to be nationalists. This book documents the context, contours, and consequences of this rise of a political meritocracy. It explores the domination of higher educated citizens in political participation, civil society, and political office in Western Europe. It discusses the consequences of this rise of a political meritocracy, such as descriptive deficits, policy incongruences, biased standards, and cynicism and distrust. Also, it looks at ways to remedy, or at least mitigate, some of the negative effects of diploma democracy.


Total Representation

Author by : Aharon Nathan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 42
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Description : A radical two-stage plan to convert the House Lords to a democratically elected second chamber is outlined in this book. It suggests that the present mixture of life peers, hereditary peers, bishops and law lords should be phased out over the course of a single parliament and replaced in stages by a completely new House of Lords, elected in two different ways. Half would be 'Regional Lords', elected on a first-past-the-post basis is in newly created constituencies. The other half would be 'Party Lords', elected on a proportional basis as a by-product of the normal general election for the House of Commons. The book argues that there is a growing desire for a totally elected second chamber, but that no politician seems willing to break the deadlock over the future of the House of Lords by putting forward a bold plan for reform.


Compromises In Democracy

Author by : Sandrine Baume
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Nature
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 63
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Description : This book provides an interdisciplinary examination of the relationship between compromise and democracy. Compromises have played a significant role in our representative democracies and yet the nature of the relationship between compromise and democracy has generally raised tricky theoretical questions and generated ambiguous evaluations. This book focuses on the relationship between compromise and liberal democracies from both a cultural and institutional perspective and addresses new and lesser-explored aspects of the relationship. It explores a variety of topics including: compromise and in-commensurable values, antagonist paradigms, compromise and majority decisions, compromise and publicity, compromise and post-conflict societies, compromise and anti-system political parties, and compromise and the understanding of political representation. Compromises in Democracy offers an original perspective on the topic by assembling contributions from the fields of philosophy, sociology, political theory, political science and history of ideas.