Description : At each of its great historical junctures, Russia has undergone major legal reforms, without ever truly establishing "the rule of law". We are witnessing another such critical period now, and the endpoint is not yet clearly defined. Is Russia evolving a Western-style legal order, or should we expect to see new variations on the established pattern -- politically dominated legal system valuing outcomes over procedures, tolerating the expedient use of extralegal means of coercion, and fostering extrajudicial forms of conflict resolution? This volume measures Russian legal reform in relation to the rule-of-law ideal, but, more than that, it examines the legal institutions, culture, and reform goals that have actually prevailed in Russia. Judgments about future prospects are measured against two starting points, 1914 and 1991, adding new dimensions to our understanding of the Soviet legacy. The international group of contributors -- including Sergei Kazantsev, Girish Bhat, Cathy Frierson, Jane Burbank, Golfo Alexopoulos, Gapor Rittersporn, Yoram Gorlizki, Gordon Smith, Eugene Huskey, Robert Sharlet, and Sarah Reynolds -- bring to this endeavor a range of disciplinary methods and expertise on law and justice in tsarist, Soviet, and post-Soviet Russia.
Description : Measuring Russian legal reform in relation to the rule-of-law ideal, this study also examines the legal institutions, culture and reform goals that have actually prevailed in Russia. Judgements about future prospects are measured, adding new dimensions to our understanding of the Soviet legacy.
Description : Adolescence is a distinct, yet transient, period of development between childhood and adulthood characterized by increased experimentation and risk-taking, a tendency to discount long-term consequences, and heightened sensitivity to peers and other social influences. A key function of adolescence is developing an integrated sense of self, including individualization, separation from parents, and personal identity. Experimentation and novelty-seeking behavior, such as alcohol and drug use, unsafe sex, and reckless driving, are thought to serve a number of adaptive functions despite their risks. Research indicates that for most youth, the period of risky experimentation does not extend beyond adolescence, ceasing as identity becomes settled with maturity. Much adolescent involvement in criminal activity is part of the normal developmental process of identity formation and most adolescents will mature out of these tendencies. Evidence of significant changes in brain structure and function during adolescence strongly suggests that these cognitive tendencies characteristic of adolescents are associated with biological immaturity of the brain and with an imbalance among developing brain systems. This imbalance model implies dual systems: one involved in cognitive and behavioral control and one involved in socio-emotional processes. Accordingly adolescents lack mature capacity for self-regulations because the brain system that influences pleasure-seeking and emotional reactivity develops more rapidly than the brain system that supports self-control. This knowledge of adolescent development has underscored important differences between adults and adolescents with direct bearing on the design and operation of the justice system, raising doubts about the core assumptions driving the criminalization of juvenile justice policy in the late decades of the 20th century. It was in this context that the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) asked the National Research Council to convene a committee to conduct a study of juvenile justice reform. The goal of Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach was to review recent advances in behavioral and neuroscience research and draw out the implications of this knowledge for juvenile justice reform, to assess the new generation of reform activities occurring in the United States, and to assess the performance of OJJDP in carrying out its statutory mission as well as its potential role in supporting scientifically based reform efforts.
Description : This book deals with a number of critical issue in juvenile justice that have not been dealt with in extenso before
Description : With the recent explosion of high-profile court cases and staggering jury awards, America's justice system has moved to the forefront of our nation's consciousness. Yet while the average citizen is bombarded with information about a few sensational cases--such as the multi-million dollar damages awarded a woman who burned herself with McDonald's coffee-- most Americans are unaware of the truly dramatic transformation our courts and judicial system have undergone over the past three decades, and of the need to reform the system to adapt to that transformation. In Reforming the Civil Justice System, Larry Kramer has compiled a work that charts these revolutionary changes and offers solutions to the problems they present. Organized into three parts, the book investigates such topics as settlement incentives and joint tortfeasors, substance and form in the treatment of scientific evidence after Daubert v. Merrell Dow, and guiding jurors in valuing pain and suffering damages. Reforming the Civil Justice System offers feasible solutions that can realistically be adopted as our civil justice system continues to be refined and improved.
Description : Hearing on the reauthorization of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, which was first written in 1974 with the goal of supporting states¿ actions to prevent youth crime and to provide core protections for children. The law recognized that clear biological differences between teenagers and adults meant that youth should not be treated in the same manner as adults. Witnesses: Michael Belton, Ramsey County, MN, Dep. Dir. of Juvenile Corrections; Scott Burns, Exec. Dir., National DA¿s Assoc.; A. Hasan Davis, Dep. Commissioner for Operations, Kentucky Dept. of Juvenile Justice; Tracy McClard, Parent; John Solberg, Exec. Dir., Rawhide Boys Ranch, New London, WI; Steven Teske, Judge, Clayton County Juvenile Court, GA. Illus.