Description : Feeding on Non-Prey Resources by Natural Enemies Moshe Coll Reports on the consumption of non-prey food sources, particularly plant materials, by predators and parasitoids are common throughout the literature (reviewed recently by Naranjo and Gibson 1996, Coll 1998a, Coll and Guershon, 2002). Predators belonging to a variety of orders and families are known to feed on pollen and nectar, and adult parasitoids acquire nutrients from honeydew and floral and extrafloral nectar. A recent publication by Wäckers et al. (2005) discusses the p- visioning of plant resources to natural enemies from the perspective of the plant, exploring the evolutionary possibility that plants enhance their defenses by recru- ing enemies to food sources. The present volume, in contrast, presents primarily the enemies’ perspective, and as such is the first comprehensive review of the nut- tional importance of non-prey foods for insect predators and parasitoids. Although the ecological significance of feeding on non-prey foods has long been underappreciated, attempts have been made to manipulate nectar and pollen ava- ability in crop fields in order to enhance levels of biological pest control by natural enemies (van Emden, 1965; Hagen, 1986; Coll, 1998a). The importance of n- prey foods for the management of pest populations is also discussed in the book.
Description : Presents different strategies for biological control along with their ecological bases, using many examples from a diversity of ecosystems.
Description : Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms: Invertebrates and Entomopathogens is an essential reference and teaching tool for researchers in developed and developing countries working to produce "natural enemies" in biological control and integrated pest management programs. As we become aware of the negative impact of pesticides in human health and on the environment, interest is rapidly increasing in developing biological pest control alternatives. Tremendous advances have been made in beneficial organism technology, such as insect predators and parasitoids, mite predators, entomopathogenic nematodes, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. However, developing techniques to mass produce these biological control agents is not enough if the cost of commercialization is prohibitive. Advancing mass production to the level of economic feasibility is critical, so these new technologies can compete in the open market. This book educates academic and industry researchers, and enables further development of mass production so new technologies can compete in the open market. It is also an excellent resource for those researching beneficial arthropod mass production and technologies for other uses, including for study and application in biotechnology and biomedical research. Focuses on techniques for mass production of beneficial organisms and methods of evaluation and quality assessment Organizes and presents the most advanced and current knowledge on methods to mass produce beneficial organisms in response to the increased global demand for alternatives to chemical pesticides for biological control producers Includes a team of highly respected editors and authors with broad expertise in these areas
Description : This book aims to address the importance of natural enemies and functional diversity for biological control in Neotropical agroecosystems. Several aspects related to the conservation of natural enemies, such as vegetation design and climate change, are discussed in Part 1 and the bioecology of several insects groups used in biological control in Latin America is presented in Part 2. Part 3 is devoted to mass production of natural enemies while Part 4 describes how these insects have been used to control of pests in major crops, forests, pasture, weeds and plant diseases. Lastly, Part 5 reports Latin-American experiences of integration of biological in pest management programs.
Description : Over the past three decades there has been a dramatic increase in theoretical and practical studies on insect natural enemies. The appeal of insect predators, and parasitoids in particular, as research animals derives from the relative ease with which many species may be cultured and experimented with in the laboratory, the simple life cycles of most parasitoids, and the increasing demand for biological pest control. There is now a massive literature on insect natural enemies, so there is a great need for a general text that the enquiring student or research worker can use in deciding on approaches and techniques that are appropriate to the study and evaluation of such insects. This book fulfils that demand. A considerably updated and expanded version of a previous best-seller, it is an account of major aspects of the biology of predators and parasitoids, punctuated with information and advice on which experiments or observations to conduct, and how to carry them out. Guidance is provided, where necessary, on the literature that may need to be consulted on particular topics. While researchers can now refer to several books on parasitoids and predators, Insects as Natural Enemies is unique in emphasising practicalities. It is aimed at students and professional working in universities and both government and commercial institutes in the fields of pest management, agriculture, horticulture and forestry.
Description : Biodiversity offers great potential for managing insect pests. Itprovides resistance genes and anti-insect compounds; a huge rangeof predatory and parasitic natural enemies of pests; and communityecology-level effects operating at the local and landscape scalesto check pest build-up. This book brings together world leaders intheoretical, methodological and applied aspects to provide acomprehensive treatment of this fast-moving field. Chapter authors from Europe, Asia, Africa, Australasia and theAmericas ensure a truly international scope. Topics range fromscientific principles, innovative research methods, ecologicaleconomics and effective communication to farmers, as well as casestudies of successful use of biodiversity-based pest managementsome of which extend over millions of hectares or are enshrined asgovernment policy. Written to be accessible to advanced undergraduates whilst alsostimulating the seasoned researcher, this work will help unlock thepower of biodiversity to deliver sustainable insect pestmanagement. Visit spanstyle="font-family: "Calibri","sans-serif"; font-size: 11pt; mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-fareast; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language: TH;"www.wiley.com/go/gurr/biodiversity toaccess the artwork from the book./span
Description : We all are indebted to nature for providing us food and its resources for our subsistence and survival. In the food domain, cereal and legume grains occupy the front line, whereas, horticultural crops have occupied the second line of defense. For healthy diet cereals and legumes provide us with carbohydrates and protein, whereas, fruits and vegetables provide us minerals and vitamins. Both macro- and micro- nutrients are essential for human growth and development. The fruits and vegetables are the major source of micro-nutrients. It is estimated that up to 2.7 million lives could potentially be saved each year if fruit and vegetable production was sufficiently increased. Both at national and international levels, food and agriculture/horticulture development plans and estimates are basically developed, framed and implemented, and narrowed down to cereal production. In the present context of attaining nutrition security, this mode of thinking on ‘food’ needs to be changed to ‘nutrients’, which will include necessarily all those crops including fruit and vegetables which provide all macro- and micro-nutrients to ensure balanced nutrition needed for good human health. The present publication has attempted to reflect and discuss the above views and ideas on the subject of sustainable horticulture development and nutrition security in nine chapters with 32 articles by 32 authors.
Description : Biological disease management tactics have emerged as potential alternative to chemical application for containing crop diseases. Biotic and abiotic biological control agents (BCAs) have been demonstrated to be effective against diseases caused by microbial plant pathogens. Combination of biotic and abiotic agents leads to synergism and consequent improvement in the effectiveness of disease control. It is essential to assay the biocontrol potential of all isolates/species of fungal, bacterial and viral biocontrol agents by different techniques in vitro and under greenhouse and field conditions and to precisely identify and differentiate the most effective isolates from less effective ones by employing biological, immunological and nucleic acid-based assays.
Description : Evidence has been mounting for some time that intensive row-crop agriculture as practiced in developed countries may not be environmentally sustainable, with concerns increasingly being raised about climate change, implications for water quantity and quality, and soil degradation. This volume synthesizes two decades of research on the sustainability of temperate, row-crop ecosystems of the Midwestern United States. The overarching hypothesis guiding this work has been that more biologically based management practices could greatly reduce negative impacts while maintaining sufficient productivity to meet demands for food, fiber and fuel, but that roadblocks to their adoption persist because we lack a comprehensive understanding of their benefits and drawbacks. The research behind this book, based at the Kellogg Biological Station (Michigan State University) and conducted under the aegis of the Long-term Ecological Research network, is structured on a foundation of large-scale field experiments that explore alternatives to conventional, chemical-intensive agriculture. Studies have explored the biophysical underpinnings of crop productivity, the interactions of crop ecosystems with the hydrology and biodiversity of the broader landscapes in which they lie, farmers' views about alternative practices, economic valuation of ecosystem services, and global impacts such as greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. In contrast to most research projects, the long-term design of this research enables identification of slow or delayed processes of change in response to management regimes, and allows examination of responses across a broader range of climatic variability. This volume synthesizes this comprehensive inquiry into the ecology of alternative cropping systems, identifying future steps needed on the path to sustainability.