Description : ÔThis volume confronts one of the most central issues in the study and practice of bureaucracy. Questions about representativeness of public institutions raises key issues about legitimacy, especially in contexts characterised by ethnic diversity and cleavages. Debates are shaped by normatively informed positions that contrasts those in favour of representativeness with those who point to limitations and side-effects. This volume offers a set of important contributions to these debates by linking the long-standing debates about representative bureaucracy with an impressive range of country studies. This volume is a fundamental contribution to the theme of representative bureaucracy.Õ Ð Martin Lodge, London School of Economics, UK The book explores one of the most topical issues of public bureaucracies worldwide: the relationship between the composition of the public sector workforce and the nature of the society it serves. Taking a comparative and analytical perspective, the authoritatively, yet accessibly written, country chapters show how salient the politics of representativeness have become in increasingly diverse societies. At the same time, they illustrate the wide variety of practice based on different political systems, administrative structures, and cultural settings. Providing comprehensive up-to-date information and analysis, these studies will interest scholars and practitioners alike, from comparative public administration and management, government, public policy, and diversity studies.
Description : What is the relationship between the composition of the public sector workforce and the nature of the society it serves? Taking a comparative and analytical perspective, the authoritative and accessible chapters illustrate the salience of representativ
Description : The readings in this collection provide a comprehensive guide to the established knowledge and emerging issues regarding democratizing public bureaucracies by making them socially representative. The book includes both classic and cutting-edge works, and presents a contemporary model for analyzing representative bureaucracy that focuses on the linkages between social origins, life experiences, attitudes, and administrators' decision making. The selections address many of the leading concerns of contemporary politics, including diversity and equal opportunity policy, democratic control of administration, administrative performance, the pros and cons of the new public management, and reinventing government. Many of the field's most cited works are included. Each chapter starts with an introductory summary of the key questions under consideration and concludes with discussion questions. With it's extensive selection of classic and contemporary readings, the book will have wide application for courses on bureaucracy, public administration, and public sector human resource management.
Description : “Professor Samuel Krislov’s Representative Bureaucracy remains among the most important and enduring books in the field of public administration and its intersection with political science. It takes the kernel of the idea, inchoately introduced in J. Donald Kingsley’s 1944 book by the same title, that public bureaucracies can be representative political institutions and it develops an overall analytic framework with empirically testable propositions that has served subsequent generations scholars very well. So well, in fact, that as the literature on representative bureaucracy blossomed, these propositions have become so ingrained that many younger scholars are unaware of their initial formulation and roots. That is one reason why the republication of this volume now is not only appropriate, but a critical step toward more tightly organizing the vast literature that it arguably spawned into a comprehensive empirically-based theory integrating all facets of the study of representative bureaucracy…. Krislov entered into this contentiousness [over affirmative action and agency socialization] with unusual balance, sophistication, and nuance—and substantial success in advancing our thinking about how public bureaucracies can and cannot be representative.” — David H. Rosenbloom Distinguished Professor of Public Administration, American University, Washington D.C. (from the new Foreword)
Description : This prize-winning study examines the impact of the employment of women and ethnic and racial minorities in public organizations on the implementation of government programs by those agencies. Driving the study is the question of whether the concept of representative government applies also to the permanent government--the bureaucracy. What difference does it make if an administration is either more or less representative of the population it serves? To what extent, if at all, is an agency's responsiveness to different segments of the public a function of the demographic composition of the agency itself? This study, which won the Leonard D. White award, is the most systematic test to date of the concept of representative bureaucracy. Selden tests the relationship between the demographic representativeness of district office staffs and lending decisions in the Farmers Home Administration's Rural Housing Loans Program. In fleshing out the implications of representative bureaucracy, the book makes an important contribution to the debates on bureaucratic power and illuminates the tensions underlying the assumptions of bureaucratic neutrality and affirmative action.
Description : "Representative Bureaucracy and Performance: Public Service Transformation in South Africa is a first-rate blend of quantitative and qualitative analysis of one of the major transitions in modern governance. Fernandez makes a major theoretical contribution to the literature on representative bureaucracy in demonstrating how descriptive representation translates into both active representation and better performance. His discussion of the crucial role of language and communication brings new insight to the literature on public administration and democracy."—Kenneth Meier, Distinguished Scholar in Residence, American University "This study of public sector transformation goes beyond the descriptive qualitative research largely found in South African public administration historiography by undertaking sophisticated quantitative analysis to show that representation of previously historically disadvantaged groups, under certain circumstances, can improve the performance of public organizations. This is an excellent contribution, not only to public administration scholarship in South Africa, but also to the sparse literature on public organizations in developing countries. The book should be of great value to scholars and practitioners of public administration, as well as to students of political science and organizational studies."—Robert Cameron, Professor, University of Cape Town "This book provides an excellent analysis of the theory of representative bureaucracy in the context of South African post-apartheid government. South Africa is an important and fascinating case. The work adds substantially to the literature on representative bureaucracy and will be of interest to all who are concerned with the effectiveness of government organizations."—J. Edward Kellough, Professor, University of Georgia Governments throughout the world seek to promote employment equity and ensure that bureaucracies are representative of the citizenry. South Africa offers a rare and fascinating case for exploring what happens to bureaucracies as they undergo demographic transformation. Grounded in the theory of representative bureaucracy and using a mixed methods approach, this book explores how major changes in the demographics of the South African public service have affected the performance of the institution. The empirical analysis offers compelling evidence that representative bureaucracies perform better. As public organizations become increasingly representative by hiring historically disadvantaged persons, especially Africans, their performance improves, controlling for a range of factors. Evidence indicates representative bureaucracies perform better because they empathize with and advocate for historically disadvantaged communities, are equipped with linguistic and cultural competencies to serve a diverse citizenry, and can induce compliance, cooperation, and coproduction.
Description : Selected mainly from the pages of Public Administration Review of Public Personnel Administration, these classic articles trace the historical and evolutionary development of the fields of public personnel administration and labor relations from the point at which the first civil service law was passed-the Pendelton Act in 1883-through the 21st century.
Description : This publication is the first of a series from The Network of Asia-Pacific Schools and Institutes of Public Administration and Governance (NAPSIPAG), a network of professionals formed to encourage the continuing development of public administration theory and practice through research and other initiatives, and foster cooperation and collaboration between and among the members in pursuit of related and common interests.
Description : This research examines the theory of representative bureaucracy and its application for increasing administrative responsiveness in light of the normative requirements of democracy. In theory, a representative bureaucracy implies an open public service whereby everybody has an equal opportunity to work in the service. In practice, however, having a represented and diverse workforce does not necessarily ensure that government officials will act in ways that are consistent with their backgrounds. Previous empirical research on this subject has found that descriptive representation is a weak predictor of substantive representation. The main focus of this study is to investigate the conditions under which descriptive representation can lead to substantive representation. To explore this question, I propose a model that integrates three classes of variables: administrators' backgrounds, roles acceptance, and administrators' behavior. The model is grounded on the premise that background factors influence the acceptance of roles, which in turn affects the proclivity of administrators to prefer policy decisions that are responsive to the needs of women and minorities. Therefore, I posit that substantive representation occurs when: (1) policy issue possesses a high degree of salience with respect to gender and ethnicity; (2) important actors hold expectations on an issue and in turn demand some level of substantive actions; and (3) administrators perceive their role as an advocate of women and minority interests, and hence make policy decisions that benefit women and minority groups. When these conditions are less than optimal, descriptive representation will not benefit historically disadvantaged groups. For the analysis, this study utilizes survey data from a sample of Malaysian higher civil servants as well as elite interviews among high-ranking senior civil servants, political leaders as well as business leaders. Using both qualitative (elite interview) and quantitative (survey data) techniques, the findings reveal that racial background has significantly influenced the formation of bureaucratic attitudes and behavior. Other personal and organizational factors do not overwhelm the effects of a representative role. The findings also lend considerable support for the relationship between roles acceptance and policy preferences. The evidence suggest that administrators who perceive their role as an advocate of female and minority's interests are more likely to support policies that benefit women and minority communities. Likewise, administrators who see their role in traditional terms are not likely to support policies that promote women and minority's interests. As a result, this study is able to provide a more complete understanding of representative bureaucracy concept in that it explains how, why, and under what conditions descriptive representation will lead to substantive representation of historically disadvantaged groups.