Description : This volume is the first in a new series to cover different aspects related to Safety and Security Engineering in order to reach a comprehensive view on risk mitigation.The volume is devoted to floods, as one-third of the annual natural disasters and economic losses, and more than half of the respective victims are flood-related. A burgeoning global population and growing wealth, particularly in the last two or three decades, have increased the risk and the demand for protection from flooding. These features, together with climate change predictions and urban development, are affecting the way flood risk is managed.Knowledge and scientific tools play a role of paramount importance in the strain of coping with flooding problems, along with the capacity building in the context of political and administrative framework. Therefore, governments need to establish clear institutional, financial and social mechanisms and processes for flood risk management in order to ensure the safety of people and property and, thereby, contribute to both flood defence and sustainable development.The present volume contains selected papers presented at the Conferences organized by the Wessex Institute of Technology. The papers have been revised by the Authors, in order to be up-to-date and integrated in the book, which covers the following topics: - Risk assessment - Mathematical models for flood propagation - Effect of topographic data resolution - Social and psychological aspects - Decision making and management - Legislations and directives - Alternatives in flood protection - Response and recovery - Damages and economic-related problems - Case studies The quality of the material makes the volume a most valuable and up-to-date tool for professionals, scientists, and managers to appreciate the state-of-the-art in this important field of knowledge.
Description : Public attention has focused in recent years on an array of technological risks to health, safety, and the environment. At the same time, responsibilities for technological risk as sessment, evaluation, and management have grown in both the public and private sectors because of a perceived need to anticipate, prevent, or reduce the risks inherent in modem society. In attempting to meet these responsibilities, legislative, judicial, regulatory, and private sector institutions have had to deal with the extraordinarily complex problems of assessing and balancing risks, costs, and benefits. The need to help society cope with technological risks has given rise to a new intellectual endeavor: the social and behavioral study of issues in risk evaluation and risk management. The scope and complexity of these analyses require a high degree of cooperative effort on the part of specialists from many fields. Analyzing social and behavioral issues requires the efforts of political scientists, sociologists, decision analysts, management scientists, econ omists, psychologists, philosophers, and policy analysts, among others.
Description : Risk is a crucial element in virtually all problems people in diverse areas face in their activities. It is impossible to find adequate models and solutions without taking it into account. Due to uncertainty and complexity in those problems, traditional "hard" tools and techniques may be insufficient for their formulation and solution. This is the first book in the literature that shows how soft computing methods (fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, etc.) can be employed to deal with various problems related to risk analysis, evaluation and management in various fields of technology, environment and finance.
Description : Risk and reward are always foremost in the determination of investment decisions and business transactions. Advances in the area of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) have enabled the development of new business paradigms. Such paradigms involve transactions taking place between loosely connected parties, often totally or partially unknown to one another. One important concept required to ensure such transactions are successful is transactional risk. The importance of doing this has been demonstrated in recent financial crisis. This book is unique in simultaneously taking into account the likelihood of an event occurring and its financial impact and provides an integrated discussion of the process of transactional risk identification, assessment, evaluation, management and recording in these emerging domains. It provides a detailed and clear exposition of the importance of transactional risk before detailing for its assessment and evaluation. The scope of the book is theoretical and practical and as such it will have a broad market both within academia and industry. Specifically this book should be of primary interest to researchers, graduate students and practitioners in the area of developing business intelligence techniques and their application in various real world applications.
Description : Papers presented: 1) Reference points for fisheries management: the western Canadian experience; 2) Reference points for fisheries management: the eastern Canadian experience; 3) Reference points for fisheries management: the ICES experience; 4) Spawning stock biomass per recruit in fisheries management: foundation and current use; 5) The development of a management procedure for the South African anchovy resource; 6) How much spawning per recruit is enough?; 7) The behaviour of Flow, Fmed and Fhigh in response to variation in parameters used for their estimation; 8) The Barents Sea capelin stock collapse: a lesson to learn; 9) Variance estimates for fisheries assessment: their importance and how best to evaluate them; 10) Evaluating the accuracy of projected catch estimates from sequential population analysis and trawl survey abundance estimates; 11) Bootstrap estimates of ADAPT parameters, their projection in risk analysis and their retrospective patterns; 12) Analytical estimates of reliability for the projected yield from commercial fisheries; 13) Risk evaluation of the 10% harvest rate procedure for capelin in NAFO Division 3L; 14) Using jackknife and Monte Carlo simulation techniques to evaluate forecast models for Atlantic salmon; 15) Monte Carlo evaluation of risks for biological reference points used in New Zealand fishery assessments; 16) A comparison of event free risk analysis to Ricker spawner-recruit simulation: an example with Atlantic menhaden; 17) Choosing a management strategy for stock rebuilding when control is uncertain; 18) Risks and uncertainties in the management of a single-cohort squid fishery: the Falkland Islands Illex fishery as an example; 19) Risks of over- and under-fishing new resources; 20) Estimation of density-dependent natural mortality in British Columbia herring stocks through SSPA and its impact on sustainable harvesting strategies; 21) The comparative performance of production-model and ad hoc tuned VPA based feedback-control management procedures for the stock of Cape hake off the west coast of Africa; 22) A proposal for a threshold stock size and maximum fishing mortality rate; 23) Biological reference points for Canadian Atlantic gadoid stocks; 24) Stochastic locally-optimal harvesting; 25) ITQ based fisheries management; 26) Bioeconomic methods for determining TACs; 27) Management strategies: fixed or variable catch quotas; 28) Bioeconomic impacts of TAC adjustment strategies: a model applied to northern cod; 29) Experimental management programs for two rockfish stocks off British Columbia; 30)A brief overview of the experimental approach to reducing uncertainty in fisheries management; 31) Fisheries management organizations: a study of uncertainty.
Description : Risk assessment is considered by many analysts to be an objective scientific tool. It is considered to be variously influenced by broader issues which in turn have important practical implications both for risk assessors and decision makers. Risk Assessment and Risk Management examines a range of practical applications of risk assessment methods and risk management procedures in the broad context of environmental science and technology. Written by acknowledged experts in the field, the articles cover a variety of areas, with reference to subjects as diverse as BSE, the use of risk assessment in government, using computer modelling as an aid to risk assessment in the case of accidental contamination of rivers and estuaries, quantitative cancer risk assessment related to carcinogens in the environment, landfilling of household wastes, environmental risk assessment and management of chemicals, and aquatic risk assessment and management of pesticides. This book provides a detailed and wide-ranging review of the many aspects of risk assessment and risk management which have excited so much debate and controversy in recent times. It will be essential reading for all those involved in the assessment and management of risk, particularly in the context of environmental science.
Description : Conceptual basis for risk assessment; Use of toxicity test data in the estimation of risks to human health; Interspecies extrapolation; Basic concepts of the dose-response relationship; High- to low-dose extrapolation in animals; Legal considerations in risk assessment under federal regulatory statutes; Inter-risk comparisons; Uncertainty and quantitative assessment in risk management; Use of risk assessment and safety evaluation; The need for risk assessment of chemicals in corporate decision making; Chemical industry perspectives on regulatory impact analysis.
Description : Managing environmental contamination requires decision makers to weigh eXlstmg risks against the potential effects of implementing environmental policies - considering both the benefits and disruptions that may result from different actions. The NATO Advanced Research Workshop in Lisbon was an important step in the development and application of cost efficient methods of risk assessment especiaIly within the constraints of a budget. The goal of the workshop was to evaluate the potential for risk assessment to serve as a unified and unifying technique in addressing a wide range of environmental problems. Papers presented in this book discuss issues ranging from specific and local studies (specific site, ecosystem, pollutant) to global decision and management frameworks (watersheds, regions, integration of multiple poIlutants and stressors); they develop a range of approaches starting from specific methods to widely applied public policies (Figure 1). The papers show that the use of risk assessment can provide the scientific basis for environmentaIly sound and cost-efficient policies, strategies, and solutions to our environmental chaIlenges. The organization of the Proceedings reflects sessions and discussions during the workshop. The papers in the introductory Chapter summarize the positions of Drs. Glenn Suter (EPA) and Jim Wilson (Resources for the Future) regarding whether the use of often-expensive risk assessments in developing countries can be justified, given evolving regulatory institutions and limited resources.
Description : In industrialised countries, musculo-skeletrical disorders of the upper limbs represent one of the commonest work-related diseases. All working activities habitually requiring repetitive upper limb movements and exertions represent a potential risk for these disorders under certain conditions. This practical manual provides a clear and detailed solution to the problem of assessing and consequently managing these risks in conformity with European Union legislation covering the safety and protection of workers' health. The book contains many tables, diagrams and schedules, enhancing its practical value. The methods it proposes for analyzing and designing or redesigning jobs and tasks do not require sophisticated equipment and are largely based on situations encountered in large manufacturing factories. Since risk analysis also concerns how jobs and tasks are organized, many concepts and terms are defined that prevention experts can share with those responsible for planning and organizing manufacturing activities on the shop floor.