Roadmap to Successful Digital Health Ecosystems

Roadmap to Successful Digital Health Ecosystems
Author: Evelyn Hovenga,Heather Grain
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 610
Release: 2022-02-25
ISBN: 0128236396
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Roadmap to Successful Digital Health Ecosystems Book Excerpt:

Roadmap to Successful Digital Health Ecosystems: A Global Perspective presents evidence-based solutions found on adopting open platforms, standard information models, technology neutral data repositories, and computable clinical data and knowledge (ontologies, terminologies, content models, process models, and guidelines), resulting in improved patient, organizational, and global health outcomes. The book helps engaging countries and stakeholders take action and commit to a digital health strategy, create a global environment and processes that will facilitate and induce collaboration, develop processes for monitoring and evaluating national digital health strategies, and enable learnings to be shared in support of WHO’s global strategy for digital health. The book explains different perspectives and local environments for digital health implementation, including data/information and technology governance, secondary data use, need for effective data interpretation, costly adverse events, models of care, HR management, workforce planning, system connectivity, data sharing and linking, small and big data, change management, and future vision. All proposed solutions are based on real-world scientific, social, and political evidence. • Provides a roadmap, based on examples already in place, to develop and implement digital health systems on a large-scale that are easily reproducible in different environments • Addresses World Health Organization (WHO)-identified research gaps associated with the feasibility and effectiveness of various digital health interventions • Helps readers improve future decision-making within a digital environment by detailing insights into the complexities of the health system • Presents evidence from real-world case studies from multiple countries to discuss new skills that suit new paradigms

Improving Usability Safety and Patient Outcomes with Health Information Technology

Improving Usability  Safety and Patient Outcomes with Health Information Technology
Author: F. Lau,J.A. Bartle-Clar,G. Bliss
Publsiher: IOS Press
Total Pages: 568
Release: 2019-03-26
ISBN: 1614999511
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Improving Usability Safety and Patient Outcomes with Health Information Technology Book Excerpt:

Information technology is revolutionizing healthcare, and the uptake of health information technologies is rising, but scientific research and industrial and governmental support will be needed if these technologies are to be implemented effectively to build capacity at regional, national and global levels. This book, "Improving Usability, Safety and Patient Outcomes with Health Information Technology", presents papers from the Information Technology and Communications in Health conference, ITCH 2019, held in Victoria, Canada from 14 to 17 February 2019. The conference takes a multi-perspective view of what is needed to move technology forward to sustained and widespread use by transitioning research findings and approaches into practice. Topics range from improvements in usability and training and the need for new and improved designs for information systems, user interfaces and interoperable solutions, to governmental policy, mandates, initiatives and the need for regulation. The knowledge and insights gained from the ITCH 2019 conference will surely stimulate fruitful discussions and collaboration to bridge research and practice and improve usability, safety and patient outcomes, and the book will be of interest to all those associated with the development, implementation and delivery of health IT solutions.

Capturing Value in Digital Health Eco Systems

Capturing Value in Digital Health Eco Systems
Author: Felix Lena Stephanie,Ravi S. Sharma
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 260
Release: 2021-11-10
ISBN: 1000476391
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Capturing Value in Digital Health Eco Systems Book Excerpt:

The United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals call for the establishment of Good Health and Well-being and target a universal digital healthcare ecosystem by 2030. However, existing technology infrastructure is ineffectual in achieving the envisioned target and requires massive reconfiguration to achieve its intended outcome. This book suggests a way forward with fair and efficient digital health networks that provide resource efficiencies and inclusive access to those who are currently under-served. Specifically, a fair and efficient digital health network that provides a common platform to its key stakeholders to facilitate sharing of information with a view to promote cooperation and maximise benefits. A promising platform for this critical application is ‘cloud technology’ with its offer of computing as a utility and resource sharing. This is an area that has attracted much scholarly attention as it is well-suited to foster such a network and bring together diverse players who would otherwise remain fragmented and be unable to reap the benefits that accrue from cooperation. The fundamental premise is that the notion of value in a digital-health ecosystem is brought about by the sharing and exchange of digital information. However, notwithstanding the potential of information and communication technology to transform the healthcare industry for the better, there are several barriers to its adoption, the most significant one being misaligned incentives for some stakeholders. This book suggests among other findings, that e-health in its true sense can become fair and efficient if and only if a regulatory body concerned assumes responsibility as the custodian of its citizens’ health information so that ‘collaboration for value’ will replace ‘competition for revenue’ as the new axiom in delivering the public good of healthcare through digital networks.

Digital implementation investment guide DIIG

Digital implementation investment guide  DIIG
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: World Health Organization
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-09-08
ISBN: 9240010564
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Digital implementation investment guide DIIG Book Excerpt:

Digital Health and Patient Data

Digital Health and Patient Data
Author: Disa Lee Choun,Anca Petre
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2022-08-03
ISBN: 1000620719
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Digital Health and Patient Data Book Excerpt:

Patients with unmet needs will continue to increase as no viable nor adequate treatment exists. Meanwhile, healthcare systems are struggling to cope with the rise of patients with chronic diseases, the ageing population and the increasing cost of drugs. What if there is a faster and less expensive way to provide better care for patients using the right digital solutions and transforming the growing volumes of health data into insights? The increase of digital health has grown exponentially in the last few years. Why is there a slow uptake of these new digital solutions in the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries? One of the key reasons is that patients are often left out of the innovation process. Their data are used without their knowledge, solutions designed for them are developed without their input and healthcare professionals refuse their expertise. This book explores what it means to empower patients in a digital world and how this empowerment will bridge the gap between science, technology and patients. All these components need to co-exist to bring value not only to the patients themselves but to improve the healthcare ecosystem. Patients have taken matters into their own hands. Some are equipped with the latest wearables and applications, engaged in improving their health using data, empowered to make informed decisions and ultimately are experts in their disease(s). They are the e-patients. The other side of the spectrum are patients with minimal digital literacy but equally willing to donate their data for the purpose of research. Finding the right balance when using digital health solutions becomes as critical as the need to develop a disease-specific solution. For the first time, the authors look at healthcare and technologies through the lens of patients and physicians via surveys and interviews in order to understand their perspective on digital health, analyse the benefits for them, explore how they can actively engage in the innovation process, and identify the threats and opportunities the large volumes of data create by digitizing healthcare. Are patients truly ready to know everything about their health? What is the value of their data? How can other stakeholders join the patient empowerment movement? This unique perspective will help us re-design the future of healthcare - an industry in desperate need for a change.

Adaptive Health Management Information Systems Concepts Cases and Practical Applications

Adaptive Health Management Information Systems  Concepts  Cases  and Practical Applications
Author: Joseph Tan
Publsiher: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Total Pages: 490
Release: 2019-09-17
ISBN: 1284153894
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Adaptive Health Management Information Systems Concepts Cases and Practical Applications Book Excerpt:

Adaptive Health Management Information Systems, Fourth Edition is a thorough resource for a broad range of healthcare professionals–from informaticians, physicians and nurses, to pharmacists, public health and allied health professionals–who need to keep pace the digital transformation of health care. Wholly revised, updated, and expanded in scope, the fourth edition covers the latest developments in the field of health management information systems (HMIS) including big data analytics and machine learning in health care; precision medicine; digital health commercialization; supply chain management; informatics for pharmacy and public health; digital health leadership; cybersecurity; and social media analytics.

ECDG 2019 19th European Conference on Digital Government

ECDG 2019 19th European Conference on Digital Government
Author: Asst. Prof. Dr. Tuğberk Kaya
Publsiher: Academic Conferences and publishing limited
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2019-10-24
ISBN: 1912764393
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

ECDG 2019 19th European Conference on Digital Government Book Excerpt:

Consumer Informatics and Digital Health

Consumer Informatics and Digital Health
Author: Margo Edmunds,Christopher Hass,Erin Holve
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2019-01-17
ISBN: 3319969064
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Consumer Informatics and Digital Health Book Excerpt:

This unique collection synthesizes insights and evidence from innovators in consumer informatics and highlights the technical, behavioral, social, and policy issues driving digital health today and in the foreseeable future. Consumer Informatics and Digital Health presents the fundamentals of mobile health, reviews the evidence for consumer technology as a driver of health behavior change, and examines user experience and real-world technology design challenges and successes. Additionally, it identifies key considerations for successfully engaging consumers in their own care, considers the ethics of using personal health information in research, and outlines implications for health system redesign. The editors’ integrative systems approach heralds a future of technological advances tempered by best practices drawn from today’s critical policy goals of patient engagement, community health promotion, and health equity. Here’s the inside view of consumer health informatics and key digital fields that students and professionals will find inspiring, informative, and thought-provoking. Included among the topics: • Healthcare social media for consumer informatics • Understanding usability, accessibility, and human-centered design principles • Understanding the fundamentals of design for motivation and behavior change • Digital tools for parents: innovations in pediatric urgent care • Behavioral medicine and informatics in the cancer community • Content strategy: writing for health consumers on the web • Open science and the future of data analytics • Digital approaches to engage consumers in value-based purchasing Consumer Informatics and Digital Health takes an expansive view of the fields influencing consumer informatics and offers practical case-based guidance for a broad range of audiences, including students, educators, researchers, journalists, and policymakers interested in biomedical informatics, mobile health, information science, and population health. It has as much to offer readers in clinical fields such as medicine, nursing, and psychology as it does to those engaged in digital pursuits.

PIB Summary 2019 Exams Exclusive Vol 1st

PIB Summary 2019 Exams Exclusive Vol 1st
Author: Dheeraj Sharma,Exams Exclusive
Publsiher: DHEERAJ SHARMA
Total Pages: 334
Release: 2020-02-02
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Antiques & Collectibles
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

PIB Summary 2019 Exams Exclusive Vol 1st Book Excerpt:

2nd Edition of PIB Dedicated to Learner's In this Book we cover most important News from PIB (Vol-1st) Jan_2019 to June_2019 with detailed Analysis. Helpful in preparation of UPSC - CSE / IAS / NDA / CDS and many other Exams.

Handbook of Research on Academic Libraries as Partners in Data Science Ecosystems

Handbook of Research on Academic Libraries as Partners in Data Science Ecosystems
Author: Mani, Nandita S.,Cawley, Michelle A.
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 415
Release: 2022-05-06
ISBN: 1799897044
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Research on Academic Libraries as Partners in Data Science Ecosystems Book Excerpt:

Beyond providing space for data science activities, academic libraries are often overlooked in the data science landscape that is emerging at academic research institutions. Although some academic libraries are collaborating in specific ways in a small subset of institutions, there is much untapped potential for developing partnerships. As library and information science roles continue to evolve to be more data-centric and interdisciplinary, and as research using a variety of data types continues to proliferate, it is imperative to further explore the dynamics between libraries and the data science ecosystems in which they are a part. The Handbook of Research on Academic Libraries as Partners in Data Science Ecosystems provides a global perspective on current and future trends concerning the integration of data science in libraries. It provides both a foundational base of knowledge around data science and explores numerous ways academicians can reskill their staff, engage in the research enterprise, contribute to curriculum development, and help build a stronger ecosystem where libraries are part of data science. Covering topics such as data science initiatives, digital humanities, and student engagement, this book is an indispensable resource for librarians, information professionals, academic institutions, researchers, academic libraries, and academicians.

Advancing Strategic Science

Advancing Strategic Science
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Mapping Science Committee,Committee on Spatial Data Enabling USGS Strategic Science in the 21st Century
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 132
Release: 2012-10-26
ISBN: 030926457X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advancing Strategic Science Book Excerpt:

Science is increasingly driven by data, and spatial data underpin the science directions laid out in the 2007 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Strategy. A robust framework of spatial data, metadata, tools, and a user community that is interactively connected to use spatial data in an efficient and flexible way--known as a spatial data infrastructure (SDI)--must be available for scientists and managers to find, use, and share spatial data both within and beyond the USGS. Over the last decade, the USGS has conducted breakthrough research that has overcome some of the challenges associated with implementing a large SDI. Advancing Strategic Science: A Spatial Data Infrastructure Roadmap for the U.S. Geological Survey is intended to ground those efforts by providing a practical roadmap to full implementation of an SDI to enable the USGS to conduct strategic science.

Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental Health Perspectives
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1993
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Environmental health
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Health Perspectives Book Excerpt:

Transforming Public Health Surveillance E Book

Transforming Public Health Surveillance   E Book
Author: Scott McNabb,J Mark Conde,Lisa Ferland,William Macwright,Ziad Memish,Stacy Okutani,Meeyoung Park,Paige Ryland,Affan Shaikh,Vivek Singh
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 455
Release: 2016-05-02
ISBN: 0702066214
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transforming Public Health Surveillance E Book Book Excerpt:

Public Health Surveillance (PHS) is of primary importance in this era of emerging health threats like Ebola, MERS-CoV, influenza, natural and man-made disasters, and non-communicable diseases. Transforming Public Health Surveillance is a forward-looking, topical, and up-to-date overview of the issues and solutions facing PHS. It describes the realities of the gaps and impediments to efficient and effective PHS, while presenting a vision for its possibilities and promises in the 21st century. The book gives a roadmap to the goal of public health information being available, when it is needed and where it is needed. Led by Professor Scott McNabb, a leader in the field, an international team of the top-notch public health experts from academia, government, and non-governmental organizations provides the most complete and current update on this core area of public health practice in a decade in 32 chapters. This includes the key roles PHS plays in achieving the global health security agenda and health equity. The authors provide a global perspective for students and professionals in public health. Seven scenarios lay out an aid to understand the context for the lessons of the book, and a comprehensive glossary, questions, bullet points, and learning objectives make this book an excellent tool in the classroom.

Clinical Engineering Handbook

Clinical Engineering Handbook
Author: Ernesto Iadanza
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 958
Release: 2019-12-06
ISBN: 0128134682
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Clinical Engineering Handbook Book Excerpt:

Clinical Engineering Handbook, Second Edition, covers modern clinical engineering topics, giving experienced professionals the necessary skills and knowledge for this fast-evolving field. Featuring insights from leading international experts, this book presents traditional practices, such as healthcare technology management, medical device service, and technology application. In addition, readers will find valuable information on the newest research and groundbreaking developments in clinical engineering, such as health technology assessment, disaster preparedness, decision support systems, mobile medicine, and prospects and guidelines on the future of clinical engineering. As the biomedical engineering field expands throughout the world, clinical engineers play an increasingly important role as translators between the medical, engineering and business professions. In addition, they influence procedures and policies at research facilities, universities, and in private and government agencies. This book explores their current and continuing reach and its importance. Presents a definitive, comprehensive, and up-to-date resource on clinical engineering Written by worldwide experts with ties to IFMBE, IUPESM, Global CE Advisory Board, IEEE, ACCE, and more Includes coverage of new topics, such as Health Technology Assessment (HTA), Decision Support Systems (DSS), Mobile Apps, Success Stories in Clinical Engineering, and Human Factors Engineering

Sustainable Smart City Transitions

Sustainable Smart City Transitions
Author: Luca Mora,Mark Deakin,Xiaoling Zhang,Michael Batty,Martin de Jong,Paolo Santi,Francesco Paolo Appio
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 322
Release: 2022-02-24
ISBN: 1000540782
Category: Architecture
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Smart City Transitions Book Excerpt:

This book enhances the reader’s understanding of the theoretical foundations, sociotechnical assemblage, and governance mechanisms of sustainable smart city transitions. Drawing on empirical evidence stemming from existing smart city research, the book begins by advancing a theory of sustainable smart city transitions, which forms bridges between smart city development studies and some of the key assumptions underpinning transition management and system innovation research, human geography, spatial planning, and critical urban scholarship. This interdisciplinary theoretical formulation details how smart city transitions unfold and how they should be conceptualized and enacted in order to be assembled as sustainable developments. The proposed theory of sustainable smart city transitions is then enriched by the findings of investigations into the planning and implementation of smart city transition strategies and projects. Focusing on different empirical settings, change dimensions, and analytical elements, the attention moves from the sociotechnical requirements of citywide transition pathways to the development of sector-specific smart city projects and technological innovations, in particular in the fields of urban mobility and urban governance. This book represents a relevant reference work for academic and practitioner audiences, policy makers, and representative of smart city industries. The chapters in this book were originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Urban Technology.

Internet of Things and Big Data Applications

Internet of Things and Big Data Applications
Author: Valentina E. Balas,Vijender Kumar Solanki,Raghvendra Kumar
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 270
Release: 2020-02-24
ISBN: 3030391191
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Internet of Things and Big Data Applications Book Excerpt:

This book provides essential future directions for IoT and Big Data research. Thanks to rapid advances in sensors and wireless technology, Internet of Things (IoT)-related applications are attracting more and more attention. As more devices are connected, they become potential components for smart applications. Thus, there is a new global interest in these applications in various domains such as health, agriculture, energy, security and retail. The main objective of this book is to reflect the multifaceted nature of IoT and Big Data in a single source. Accordingly, each chapter addresses a specific domain that is now being significantly impacted by the spread of soft computing

Routledge International Handbook of Diaspora Diplomacy

Routledge International Handbook of Diaspora Diplomacy
Author: Liam Kennedy
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 428
Release: 2021-12-01
ISBN: 1000450791
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Routledge International Handbook of Diaspora Diplomacy Book Excerpt:

The Routledge International Handbook of Diaspora Diplomacy is a multidisciplinary collection of writings by leading scholars and practitioners from around the world. It reflects on the geopolitical and technological shifts that have led to the global emergence of this form of diplomacy and provides detailed examples of how governments, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and corporations are engaging diasporas as transnational agents of intervention and change. The organization in six thematic parts provides for focused coverage of key issues, sectors and practices, while also building a comprehensive guide to the growing field. Each section features an introduction authored by the Editor, designed to provide useful contextual information and to highlight linkages between the chapters. Cross-disciplinary research and commentary is a key feature of the Handbook, providing diverse yet overlapping perspectives on diaspora diplomacy. • Part 1: Mapping Diaspora Diplomacy • Part 2: Diaspora Policies and Strategies • Part 3: Diaspora Networks and Economic Development • Part 4: Long-Distance Politics • Part 5: Digital Diasporas, Media and Soft Power • Part 6: Advancing Diaspora Diplomacy Studies The Routledge International Handbook of Diaspora Diplomacy is a key reference point for study and future scholarship in this nascent field.

Information and Communication Technology for Sustainable Development

Information and Communication Technology for Sustainable Development
Author: Cesar Marolla
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 243
Release: 2018-11-13
ISBN: 1351045210
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Information and Communication Technology for Sustainable Development Book Excerpt:

Information and Communication Technology for Sustainable Development shows how ICT, as an enabler for all spheres of development, can help innovate business processes and operations, and provide faster integration of new technologies into business systems. Focused on sustainability, the book addresses strategic approaches to cope with a range of climatic, environmental, cyber-security threats and other global risks, and aims to promote prosperity and economic growth. Furthermore, it explores how the adoption of new technologies, and collective action based upon a strategic behavioral theory of new leadership, can be applied when responding to specific set of conditions that allow for the proposed strategies to cope with risks. Information technology and strategic planning complement each other to attain the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Risk management frameworks, business continuity systems, and strategic planning methodologies such as mechanism design theory, strategic adaptive cognition (SAC), and risk mechanism theory (RMT) are the fundamental components needed to have a universal approach embedded into the national development plans agenda. As technology no longer follows an orderly, linear path, but improves exponentially, developing a strategic approach to ICT implementation help world leaders in the difficult but inspiring task of making a sustainable world and consequently find solutions to achieve the SDGs and the desired growth pattern that must be sustained, inclusive and equitable. Cesar Marolla is a sustainability and environmental management leader, researcher, author, and lecturer. Throughout his career he has brought strategy concepts to bear on many of the most challenging problems facing corporations and societies and has worked and traveled extensively in Europe, South America, Middle East, Northeast Africa, and the United States. Marolla is the recipient of the 2013 Harvard University Derek Bok Civic Prize Award that recognizes creative initiatives in community service and long-standing records of civic achievement. He is also a graduate of the Executive Program in Sustainability Leadership at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health— The Center for Health and the Global Environment and a member of the Harvard Advisory Council for the Sustainability Curriculum.

Yojana March 2022 English Special Issue

Yojana March 2022  English   Special Issue
Author: Publications Division
Publsiher: Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting
Total Pages: 72
Release: 2022
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Yojana March 2022 English Special Issue Book Excerpt:

is a monthly journal devoted to the socio-economic issues. It started its publication in 1957 with Mr. Khuswant Singh as the Chief Editor. The magazine is now published in 13 languages viz. English, Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, Marathi, Gujarati, Bengali, Assamese, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam and Odia.

Building the Arkansas Innovation Economy

Building the Arkansas Innovation Economy
Author: National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy,Committee on Competing in the 21st Century: Best Practice in State and Regional Innovation Initiatives
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 186
Release: 2013-01-03
ISBN: 0309266432
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Building the Arkansas Innovation Economy Book Excerpt:

A committee under the auspices of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP), is conducting a study of selected state and regional programs in order to identify best practices with regard to their goals, structures, instruments, modes of operation, synergies across private and public programs, funding mechanisms and levels, and evaluation efforts. The committee is reviewing selected state and regional efforts to capitalize on federal and state investments in areas of critical national needs. Building the Arkansas Innovation Economy: Summary of a Symposium includes both efforts to strengthen existing industries as well as specific new technology focus areas such as nanotechnology, stem cells, and energy in order to better understand program goals, challenges, and accomplishments. As a part of this review, the committee is convening a series of public workshops and symposia involving responsible local, state, and federal officials and other stakeholders. These meetings and symposia will enable an exchange of views, information, experience, and analysis to identify best practice in the range of programs and incentives adopted. Drawing from discussions at these symposia, fact-finding meetings, and commissioned analyses of existing state and regional programs and technology focus areas, the committee will subsequently produce a final report with findings and recommendations focused on lessons, issues, and opportunities for complementary U.S. policies created by these state and regional initiatives. Since 1991, the National Research Council, under the auspices of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, has undertaken a program of activities to improve policymakers' understandings of the interconnections of science, technology, and economic policy and their importance for the American economy and its international competitive position. The Board's activities have corresponded with increased policy recognition of the importance of knowledge and technology to economic growth. One important element of STEP's analysis concerns the growth and impact of foreign technology programs.1 U.S. competitors have launched substantial programs to support new technologies, small firm development, and consortia among large and small firms to strengthen national and regional positions in strategic sectors. Some governments overseas have chosen to provide public support to innovation to overcome the market imperfections apparent in their national innovation systems. They believe that the rising costs and risks associated with new potentially high-payoff technologies, and the growing global dispersal of technical expertise, underscore the need for national R&D programs to support new and existing high-technology firms within their borders.