Description : This book provides essential insights into a range of newly developed numerical optimization techniques with a view to solving real-world problems. Many of these problems can be modeled as nonlinear optimization problems, but due to their complex nature, it is not always possible to solve them using conventional optimization theory. Accordingly, the book discusses the design and applications of non-conventional numerical optimization techniques, including the design of benchmark functions and the implementation of these techniques to solve real-world optimization problems. The book’s twenty chapters examine various interesting research topics in this area, including: Pi fraction-based optimization of the Pantoja–Bretones–Martin (PBM) antenna benchmarks; benchmark function generators for single-objective robust optimization algorithms; convergence of gravitational search algorithms on linear and quadratic functions; and an algorithm for the multi-variant evolutionary synthesis of nonlinear models with real-valued chromosomes. Delivering on its promise to explore real-world scenarios, the book also addresses the seismic analysis of a multi-story building with optimized damper properties; the application of constrained spider monkey optimization to solve portfolio optimization problems; the effect of upper body motion on a bipedal robot’s stability; an ant colony algorithm for routing alternate-fuel vehicles in multi-depot vehicle routing problems; enhanced fractal dimension-based feature extraction for thermal face recognition; and an artificial bee colony-based hyper-heuristic for the single machine order acceptance and scheduling problem. The book will benefit not only researchers, but also organizations active in such varied fields as Aerospace, Automotive, Biotechnology, Consumer Packaged Goods, Electronics, Finance, Business & Banking, Oil, Gas & Geosciences, and Pharma, to name a few.
Description : Teaching Primary Science Constructively helps readers to create effective science learning experiences for primary students by using a constructivist approach to learning. Introductory chapters explain the principles of constructivism and their implications for learning and teaching. They also discuss core strategies for the development of science understanding and science inquiry processes and skills. An important new chapter assists readers to interpret the Australian Curriculum: Science with a constructivist mindset. Subsequent chapters then provide research-based ideas for implementing a constructivist approach within a number of content strands. This substantially revised edition incorporates recent research findings related to student learning, as well as teaching, from a constructivist perspective and highlights how teaching emphases have changed over the last few years. Throughout, it links strongly to the key ideas, themes and terminology of the Australian Curriculum: Science.
Description : Recent discussions among scientists and policy-makers have highlighted that knowledge generated by many research and demonstration projects is not reaching policymakers in an efficient way. Conversely, the consideration of research results by the policy making community is not straightforward, and difficulties arise in integrating the latest research developments in legislation. The difficulty is enhanced by the fact that the policy-making community is not defining its role as "client" sufficiently well and the dialogue and communication channels are far from ideal to ensure an efficient flow of information. An increasing number of experts consider that improvements could be achieved through the development of a "science-policy interface" so that R&D results are synthesised in a way to efficiently feed policy implementation and that short, medium and long term research needs may be identified. This book examines the issue of integrating science into policy, with an emphasis on water system knowledge and related policies. An important feature of the book is the discussion of science-policy interfacing needs, illustrated by examples from authors from different countries in relation to water system management. This publication is timely in that the science-policy interfacing is now identified as a key challenge worldwide with regard to integrated water resource management, and therefore the book will be of great interest to scientists, water managers and stakeholders. Readers will also benefit from a better understanding of the needs, benefits and drawbacks of an established transfer mechanism of scientific outputs to policies.
Description : "The goal of Volume VII of Research in Science Education is to examine the relationship between science inquiry and service learning. Its primary intent is to bridge the gaps between research and practice. The volume is meant to be useful to science and service-learning researchers and practitioners such as teachers and administrators because it provides information about strategies to integrate service-learning into the science curriculum and instruction."--Publisher's website.
Description : Proceedings of the 44th Session of the International Seminars on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies held in Erice, Sicily. This seminar has again gathered, in 2011, over one hundred scientists in an interdisciplinary effort that has been going on for the last 31 years, to examine and analyze planetary problems which have been followed up, all year long, by the World Federation of Scientists'' Permanent Monitoring Panels. Sample Chapter(s). Science, Culture and the Planetary Emergencies (4,689 KB). Contents: Opening Session; Energy (Focus: Global Nuclear Energy Issues After Fukushima); Water & Pollution (Focus: Water Scarcity and Pollution); Energy & Pollution (Focus: Unconventional Natural Gas: Benefits and Risks); Climate (Focus: Cosmic Rays and Climatic Processes); Water & Pollution (Focus: Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CEC)); Energy (Focus: Energy Efficiency); Special Session: Lectio Magistralis; Information Security (Focus: The Role of Science in Information Technologies and Internet Tools in Developing Countries); Food, Soil & Medicine (Focus: Greenhouse Gases Consequences and Evidence-Based Third Millennium Medicine); WFS General Meeting (PMP Reports OCo Debate and Conclusions); Water & Pollution Workshop; Mitigation of Terrorist Acts Workshop; Seminar Participants. Readership: Scientists in all fields, universities and institutes in all fields of science OCo politicians and decision makers OCo ministries of science, interior and security, foreign affairs OCo international organisations.
Description : Nanotechnology manipulates matter at the atomic level. It leads to innovative processes and products that are revolutionizing many areas of modern life. Huge amounts of public funds are being invested in the science, yet the public has little understanding of the technology or its ethical implications. Indeed, the ethical, social, and political dimensions of nanotechnology are only beginning to receive the attention they require - outside of science fiction contexts. Surveillance devices may become so small that they are practically invisible to the naked eye, raising concerns about privacy. Nanomedicine may lead to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic devices, yet anxieties have been raised about the impact of "nanobots" circulating in our bodies. Military applications, or misuses, of nanotechnology raise other concerns. This book explores in an accessible and informative way how nanotechnology is likely to impact the lives of ordinary people in the coming years and why ethical reflection on nanotechnology is needed now.
Description : Phase I in the Engineer of 2020 project, Visions of Engineering in the New Century, described a set of attributes that are expected to be necessary for engineers that will perform well in a world that is driven by rapid technological advancement, national security needs, aging infrastructure in developed countries, environmental challenges brought about by population growth and diminishing resources, and the creation of new disciplines that exist at the interfaces between engineering and science. These attributes call for us to educate technically proficient engineers who are broadly educated, see themselves as global citizens, can be leaders in business and public service, and who are ethically grounded. Educating the Engineer of 2020: Adapting Engineering Education to the New Century, this Phase II report, provides a suite of recommendations that can guide engineering educators, employers of engineers, professional societies, and government agencies in their efforts.