Forensic Evidence In Court

Author by : Craig D. Adam
Languange : un
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Description : The interpretation and evaluation of scientific evidence and its presentation in a court of law is central both to the role of the forensic scientist as an expert witness and to the interests of justice. This book aims to provide a thorough and detailed discussion of the principles and practice of evidence interpretation and evaluation by using real cases by way of illustration. The presentation is appropriate for students of forensic science or related disciplines at advanced undergraduate and master's level or for practitioners engaged in continuing professional development activity. The book is structured in three sections. The first sets the scene by describing and debating the issues around the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence presented to the court. In the second section, the principles underpinning interpretation and evaluation are explained, including discussion of those formal statistical methods founded on Bayesian inference. The following chapters present perspectives on the evaluation and presentation of evidence in the context of a single type or class of scientific evidence, from DNA to the analysis of documents. For each, the science underpinning the analysis and interpretation of the forensic materials is explained, followed by the presentation of cases which illustrate the variety of approaches that have been taken in providing expert scientific opinion.


Scientific Opinion

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Scientific Opinion

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Scientific Opinion

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Has Science Discovered God

Author by : Edward Howe Cotton
Languange : un
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Has Science Discovered God

Author by : Edward Howe Cotton
Languange : un
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Has Science Discovered God

Author by : Edward Howe Cotton
Languange : un
Publisher by : Forgotten Books
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Description : Excerpt from Has Science Discovered God?: A Symposium of Modern Scientific Opinion Why citizens to-day have an advantage over the prophets Of Israel - The man of science sees every event in history as a miracle - The cosmos may contain an Absolute, but all we know is relative The administration of the universe is revealed by past and present activities - Behavior the clue Mother Earth's diary covers two billion years. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.


Scientific Opinion Vol 3

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Publisher by : Forgotten Books
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Description : Excerpt from Scientific Opinion, Vol. 3: A Weekly Record of Scientific Progress at Home and Abroad; January 5, 1870-June 29, 1870 Miro-steam Engine, the, 140, 378 Zero, the Common Reference to, 109 Zoological Gardens the, Additions to, 39. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.


Science On The Witness Stand

Author by : Tee L. Guidotti
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oem Health Information Incorporated
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Functional Polymers In Food Science

Author by : Giuseppe Cirillo
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Total Read : 84
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Description : Polymers are an important part in everyday life; products made from polymers range from sophisticated articles, such as biomaterials, to aerospace materials. One of the reasons for the great popularity exhibited by polymers is their ease of processing. Polymer properties can be tailored to meet specific needs by varying the “atomic composition” of the repeat structure, by varying molecular weight and by the incorporation (via covalent and non-covalent interactions) of an enormous range of compounds to impart specific activities. In food science, the use of polymeric materials is widely explored, from both an engineering and a nutraceutical point of view. Regarding the engineering application, researchers have discovered the most suitable materials for intelligent packaging which preserves the food quality and prolongs the shelf-life of the products. Furthermore, in agriculture, specific functionalized polymers are used to increase the efficiency of treatments and reduce the environmental pollution. In the nutraceutical field, because consumers are increasingly conscious of the relationship between diet and health, the consumption of high quality foods has been growing continuously. Different compounds (e.g. high quality proteins, lipids and polysaccharides) are well known to contribute to the enhancement of human health by different mechanisms, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary disease, and hypertension. This second volume focuses on the importance of polymers and functional food and in food processing


Forensic Science

Author by : Stuart H. James
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
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Description : Written by highly respected forensic scientists and legal practitioners, Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, Second Edition covers the latest theories and practices in areas such as DNA testing, toxicology, chemistry of explosives and arson, and vehicle accident reconstruction. This second edition offers a cutting-edge presentation of criminalistics and related laboratory subjects, including many exciting new features. What's New in the Second Edition New chapter on forensic entomology New chapter on forensic nursing Simplified DNA chapter More coverage of the chemistry of explosives and ignitable liquids Additional information on crime reconstruction Revised to include more investigation in computer forensics Complete revisions of engineering chapters New appendices showing basic principles of physics, math, and chemistry in forensic science More questions and answers in the Instructor's Guide Updated references and cases throughout An extensive glossary of terms


Scientific Evidence And Experts Handbook

Author by : James Joseph Brown
Languange : en
Publisher by : Aspen Publishers
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Total Read : 82
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Description : This comprehensive treatise brings you up-to-date on the state of the law of scientific evidence, and familiarizes you with all of the major approaches to presenting and using scientific and technical evidence and experts in today's courtrooms. In a highly accessible single volume, this valuable resource provides timely, in-depth analysis, proven techniques and 'how to' tips for using scientific and technical evidence and experts to your client's advantage. You'll find helpful checklists for evaluating the qualifications of scientific experts; sources, a sample contract, sample engagement letter and non-disclosure agreement for retaining them; specific guidance for supporting and working with scientific expert witnesses to optimize use while minimizing costs; and more.You'll find a wealth of expertly prepared practice tools to save you time and make you more effective in dealing with scientific testimony (sample motions and briefs; sample contracts and agreements fo


Guidance Of The Scientific Committee

Author by : European Food Safety Authority
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Description : The Scientific Committee has been asked by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to advise on harmonisation of risk assessment methodologies in the fields falling within its mission. This opinion addresses the issue of scientific uncertainties in dietary exposure assessment. Every dietary exposure assessment is affected by scientific uncertainties and it is important for assessors to characterise the extent of uncertainty, so that it can be taken into account by risk managers. Many exposure assessments follow standard screening procedures that are intended to produce conservative estimates of exposure. These screening assessments do not require an analysis of uncertainty on every occasion, provided that they include appropriate conservative assumptions and default values to take account of uncertainty.^The Scientific Committee recommends that each Panel considers reviewing whether this requirement is satisfied by the assumptions and default values used in screening assessments in its area of work. If screening assessments indicate exceedance (or in the case of nutrients, failure to attain) health-based guidance values, then more refined assessments may be needed. Some evaluation of uncertainty is required in all refined assessments. The Scientific Committee recommends that dietary exposure assessments should start with a systematic examination of potential sources and types of uncertainty, to maximise the likelihood that important uncertainties are recognised. The use of tables is suggested to help with this task. The Scientific Committee recommends a tiered approach to analysing uncertainties. Each uncertainty in an assessment may be analysed at one of three tiers: qualitative, deterministic or probabilistic.^Bearing in mind that it is not practical to treat all uncertainties quantitatively, initially, all significant uncertainties may be analysed qualitatively. This may be sufficient, if the outcome is clear enough for risk managers to reach a decision. Otherwise, those uncertainties that appear critical to the outcome may be analysed deterministically or probabilistically. Communicating uncertainty to other scientists, risk managers and wider audiences is a key challenge. A tabular format is proposed to facilitate qualitative evaluation and communication of uncertainties. Treating the most significant uncertainties at higher tiers progressively refines the characterisation of uncertainty, and provides an increasingly clear picture of the likelihood of exceeding (or in the case of nutrients, failure to attain) a health-based guidance value.^It is important to communicate the strengths of the exposure assessment (what is known) as well as the uncertainties, and also to discuss the uncertainty affecting exposure compared to that affecting other parts of the overall risk assessment (e.g. toxicity). The aim should be to provide a balanced picture of what is known and what is uncertain, and avoid giving an exaggerated impression of either certainty or uncertainty. Sources and types of uncertainty affecting areas of dietary exposure assessment in the work of EFSA are reviewed in Annex 2. They illustrate the relevance of the approaches discussed in this opinion and provide a starting point for use in assessments by EFSA Panels. It would be premature to give prescriptive guidance on which specific approaches to use for dealing with uncertainty in dietary exposure assessment until more experience is gained with their use in this field.^The Scientific Committee therefore recommends that EFSA Panels identify which approaches appear promising for their particular needs and context, and review the usefulness and application to their work. The Scientific Committee strongly encourages the Panels to incorporate the systematic evaluation of uncertainties in their risk assessments and to communicate this clearly in their opinions.


Foods Nutrients And Food Ingredients With Authorised Eu Health Claims

Author by : Michele Sadler
Languange : en
Publisher by : Woodhead Publishing
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Total Read : 29
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Description : The second volume of Foods, nutrients and food ingredients with authorised EU health claims continues from Volume 1, which provided a comprehensive overview of many of the permitted health claims for foods and nutrients approved under European Regulation EC 1924/2006. This new volume discusses more of the health claims authorised to date for use in the EU. The chapters cover details of various permitted claims, such as the approved wording, conditions of use, the target group for the claims, the evidence for the claimed health benefits, and where appropriate details of other relevant legislation, consumer-related issues and future trends. The book opens with an overview of regulatory developments relating to health claims. Part One reviews authorised disease risk reduction claims and proprietary claims. The second part investigates ingredients with permitted ‘general function’ claims, with chapters examining ingredients such as red yeast rice, glucomannan and guar gum. The final section of the book explores foods and nutrients with permitted health claims, including chapters on authorised EU health claims for prunes, foods with low or reduced sodium or saturated fatty acids, and claims for essential and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Building on volume 1, this title ensures that the area of EU health claims in food is comprehensively covered Chapters are devoted to individual food ingredients and substances, covering the range of issues related to health claims Health-promoting products are an increasing consumer trend in product development and this book provides key information on these advances


Foundations Of Eu Food Law And Policy

Author by : Alberto Alemanno
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 77
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Description : This volume presents the viewpoints of academics, food lawyers, industry and consumer representatives as well as those of EU policymakers on the first ten years of activity of one of the most prominent European agencies. Its broader purpose, however, is to discuss the future role played by EFSA within the rapidly-evolving area of EU food law and policy. By revisiting and discussing the milestones in the history of EFSA, the collection provides forward-looking views of food leaders and practitioners on the future scientific and regulatory challenges facing the European Union. In particular, by presenting a critical assessment of the agency’s activities within its different areas of work, the book offers readers a set of innovative tools for evaluating policy recommendations and better equips experts and the public to address pressing regulatory issues in this emotive area of law and policy. Despite its celebratory mood, the book’s focus is more about the future than the past of EU food law and policy. Each chapter discusses how EFSA’s role has evolved and identifies what it should have done differently while presenting an overall assessment of how the agency has discharged its mandate.


Efsa Explains The Safety Of Aspartame

Author by : European Food Safety Authority
Languange : un
Publisher by :
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Description : All food additives authorised in the European Union (EU) undergo a thorough safety assessment. Since January 2002, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has provided independent scientific advice and communication on risks associated with the food chain. As required by EU legislation, EFSA has initiated a programme for the re-evaluation of the safety of all previously authorised food additives. Not only is the re-evaluation of aspartame part of this programme, it is the first time EFSA has carried out a full assessment of the substance.


The Michigan Bar Journal

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Total Read : 16
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Science As A Commodity

Author by : Michael Gibbons
Languange : en
Publisher by : Longman Publishing Group
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 89
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