Social Physics

Social Physics
Author: Alex Pentland
Publsiher: Penguin
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2014-01-30
ISBN: 1101625570
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Social Physics Book Excerpt:

From one of the world’s leading data scientists, a landmark tour of the new science of idea flow, offering revolutionary insights into the mysteries of collective intelligence and social influence If the Big Data revolution has a presiding genius, it is MIT’s Alex “Sandy” Pentland. Over years of groundbreaking experiments, he has distilled remarkable discoveries significant enough to become the bedrock of a whole new scientific field: social physics. Humans have more in common with bees than we like to admit: We’re social creatures first and foremost. Our most important habits of action—and most basic notions of common sense—are wired into us through our coordination in social groups. Social physics is about idea flow, the way human social networks spread ideas and transform those ideas into behaviors. Thanks to the millions of digital bread crumbs people leave behind via smartphones, GPS devices, and the Internet, the amount of new information we have about human activity is truly profound. Until now, sociologists have depended on limited data sets and surveys that tell us how people say they think and behave, rather than what they actually do. As a result, we’ve been stuck with the same stale social structures—classes, markets—and a focus on individual actors, data snapshots, and steady states. Pentland shows that, in fact, humans respond much more powerfully to social incentives that involve rewarding others and strengthening the ties that bind than incentives that involve only their own economic self-interest. Pentland and his teams have found that they can study patterns of information exchange in a social network without any knowledge of the actual content of the information and predict with stunning accuracy how productive and effective that network is, whether it’s a business or an entire city. We can maximize a group’s collective intelligence to improve performance and use social incentives to create new organizations and guide them through disruptive change in a way that maximizes the good. At every level of interaction, from small groups to large cities, social networks can be tuned to increase exploration and engagement, thus vastly improving idea flow. Social Physics will change the way we think about how we learn and how our social groups work—and can be made to work better, at every level of society. Pentland leads readers to the edge of the most important revolution in the study of social behavior in a generation, an entirely new way to look at life itself.

Adolphe Quetelet Social Physics and the Average Men of Science 1796 1874

Adolphe Quetelet  Social Physics and the Average Men of Science  1796   1874
Author: Kevin Donnelly
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2015-07-28
ISBN: 1317316754
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Adolphe Quetelet Social Physics and the Average Men of Science 1796 1874 Book Excerpt:

Adolphe Quetelet was an influential scientist whose controversial work was condemned by John Stuart Mill and Charles Dickens. He was in contact with many Victorian elite, including Babbage, Herschel and Faraday. This is the first scholarly biography of Quetelet, exploring his contribution to quantitative reasoning and place in intellectual history.

Complex Sciences

Complex Sciences
Author: Jie Zhou
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 1237
Release: 2009-06-29
ISBN: 3642024696
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Complex Sciences Book Excerpt:

I was invited to join the Organizing Committee of the First International Conference on Complex Sciences: Theory and Applications (Complex 2009) as its ninth member. At that moment, eight distinguished colleagues, General Co-chairs Eugene Stanley and Gaoxi Xiao, Technical Co-chairs J·nos Kertész and Bing-Hong Wang, Local Co-chairs Hengshan Wang and Hong-An Che, Publicity Team Shi Xiao and Yubo Wang, had spent hundreds of hours pushing the conference half way to its birth. Ever since then, I have been amazed to see hundreds of papers flooding in, reviewed and commented on by the TPC members. Finally, more than 200 contributions were - lected for the proceedings currently in your hands. They include about 200 papers from the main conference (selected from more than 320 submissions) and about 33 papers from the five collated workshops: Complexity Theory of Art and Music (COART) Causality in Complex Systems (ComplexCCS) Complex Engineering Networks (ComplexEN) Modeling and Analysis of Human Dynamics (MANDYN) Social Physics and its Applications (SPA) Complex sciences are expanding their colonies at such a dazzling speed that it - comes literally impossible for any conference to cover all the frontiers.

Sociophysics An Introduction

Sociophysics  An Introduction
Author: Parongama Sen,Bikas K. Chakrabarti
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 283
Release: 2013-10
ISBN: 0199662452
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sociophysics An Introduction Book Excerpt:

This book discusses the study and analysis of the physical aspects of social systems and models, inspired by the analogy with familiar models of physical systems and possible applications of statistical physics tools. Unlike the traditional analysis of the physics of macroscopic many-body or condensed matter systems, which is now an established and mature subject, the upsurge in the physical analysis and modelling of social systems, which are clearly many-body dynamical systems, is a recent phenomenon. Though the major developments in sociophysics have taken place only recently, the earliest attempts of proposing "Social Physics" as a discipline are more than one and a half centuries old. Various developments in the mainstream physics of condensed matter systems have inspired and induced the recent growth of sociophysical analysis and models. In spite of the tremendous efforts of many scientists in recent years, the subject is still in its infancy and major challenges are yet to be taken up. An introduction to these challenges is the main motivation for this book.

Team of Teams

Team of Teams
Author: General Stanley McChrystal,David Silverman,Tantum Collins,Chris Fussell
Publsiher: Penguin UK
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2015-11-26
ISBN: 0241250846
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Team of Teams Book Excerpt:

What if you could combine the agility, adaptability, and cohesion of a small team with the power and resources of a giant organization? When General Stanley McChrystal took command of the Joint Special Operations Task Force in Iraq in 2003, he quickly realized that conventional military tactics were failing. The allied forces had a huge advantage in numbers, equipment and training - but none of the enemy's speed and flexibility. McChrystal and his colleagues discarded a century of conventional wisdom to create a 'team of teams' that combined extremely transparent communication with decentralized decision-making authority. Faster, flatter and more flexible, the task force beat back al-Qaeda. In this powerful book, McChrystal and his colleagues show how the challenges they faced in Iraq can be relevant to any leader. Through compelling examples, the authors demonstrate that the 'team of teams' strategy has worked everywhere from hospital emergency rooms to NASA and has the potential to transform organizations large and small. 'A bold argument that leaders can help teams become greater than the sum of their parts' Charles Duhigg, author of The Power of Habit 'An indispensable guide to organizational change' Walter Isaacson, author of Steve Jobs

The Sonic Episteme

The Sonic Episteme
Author: Robin James
Publsiher: Duke University Press
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2019-12-02
ISBN: 1478007370
Category: Music
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Sonic Episteme Book Excerpt:

In The Sonic Episteme Robin James examines how twenty-first-century conceptions of sound as acoustic resonance shape notions of the social world, personhood, and materiality in ways that support white supremacist capitalist patriarchy. Drawing on fields ranging from philosophy and sound studies to black feminist studies and musicology, James shows how what she calls the sonic episteme—a set of sound-based rules that qualitatively structure social practices in much the same way that neoliberalism uses statistics—employs a politics of exception to maintain hegemonic neoliberal and biopolitical projects. Where James sees the normcore averageness of Taylor Swift and Spandau Ballet as contributing to the sonic episteme's marginalization of nonnormative conceptions of gender, race, and personhood, the black feminist political ontologies she identifies in Beyoncé's and Rihanna's music challenge such marginalization. In using sound to theorize political ontology, subjectivity, and power, James argues for the further articulation of sonic practices that avoid contributing to the systemic relations of domination that biopolitical neoliberalism creates and polices.

Evolutionary Games with Sociophysics

Evolutionary Games with Sociophysics
Author: Jun Tanimoto
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 221
Release: 2018-11-27
ISBN: 9811327696
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Evolutionary Games with Sociophysics Book Excerpt:

Recent applications of evolutionary game theory in the merging fields of the mathematical and social sciences are brilliantly portrayed in this book, which highlights social physics and shows how the approach can help to quantitatively model complex human–environmental–social systems. First, readers are introduced to the fundamentals of evolutionary game theory. The two-player, two-strategy game, or the 2 × 2 game, is presented as an archetype to help understand the difficulty of cooperating for survival against defection in common social contexts. Subsequently, the book explains the theoretical background of the multi-player, two-strategy game, which may be more widely applicable than the 2 × 2 game for social dilemmas. The latest applications of 2 × 2 games are also discussed to explore how integrated reciprocity mechanisms can solve social dilemmas. In turn, the book describes two practical areas in which evolutionary game theory has been applied. The first concerns traffic flow analysis. In conventional interpretations, traffic flow can be understood by means of fluid dynamics, in which the flow of vehicles is evaluated as a continuum body. Such a simple idea, however, does not work well in reality, particularly if a driver’s decision-making process is considered. Various dilemmas involve complex structures that depend primarily on traffic density, a revelation that should help establish a practical solution for reducing traffic congestion. Second, the book provides keen insights into how powerful evolutionary game theory can be in the context of epidemiology. Both approaches, quasi-analytical and multi-agent simulation, can clarify how an infectious disease such as seasonal influenza spreads across a complex social network, which is significantly affected by the public attitude toward vaccination. A methodology is proposed for the optimum design of a public vaccination policy incorporating subsidies to efficiently increase vaccination coverage while minimizing the social cost.

Auguste Comte and Positivism

Auguste Comte and Positivism
Author: Auguste Comte
Publsiher: Transaction Publishers
Total Pages: 555
Release: 1975
ISBN: 1412817625
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Auguste Comte and Positivism Book Excerpt:

Although Auguste Comte is conventionally acknowledged as one of the founders of sociology and as a key representative of positivism, few new editions of his writings have been published in the English language in this century. He has become virtually dissociated from the history of modern positivism and the most recent debates about it. Gertrud Lenzer maintains that the work of Comte is, for better or for worse, essential to an understanding of the modern period of positivism. Three significant additions have been made to this edition: a new introduction by the editor, a new postscript - taken from the twelfth Auguste Comte Memorial Trust Lecture - also by the editor, as well as Comte's "Conclusion of the Whole Work of the System of Positive Polity" taken from the fourth volume of his seminal work.

Econophysics and Physical Economics

Econophysics and Physical Economics
Author: Peter Richmond,Jürgen Mimkes,Stefan Hutzler
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2013-09-05
ISBN: 0199674701
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Econophysics and Physical Economics Book Excerpt:

This book summarises progress in the understanding of financial markets and economics based on the established methodology of statistical physics. With many physics departments offering undergraduate and postgraduate lectures in econophysics the book may serve as a valuable textbook. It should also be of interest to researchers in finance and business schools. Economics has come in for some criticism in recent years. This book offers a radically new approach tothe fundamentals of this subject that offers the potential for increased insight and understanding. It should be of interest to all serious students of the subject.

Moses Dobruska and the Invention of Social Philosophy

Moses Dobruska and the Invention of Social Philosophy
Author: Silvana Greco
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 236
Release: 2022-01-19
ISBN: 3110758822
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Moses Dobruska and the Invention of Social Philosophy Book Excerpt:

This book proposes, for the first time, an in-depth analysis of the Philosophie sociale, published in Paris in 1793 by Moses Dobruska (1753-1794). Dobruska was a businessman, scholar, and social philosopher, born into a Jewish family in Moravia, who converted to Catholicism, gained wide recognition at the Habsburg court in Vienna, and then emigrated to France to join the French Revolution. Dobruska, who took on the name Junius Frey during his Parisian sojourn, barely survived his book. Accused of conspiring on behalf of foreign powers, he was guillotined on April 5, 1794, at the height of The Terror, on the same day as Georges Jacques Danton. From Dobruska's ideas, which were widely used between the late eighteenth century and the first decades of the nineteenth century without attribution to their author, emerge some of the key concepts of the social sciences as we know them today. An enthusiastic and unfortunate revolutionary and sometimes a brilliant theorist, Moses Dobruska deserves a role of his own in the history of sociology.

The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis

The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis
Author: John Scott,Peter J. Carrington
Publsiher: SAGE
Total Pages: 640
Release: 2011-05-18
ISBN: 1446250113
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis Book Excerpt:

This sparkling Handbook offers an unrivalled resource for those engaged in the cutting edge field of social network analysis. Systematically, it introduces readers to the key concepts, substantive topics, central methods and prime debates. Among the specific areas covered are: Network theory Interdisciplinary applications Online networks Corporate networks Lobbying networks Deviant networks Measuring devices Key Methodologies Software applications. The result is a peerless resource for teachers and students which offers a critical survey of the origins, basic issues and major debates. The Handbook provides a one-stop guide that will be used by readers for decades to come.

Cutting Edge Research Topics on Multiple Criteria Decision Making

Cutting Edge Research Topics on Multiple Criteria Decision Making
Author: Yong Shi,Shouyang Wang,Yi Peng,Jianping Li,Yong Zeng
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 852
Release: 2009-07-09
ISBN: 3642022987
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cutting Edge Research Topics on Multiple Criteria Decision Making Book Excerpt:

MCDM 2009, the 20th International Conference on Multiple-Criteria Decision M- ing, emerged as a global forum dedicated to the sharing of original research results and practical development experiences among researchers and application developers from different multiple-criteria decision making-related areas such as multiple-criteria decision aiding, multiple criteria classification, ranking, and sorting, multiple obj- tive continuous and combinatorial optimization, multiple objective metaheuristics, multiple-criteria decision making and preference modeling, and fuzzy multiple-criteria decision making. The theme for MCDM 2009 was “New State of MCDM in the 21st Century.” The conference seeks solutions to challenging problems facing the development of multiple-criteria decision making, and shapes future directions of research by prom- ing high-quality, novel and daring research findings. With the MCDM conference, these new challenges and tools can easily be shared with the multiple-criteria decision making community. The workshop program included nine workshops which focused on different topics in new research challenges and initiatives of MCDM. We received more than 350 submissions for all the workshops, out of which 121 were accepted. This includes 72 regular papers and 49 short papers. We would like to thank all workshop organizers and the Program Committee for the excellent work in maintaining the conference’s standing for high-quality papers.

Issues in Applied Physics 2011 Edition

Issues in Applied Physics  2011 Edition
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: ScholarlyEditions
Total Pages: 3910
Release: 2012-01-09
ISBN: 1464963363
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Issues in Applied Physics 2011 Edition Book Excerpt:

Issues in Applied Physics / 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Applied Physics. The editors have built Issues in Applied Physics: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Applied Physics in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Applied Physics: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Anarchism and Political Modernity

Anarchism and Political Modernity
Author: Nathan Jun
Publsiher: A&C Black
Total Pages: 250
Release: 2011-11-10
ISBN: 1441166866
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Anarchism and Political Modernity Book Excerpt:

Anarchism and Political Modernity looks at the place of “classical anarchism” in the postmodern political discourse, claiming that anarchism presents a vision of political postmodernity. The book seeks to foster a better understanding of why and how anarchism is growing in the present. To do so, it first looks at its origins and history, offering a different view from the two traditions that characterize modern political theory: socialism and liberalism. Such an examination leads to a better understanding of how anarchism connects with newer political trends and why it is a powerful force in contemporary social and political movements. This new volume in the Contemporary Anarchist Studies series offers a novel philosophical engagement with anarchism and contests a number of positions established in postanarchist theory. Its new approach makes a valuable contribution to an established debate about anarchism and political theory. It offers a new perspective on the emerging area of anarchist studies that will be of interest to students and theorists in political theory and anarchist studies.

Econophysics and Sociophysics Recent Progress and Future Directions

Econophysics and Sociophysics  Recent Progress and Future Directions
Author: Frédéric Abergel,Hideaki Aoyama,Bikas K. Chakrabarti,Anirban Chakraborti,Nivedita Deo,Dhruv Raina,Irena Vodenska
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2017-01-11
ISBN: 3319477056
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Econophysics and Sociophysics Recent Progress and Future Directions Book Excerpt:

This book presents the proceedings from ECONOPHYS-2015, an international workshop held in New Delhi, India, on the interrelated fields of “econophysics” and “sociophysics”, which have emerged from the application of statistical physics to economics and sociology. Leading researchers from varied communities, including economists, sociologists, financial analysts, mathematicians, physicists, statisticians, and others, report on their recent work, discuss topical issues, and review the relevant contemporary literature. A society can be described as a group of people who inhabit the same geographical or social territory and are mutually involved through their shared participation in different aspects of life. It is possible to observe and characterize average behaviors of members of a society, an example being voting behavior. Moreover, the dynamic nature of interaction within any economic sector comprising numerous cooperatively interacting agents has many features in common with the interacting systems of statistical physics. It is on these bases that interest has grown in the application within sociology and economics of the tools of statistical mechanics. This book will be of value for all with an interest in this flourishing field.

Introduction to the Social Sciences RLE Social Theory

Introduction to the Social Sciences  RLE Social Theory
Author: Maurice Duverger
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 338
Release: 2020-09-11
ISBN: 1000155897
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to the Social Sciences RLE Social Theory Book Excerpt:

Professor Duverger at last provides the student with an overall view of the methodology of the social sciences. He briefly traces the origin of the notion of a social science, showing how it emerged from social philosophy. Its essential elements and pre-conditions are described; the splintering of social science into specialist disciplines is explained, and the need for a general sociology confirmed. The techniques of observation used by social scientists are dealt with in some detail and the unity of the social sciences is illustrated by examples of the universal application of these techniques. Documentary evidence in its various forms are described along with the basic analytical techniques, including quantitative methods and content analysis. Other methods of gathering information through polls, interviews, attitude scales and participant observation are all described. Professor Duverger brings together the different kinds of analysis used to assess the information thus gathered. Arguing that observing and theorizing are not two different stages or levels of research, he examines the practical value and difficulties of general sociological theories, partial theories and models and working hypotheses. He both describes and assesses the limitations of experiment and the scope of comparative methods in the social sciences. He then gives elementary instructions for using and assessing the value of mathematical techniques. The possibilities of presenting social phenomena through graphs and charts are also explored. There are useful book lists and diagrams.

The Future of Law and eTechnologies

The Future of Law and eTechnologies
Author: Tanel Kerikmäe,Addi Rull
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 233
Release: 2016-02-22
ISBN: 3319268961
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Future of Law and eTechnologies Book Excerpt:

This book presents groundbreaking discussions on e-residency, cryptocurrencies, scams, smart contracts, 3D printing, software agents, digital evidence and e-governance at the intersection of law, legal policies and modern technologies. The reader benefits from cutting-edge analyses that offer ideas and solutions to some of the most pressing issues caused by e-technologies. This collection is a useful tool for law and IT practitioners and an inspiring source for interdisciplinary research. Besides serving as a practical guideline, this book also reflects theoretical dimensions of future perspectives, as new technologies are not meant to change common values but to accommodate them.

Sociophysics Approach to Epidemics

Sociophysics Approach to Epidemics
Author: Jun Tanimoto
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 289
Release: 2021-03-22
ISBN: 9813364815
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sociophysics Approach to Epidemics Book Excerpt:

This book presents the fundamentals of evolutionary game theory and applies them to the analysis of epidemics, which is of paramount importance in the aftermath of the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. The primary objective of this monograph is to deliver a powerful tool to model and analyze the spread of an infectious disease during a pandemic as well as the human decision dynamics. The book employs a variant of the “vaccination game,” in which a mathematical epidemiological model dovetails with evolutionary game theory. From a social physics standpoint, this book introduces an extended concept of the vaccination game starting from the fundamental issues and touching on the newest practical applications. The book first outlines the fundamental basis of evolutionary game theory, in which a two-player and two-strategy game, the so-called 2 × 2 game, and a multi-player game are concisely introduced, and the important issue of how social dilemmas are quantified is highlighted. Subsequently, the book discusses various recent applications of the extended concept of the vaccination game so as to quantitatively evaluate provisions other than vaccination, including practical intermediate protective measures such as mask-wearing, efficiency of quarantine compared with that of isolation policies for suppressing epidemics, efficiency of preemptive versus late vaccination, and optimal subsidy policies for vaccination.

ICICKM 2018 15th International Conference on Intellectual Capital Knowledge Management Organisational Learning

ICICKM 2018 15th International Conference on Intellectual Capital Knowledge Management   Organisational Learning
Author: Prof. Shaun Pather
Publsiher: Academic Conferences and publishing limited
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2018-11-29
ISBN: 1912764105
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

ICICKM 2018 15th International Conference on Intellectual Capital Knowledge Management Organisational Learning Book Excerpt:

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism
Author: Shoshana Zuboff
Publsiher: Profile Books
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2019-01-31
ISBN: 1782832742
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism Book Excerpt:

THE TOP 10 SUNDAY TIMES BESTSELLER Shortlisted for the FT Business Book of the Year Award 2019 'Easily the most important book to be published this century. I find it hard to take any young activist seriously who hasn't at least familarised themselves with Zuboff's central ideas.' - Zadie Smith, The Guardian The challenges to humanity posed by the digital future, the first detailed examination of the unprecedented form of power called "surveillance capitalism," and the quest by powerful corporations to predict and control us. The heady optimism of the Internet's early days is gone. Technologies that were meant to liberate us have deepened inequality and stoked divisions. Tech companies gather our information online and sell it to the highest bidder, whether government or retailer. Profits now depend not only on predicting our behaviour but modifying it too. How will this fusion of capitalism and the digital shape our values and define our future? Shoshana Zuboff shows that we are at a crossroads. We still have the power to decide what kind of world we want to live in, and what we decide now will shape the rest of the century. Our choices: allow technology to enrich the few and impoverish the many, or harness it and distribute its benefits. The Age of Surveillance Capitalism is a deeply-reasoned examination of the threat of unprecedented power free from democratic oversight. As it explores this new capitalism's impact on society, politics, business, and technology, it exposes the struggles that will decide both the next chapter of capitalism and the meaning of information civilization. Most critically, it shows how we can protect ourselves and our communities and ensure we are the masters of the digital rather than its slaves.