Solid State NMR and Organic Geochemistry

Solid State NMR and Organic Geochemistry
Author: Jingdong Mao
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 710
Release: 2021-11-15
ISBN: 9780128195741
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Solid State NMR and Organic Geochemistry Book Excerpt:

Solid-State NMR and Organic Geochemistry explains solid-state NMR from the point of view of organic geochemists interested in applying solid-state NMR in their research. The book sets the scene in the first two chapters by describing the basic concepts of solid-state NMR adapted for non-NMR specialists as well as an overview of organic geochemistry for NMR specialists. The essentials for acquiring reliable spectra of complex organic matter are then described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 introduces the systematic and advanced solid-state NMR techniques and approach to characterizing complex organic mixtures developed in Dr. Mao's laboratory. Practical aspects of performing solid-state NMR experiments of complex organic matter are discussed in Chapter 5. Chapters 6 through 15 are focused on applications of solid-state NMR in organic geochemistry, starting with geochemically important functional groups and biopolymers, followed by organic matter from soils, water, sediments, and aerosols, peat, coal, kerogen, and oil shale. The interactions of organic matter with organic contaminants probed by solid-state NMR are described in Chapter 16. Finally, the last chapter covers isotopic enrichment and labelling and solid-state NMR, and their applications in organic geochemistry. Bridges the gap between NMR specialists and organic geochemists, adapting solid-state NMR theory for non-NMR specialists Brings together NMR applications for a range of materials not often discussed in other NMR books, including applications to soil, aerosols, peat, coal, kerogen, and more Includes additional resources for further reading and problems to facilitate learning and application of key concepts in each chapter

Organic Geochemistry

Organic Geochemistry
Author: Michael H. Engel,Stephen A. Macko
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 861
Release: 2013-11-11
ISBN: 1461528909
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Organic Geochemistry Book Excerpt:

As this is the first general textbook for the field published in over twenty years, the editors have taken great care to make sure coverage is comprehensive. Diagenesis of organic matter, kerogens, exploration for fossil fuels, and many other subjects are discussed in detail to provide faculty and students with a thorough introduction to organic geochemistry.

Organic Geochemistry in Petroleum Exploration

Organic Geochemistry in Petroleum Exploration
Author: L. Mattavelli,L. Novelli
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 1206
Release: 2013-10-22
ISBN: 1483294145
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Organic Geochemistry in Petroleum Exploration Book Excerpt:

This volume presents the most significant papers given during the 13th International Meeting in Organic Geochemistry. The intention of the publication is to provide the scholars of this science with its state-of-the-art and recent papers not only in academic research but above all in practical applications. Several papers attest to an increased use of organic geochemistry not only in the oil industry, during all phases of petroleum exploration, but also in the other research areas of coal origin and structure, metallogeny, sedimentology, molecular palaeontology, biochemistry and pollution.

Biochar for Environmental Management

Biochar for Environmental Management
Author: Johannes Lehmann,Stephen Joseph
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 448
Release: 2012-05-16
ISBN: 1136571213
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biochar for Environmental Management Book Excerpt:

Biochar is the carbon-rich product when biomass (such as wood, manure or crop residues) is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. It can be used to improve agriculture and the environment in several ways, and its stability in soil and superior nutrient-retention properties make it an ideal soil amendment to increase crop yields. In addition to this, biochar sequestration, in combination with sustainable biomass production, can be carbon-negative and therefore used to actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, with major implications for mitigation of climate change. Biochar production can also be combined with bioenergy production through the use of the gases that are given off in the pyrolysis process. This book is the first to synthesize the expanding research literature on this topic. The book's interdisciplinary approach, which covers engineering, environmental sciences, agricultural sciences, economics and policy, is a vital tool at this stage of biochar technology development. This comprehensive overview of current knowledge will be of interest to advanced students, researchers and professionals in a wide range of disciplines.

Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems
Author: Thomas S. Bianchi,Elizabeth A. Canuel
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 392
Release: 2011-02-28
ISBN: 1400839106
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems Book Excerpt:

This textbook provides a unique and thorough look at the application of chemical biomarkers to aquatic ecosystems. Defining a chemical biomarker as a compound that can be linked to particular sources of organic matter identified in the sediment record, the book indicates that the application of these biomarkers for an understanding of aquatic ecosystems consists of a biogeochemical approach that has been quite successful but underused. This book offers a wide-ranging guide to the broad diversity of these chemical biomarkers, is the first to be structured around the compounds themselves, and examines them in a connected and comprehensive way. This timely book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students seeking training in this area; researchers in biochemistry, organic geochemistry, and biogeochemistry; researchers working on aspects of organic cycling in aquatic ecosystems; and paleoceanographers, petroleum geologists, and ecologists. Provides a guide to the broad diversity of chemical biomarkers in aquatic environments The first textbook to be structured around the compounds themselves Describes the structure, biochemical synthesis, analysis, and reactivity of each class of biomarkers Offers a selection of relevant applications to aquatic systems, including lakes, rivers, estuaries, oceans, and paleoenvironments Demonstrates the utility of using organic molecules as tracers of processes occurring in aquatic ecosystems, both modern and ancient

50 and More Essential NMR Experiments

50 and More Essential NMR Experiments
Author: Matthias Findeisen,Stefan Berger
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 316
Release: 2013-07-30
ISBN: 352733694X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

50 and More Essential NMR Experiments Book Excerpt:

This book is the perfect link for learning how to perform the experiments after only having studied theory. In eight chapters more than 50 essential NMR experiments are described in detail. Special focus is put on the organic set of NMR spectra (1H, 13C-APT, COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC). Different chapters deal with advanced organic NMR, selective methods, heteronuclear NMR, relaxation and diffusion measurements, organic applications and maintenance. Every experiment has a section providing the reader with the purpose and scope of the specific experiment. Every experiment is concluded with the spectrum as it is obtained under the conditions described. Questions and comments enable the reader to check their understanding. The authors are very experienced and the whole book is in full color, which enhances the reading experience and makes the spectra and other figures easier to understand. This book is strongly recommended for all students and researchers who are involved in the structural elucidation of chemical compounds both in practical education and in pursuing research, in particular if they handle an NMR spectrometer.

The Evolution of Plant Physiology

The Evolution of Plant Physiology
Author: Alan R. Hemsley,Imogen Poole
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2004-02-05
ISBN: 0080472729
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Evolution of Plant Physiology Book Excerpt:

Coupled with biomechanical data, organic geochemistry and cladistic analyses utilizing abundant genetic data, scientific studies are revealing new facets of how plants have evolved over time. This collection of papers examines these early stages of plant physiology evolution by describing the initial physiological adaptations necessary for survival as upright structures in a dry, terrestrial environment. The Evolution of Plant Physiology also encompasses physiology in its broadest sense to include biochemistry, histology, mechanics, development, growth, reproduction and with an emphasis on the interplay between physiology, development and plant evolution. Contributions from leading neo- and palaeo-botanists from the Linnean Society Focus on how evolution shaped photosynthesis, respiration, reproduction and metabolism. Coverage of the effects of specific evolutionary forces -- variations in water and nutrient availability, grazing pressure, and other environmental variables

The Multinuclear Approach to NMR Spectroscopy

The Multinuclear Approach to NMR Spectroscopy
Author: J.B. Lambert,F.G. Riddell
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 548
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 9400971303
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Multinuclear Approach to NMR Spectroscopy Book Excerpt:

The field of nuclear magnetic resonance has experienced a number of spectacular developments during the last decade. Fourier transform methodology revolutionized signal acquisition capabilities. Superconducting magnets enhanced sensitivity and produced considerable improvement in spectral dispersion. In areas of new applicat ions, the life sciences particularly bene fited from these developments and probably saw the largest increase in usage. NMR imaging promises to offer a noninvasive alternative to X rays. High resolution is now achievable with solids, through magic angle spinning and cross polarization, so that the powers of NMR are applicable to previously intractable materials such as polymers, coal, and other geochemicals. The ease of obtaining relaxation times brought an important fourth variable, after the chemical shift, the coupling constant, and the rate constant, to the examination of structural and kinetic problems i~ all fields. Software development, particularly in the area of pulse sequences, created a host of useful tech niques, including difference decoupling and difference nuclear Overhauser effect spectra, multidimensional displays, signal enhancement (INEPT), coupling constant analysis for connectivity (INADEQUATE), and observation of specific structural classes such as only quaternary carbons. Finally, hardware development gave us access to the entire Periodic Table, to the particular advan tage of the inorganic and organometallic chemist. At the NATO Advanced Study Institute at Stirling, Scotland, the participants endeavored to examine all these advances, except imaging, from a multidisciplinary point of view.

The Role of Organic Matter in Structuring Microbial Communities

The Role of Organic Matter in Structuring Microbial Communities
Author: Louis A. Kaplan,M. Hulla,Laura Sappelsa
Publsiher: IWA Publishing
Total Pages: 116
Release: 2005-01-01
ISBN: 1843398974
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Role of Organic Matter in Structuring Microbial Communities Book Excerpt:

In this project the researchers addressed four maj

Organic Geochemistry

Organic Geochemistry
Author: D. A. C. Manning,European Association of Organic Geochemists. Meeting
Publsiher: Manchester University Press
Total Pages: 698
Release: 1991
ISBN: 9780719036842
Category: Geochemistry
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Organic Geochemistry Book Excerpt:

The science of organic Geochemistry bridges the gap between living and fossil organisms. It is concerned with the processes by which organic material changes after death, during sediment burial, diagenesis and maturation, to produce gas, liquid petroleum and coal. It is equally concerned with the way in which organic matter of geological origin enters the biosphere and interacts with living organisms. Applications of organic geochemistry to the petroleum industry include exploration (developing the ability to predict the occurrence of petroleum within a sedimentary basin) and production (predicting the response of reservoir rocks to interaction with organic-rich pore fluids) as well as in fingerprinting oil spills.

Fire Effects on Soil Properties

Fire Effects on Soil Properties
Author: Paulo Pereira,Artemi Cerdà,Xavier Úbeda,Jorge Mataix-Solera,Guillermo Rein
Publsiher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2019-02-01
ISBN: 1486308155
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fire Effects on Soil Properties Book Excerpt:

Wildland fires are occurring more frequently and affecting more of Earth's surface than ever before. These fires affect the properties of soils and the processes by which they form, but the nature of these impacts has not been well understood. Given that healthy soil is necessary to sustain biodiversity, ecosystems and agriculture, the impact of fire on soil is a vital field of research. Fire Effects on Soil Properties brings together current research on the effects of fire on the physical, biological and chemical properties of soil. Written by over 60 international experts in the field, it includes examples from fire-prone areas across the world, dealing with ash, meso and macrofauna, smouldering fires, recurrent fires and management of fire-affected soils. It also describes current best practice methodologies for research and monitoring of fire effects and new methodologies for future research. This is the first time information on this topic has been presented in a single volume and the book will be an important reference for students, practitioners, managers and academics interested in the effects of fire on ecosystems, including soil scientists, geologists, forestry researchers and environmentalists.

Micro and Nano Structured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks

Micro  and Nano Structured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks
Author: Sabu Thomas,Daniel Grande,Uros Cvelbar,K. V. S. N. Raju,Selvin P. Thomas,Ramanuj Narayan,Akhina H
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2016-04-11
ISBN: 1118138171
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Micro and Nano Structured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks Book Excerpt:

This book examines the current state of the art, new challenges, opportunities, and applications of IPNs. With contributions from experts across the globe, this survey is an outstanding resource reference for anyone involved in the field of polymer materials design for advanced technologies. • Comprehensively summarizes many of the recent technical research accomplishments in the area of micro and nanostructured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks • Discusses various aspects of synthesis, characterization, structure, morphology, modelling, properties, and applications of IPNs • Describes how nano-structured IPNs correlate their multiscale structure to their properties and morphologies • Serves as a one-stop reference resource for important research accomplishments in the area of IPNs and nano-structured polymer systems • Includes chapters from leading researchers in the IPN field from industry, academy, government and private research institutions

Amazonian Dark Earths Wim Sombroek s Vision

Amazonian Dark Earths  Wim Sombroek s Vision
Author: William I. Woods,Wenceslau G. Teixeira,Johannes Lehmann,Christoph Steiner,Antoinette M. G. A. WinklerPrins,Lilian Rebellato
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 502
Release: 2008-11-16
ISBN: 1402090315
Category: Nature
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Amazonian Dark Earths Wim Sombroek s Vision Book Excerpt:

Amazonian soils are almost universally thought of as extremely forbidding. However, it is now clear that complex societies with large, sedentary populations were present for over a millennium before European contact. Associated with these are tracts of anomalously fertile, dark soils termed ‘terra preta’ or dark earths. These soils are presently an important agricultural resource within Amazonia and provide a model for developing long-term future sustainability of food production in tropical environments. The late Dutch soil scientist Wim Sombroek (1934-2003) was instrumental in bringing the significance of these soils to the attention of the world over four decades ago. Wim saw not only the possibilities of improving the lives of small holders throughout the world with simple carbon based soil technologies, but was an early proponent of the positive synergies also achieved in regards to carbon sequestration and global climatic change abatement. Wim’s vision was to form a multidisciplinary group whose members maintained the ideal of open collaboration toward the attainment of shared goals. Always encouraged and often shaped by Wim, this free association of international scholars termed the “Terra Preta Nova” Group came together in 2001 and has flourished. This effort has been defined by enormous productivity. Wim who is never far from any of our minds and hearts, would have loved to share the great experience of seeing the fruits of his vision as demonstrated in this volume.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Agriculture

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Agriculture
Author: Philip E. Pfeffer,Walter V. Gerasimowicz
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 456
Release: 1989-04-30
ISBN: 9780849368646
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Agriculture Book Excerpt:

This informative publication presents the broad application of nuclear magnetic resonance to many of today's problem areas in agriculture. Solid-state NMR methodology is covered, with its applications to the study of intact agricultural matrices such as plant cell walls, photosynthetic chloroplast membranes, forages, wood cellulose, and soils. In vivo solution NMR methodology and its applications to the study of different functioning plant tissues and their biochemical responses to various pathological, physiological, and toxicological stresses are illustrated with examples using 31P, 13C, 23Na, and 15N resonance methods. An introductory chapter presents a review of the in vivo literature and some basic principles and requirements for carrying out such experiments. A special section focuses on state-of-the-art 13C and 1H high-resolution multidimensional methods and their application to the study of agricultural toxins; biologically active components, including their structures and biosyntheses, and dynamic measurements of relaxation phenomena associated with cross relaxation in water bound to food proteins.

Introduction to Organic Geochemistry

Introduction to Organic Geochemistry
Author: Stephen D. Killops,Vanessa J. Killops
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2013-04-16
ISBN: 1118697200
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to Organic Geochemistry Book Excerpt:

An Introduction to Organic Geochemistry explores the fate oforganic matter of all types, biogenic and man-made, in the EarthSystem. investigates the variety of pathways and biogeochemicaltransformations that carbon compounds can experience over a rangeof time scales and in different environments scope widened to provide a broad and up-to-date background -structured to accommodate readers with varied scientificbackgrounds essential terminology is defined fully and boxes are used toexplain concepts introduced from other disciplines further study aided by the incorporation of carefully selectedliterature references It investigates the variety of pathways and biogeochemicaltransformations that carbon compounds can experience over a rangeof time scales and in different environments.

Advances in Agronomy

Advances in Agronomy
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 330
Release: 2018-04-18
ISBN: 0128151781
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Agronomy Book Excerpt:

Advances in Agronomy, Volume 149, the latest release in the series, continues to be recognized as a leading reference and first-rate source for the latest research in agronomy. Each volume contains an eclectic group of reviews by leading scientists throughout the world. As always, the subjects covered are rich, varied and exemplary of the abundant subject matter addressed by this long-running serial. Includes numerous, timely, state-of-the-art reviews on the latest advancements in agronomy Features distinguished, well recognized authors from around the world Builds upon this venerable and iconic review series Covers the extensive variety and breadth of subject matter in the crop and soil sciences

Analytical Techniques and Methods for Biomass

Analytical Techniques and Methods for Biomass
Author: Sílvio Vaz Jr.
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2016-10-27
ISBN: 3319414143
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Analytical Techniques and Methods for Biomass Book Excerpt:

This book deals with the application of techniques and methods of chemical analysis for the study of biomass and its conversion processes, aiming to fill the current gap in the book literature on the subject. The use of various techniques and analytical methods is presented and discussed in a straightforward manner, providing the reader with the possibility of choosing the most appropriate methodologies for analysis of the major classes of plant biomass and its products. In the present volume, a select group of international specialists describes different approaches to understand the biomass structure, their physical and chemical properties, the parameters of conversion processes, the products and by-products formation and quantification, quality parameters, etc. Modern chemistry plays a strong economic role in industrial activities based on biomass, with an increasing trend of the importance of its application from the deployment of biorefineries and the principles of green chemistry, which make use of the potential of biomass with decreasing impact negative environmental. In this context, analytical chemistry can contribute significantly to the supply chains of biomass, be it plant or animal origin; however, with the first offering the greatest challenges and the greatest opportunity for technical, scientific and economic progress, given its diversified chemical constitution. Thus, the chemical analysis can be used to examine the composition for characterizing physicochemical properties and to monitor their conversion processes, in order to obtain better products and uses of biomass. The quality of the biomass used determines the product quality. Therefore, reliable information is required about the chemical composition of the biomass to establish the best use (e.g., most suitable conversion process and its conditions), which will influence harvest and preparation steps. Conversion processes should be monitored for their yield, integrity, safety, and environmental impact. Effluent or residues should be monitored and analyzed for environmental control. Co-products need to be monitored to avoid interference with the product yield and product purity; however, co-products are also a good opportunity to add value to the biomass chain. Finally, products need to be monitored and analyzed to determine their yields and purity and to ensure their quality. In this context, analytical chemistry can contribute significantly to the biomass supply chains, be it of plant or animal origin.

The United States Geological Survey in Alaska

The United States Geological Survey in Alaska
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 107
Release: 1985
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Geology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The United States Geological Survey in Alaska Book Excerpt:

Short papers describing results of recent geologic investigations.

Fossil Energy Update

Fossil Energy Update
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 802
Release: 1986
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Fossil fuels
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fossil Energy Update Book Excerpt:

Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment

Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment
Author: R. Nieder,D.K. Benbi
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2008-05-30
ISBN: 1402084331
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment Book Excerpt:

Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary description of C and N fluxes between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere; issues related to C and N management in different ecosystems and their implications for the environment and global climate change; and the approaches to mitigate emission of greenhouse gases. Drawing upon the most up-to-date books, journals, bulletins, reports, symposia proceedings and internet sources documenting interrelationships between different aspects of C and N cycling in the terrestrial environment, Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment fills the gap left by most of the currently available books on C and N cycling. They either deal with a single element of an ecosystem, or are related to one or a few selected aspects like soil organic matter (SOM) and agricultural or forest management, emission of greenhouse gases, global climate change or modeling of SOM dynamics.