Source Book In Astronomy

Author by : Harlow Shapley
Languange : en
Publisher by : Harvard University Press
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A Source Book In Geology 1900 1950

Author by : Kirtley F. Mather
Languange : en
Publisher by : Harvard University Press
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Total Read : 38
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Description : Since 1900, the science of geology has grown in a spectacular fashion. Not only have field studies been undertaken throughout vast areas of the earth's surface previously unexplored or only superficially surveyed, but recent discoveries in physics, chemistry, and biology have provided geologists with new techniques of observation and experimentation, and radically new concepts and theories have been developed. This book presents source literature for the most important contributions to this remarkable expansion of geological knowledge. One of the world's most distinguished geologists provides excerpts from sixty-five articles by sixty-three authors, selected with the advice of more than a score of leading scientists from all parts of the globe. Among the subjects discussed in this comprehensive volume are the constitution of the earth's interior, the causes of earthquakes, radioactive timekeepers, the interpretation of submarine features and deep-sea cores, the origin and entrapment of petroleum, and crystal structure. Included are articles which led directly to the development of theories of paleomagnetism, metamorphism, cryopedology, and isostasy. A Source Book in Geology, 1900-1950, makes available several papers previously to be found in the libraries of only a few universities, and eight articles translated into English for the first time, of which four are by leading Soviet geologists.


A Source Book In Chemistry 1400 1900

Author by : Henry Marshall Leicester
Languange : en
Publisher by : Harvard University Press
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Total Read : 49
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Description : A collection of important writings in the history of chemistry from 1400-1900, each with an introduction by the editors.


A Source Book In Medieval Science

Author by : ward Grant
Languange : en
Publisher by : Harvard University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 15
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Description : Modern scholarship has exposed the intrinsic importance of medieval science and confirmed its role in preserving and transmitting Greek and Arabic achievements. This Source Book offers a rare opportunity to explore more than ten centuries of European scientific thought. In it are approximately 190 selections by about 85 authors, most of them from the Latin West. Nearly half of the selections appear here for the first time in any vernacular translation. The readings, a number of them complete treatises, have been chosen to represent "science" in a medieval rather than a modern sense. Thus, insofar as they are relevant to medieval science, selections have been drawn from works on alchemy, astrology, logic, and theology. Most of the book, however, reflects medieval understanding of, and achievements in, the mathematical, physical, and biological sciences. Critical commentary and annotation accompany the selections. An appendix contains brief biographiesof all authors. This book will be an indispensible resource for students and scholars in the history of science.


A Source Book In Geography

Author by : George Kish
Languange : en
Publisher by : Harvard University Press
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Total Read : 59
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Description : Presents geographical writings, chronologically arranged, with a wealth of material from non-Western sources. Each section is introduced by the editor.


Source Book In Chemistry 1900 1950

Author by : Henry Marshall Leicester
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge, Mass : Harvard University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 12
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Description : The growing interdependence of the sciences was one of the outstanding characteristics of the first half of the twentieth century. "Inevitably," Dr. Leicester points out, "this expanded vision led to closer contacts among chemists of every speciality, and also with scientists in other fields. Physics and physical chemistry were applied to organic compounds, and new substances that could not have been foreseen by the older theories were prepared. Reaction mechanisms were generalized. New borderline sciences sprang up. Chemical physics and biochemistry became sciences in their own right. Chemistry thus became a link between physics and biology." A continuation of A Source Book in Chemistry, 1400-1900 (HUP, 1952), this volume contains selections from ninety classic papers in all branches of chemistry -- papers upon which contemporary research and practices are based. The topics include such chemical techniques as microanalysis, polarography, hydrogen ion concentration, chromatography, electrophoresis, and the use of the ultramicroscope, the ultracentrifuge, and radioactive tracers; modern structural theories, with emphasis on crystal structure, radioactive decay, isotopes, molecular structure, the applications of quantum mechanics to chemistry, thermodynamics, electrolytes, and kinetics; the more recent studies on artificial radioactivity and the transuranium elements; organic chemistry, with reference to general synthetic methods, polymers, the structure of proteins, nucleic acids, alkaloids, steroids, and carotenoids; and biochemistry, including the concept of hormones and vitamins, separation of enzymes and viruses, metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, and energy production. The Source Book serves as an introduction to present-day chemistry and can also be used as supplementary reading in general chemistry courses, since, in many instances, the papers explain the circumstances under which a particular discovery was made--information that is customarily lacking in textbooks. Although the selections are classified into the usual branches of the science, it will be apparent to the reader how the discoveries in any one branch were taken up and incorporated into others.


A Source Book In Astronomy And Astrophysics 1900 1975

Author by : Kenneth R. Lang
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 14
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Description : In this volume readers can rediscover A.S. Eddington's elegant proof of the virial theorem for star clusters, Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky's 1932 proposal for the existence of neutron stars, and Thomas Gold's forecast of collapsed stars as radio sources. They can reread, in the words of the canyons, pulsars, interstellar hydrogen cosmic magnetic fields, quasars, and remnant background radiation of the primeval big bang.


Cosmos

Author by : John North
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Chicago Press
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Total Read : 54
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Description : The definitive history of humanity's search to find its place within the universe. North charts the history of astronomy and cosmology from the Paleolithic period to the present day.


The Synthesis Of The Elements

Author by : Giora Shaviv
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 69
Total Download : 981
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Description : This book describes the origins and evolution of the chemical elements we and the cosmos are made of. The story starts with the discovery of the common elements on Earth and their subsequent discovery in space. How do we learn the composition of the distant stars? How did progress in quantum theory, nuclear physics, spectroscopy, stellar structure and evolution, together with observations of stars, converge to provide an incredibly detailed picture of the universe? How does research in the micro-world explain the macro-world? How does progress in one affect the other, or lack of knowledge in one inhibit progress in the other? In short, Shaviv describes how we discovered the various pieces of the jigsaw that form our present picture of the universe; and how we sometimes put these in the wrong place before finding in the right one. En route we meet some fascinating personalities and learn about heated controversies. Shaviv shows how science lurched from one dogma to the next, time and again shattering much of what had been considered solid knowledge, until eventually a stable understanding arose. Beginning with generally accepted science, the book ends in today’s terra incognita of nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmology. A monumental work that will fascinate scientists, philosophers, historians and lay readers alike.


A Concise History Of Solar And Stellar Physics

Author by : Jean-Louis Tassoul
Languange : en
Publisher by : Princeton University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 77
Total Download : 401
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Description : This book provides a comprehensive overview of the history of ideas about the sun and the stars, from antiquity to modern times. Two theoretical astrophysicists who have been active in the field since the early 1960s tell the story in fluent prose. About half of the book covers most of the theoretical research done from 1940 to the close of the twentieth century, a large body of work that has to date been little explored by historians. The first chapter, which outlines the period from about 3000 B.C. to 1700 A.D., shows that at every stage in history human beings have had a particular understanding of the sun and stars, and that this has continually evolved over the centuries. Next the authors systematically address the immense mass of observations astronomy accumulated from the early seventeenth century to the early twentieth. The remaining four chapters examine the history of the field from the physicists perspective, the emphasis being on theoretical work from the mid-1840s to the late 1990s--from thermodynamics to quantum mechanics, from nuclear physics and magnetohydrodynamics to the remarkable advances through to the late 1960s, and finally, to more recent theoretical work. Intended mainly for students and teachers of astronomy, this book will also be a useful reference for practicing astronomers and scientifically curious general readers.


Modern Theories Of The Universe

Author by : Michael J. Crowe
Languange : en
Publisher by : Courier Corporation
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
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Description : This book provides an introduction to the fundamentals of stellar astronomy, a history of astronomy, and an account of how the science of astronomy challenged traditional philosophical and theological beliefs. Throughout the text are readings from the writings of scientists who contributed most significantly to the development of astronomy.


Contemporary Astronomy

Author by : Jay M. Pasachoff
Languange : en
Publisher by : Saunders College Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
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The Story Of Western Science From The Writings Of Aristotle To The Big Bang Theory

Author by : Susan Wise Bauer
Languange : en
Publisher by : W. W. Norton & Company
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 67
Total Download : 278
File Size : 54,5 Mb
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Description : A riveting road map to the development of modern scientific thought. In the tradition of her perennial bestseller The Well-Educated Mind, Susan Wise Bauer delivers an accessible, entertaining, and illuminating springboard into the scientific education you never had. Far too often, public discussion of science is carried out by journalists, voters, and politicians who have received their science secondhand. The Story of Western Science shows us the joy and importance of reading groundbreaking science writing for ourselves and guides us back to the masterpieces that have changed the way we think about our world, our cosmos, and ourselves. Able to be referenced individually, or read together as the narrative of Western scientific development, the book's twenty-eight succinct chapters lead readers from the first science texts by Hippocrates, Plato, and Aristotle through twentieth-century classics in biology, physics, and cosmology. The Story of Western Science illuminates everything from mankind's earliest inquiries to the butterfly effect, from the birth of the scientific method to the rise of earth science and the flowering of modern biology. Each chapter recommends one or more classic books and provides entertaining accounts of crucial contributions to science, vivid sketches of the scientist-writers, and clear explanations of the mechanics underlying each concept. The Story of Western Science reveals science to be a dramatic undertaking practiced by some of history's most memorable characters. It reminds us that scientific inquiry is a human pursuit—an essential, often deeply personal, sometimes flawed, frequently brilliant way of understanding the world. The Story of Western Science is an "entertaining and unique synthesis" (Times Higher Education), a "fluidly written" narrative that "celebrates the inexorable force of human curiosity" (Wall Street Journal), and a "bright, informative resource for readers seeking to understand science through the eyes of the men and women who shaped its history" (Kirkus). Previously published as The Story of Science.


Astrophysics Of The Interstellar Medium

Author by : Walter J. Maciel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 78
Total Download : 428
File Size : 49,9 Mb
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Description : The space between the stars contains a large diversity of objects in which physical processes occur that are fundamental to the structure and evolution of galaxies. This book offers the reader a basic knowledge of these processes and presents simple numeric estimates of the main quantities relevant to the interstellar medium. The main objects that constitute the interstellar space are described, but the emphasis of the book lies in the physical processes occurring in these objects, which may also occur in other astrophysical environments. The book is directed tor graduate as well as advanced undergraduate students of physics and astrophysics.


Practical Work In Elementary Astronomy

Author by : M.G.J. Minnaert
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 99
Total Download : 535
File Size : 45,8 Mb
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Description :


Parallax

Author by : Alan W. Hirshfeld
Languange : en
Publisher by : Henry Holt and Company
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 87
Total Download : 381
File Size : 54,8 Mb
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Description : In the dramatic tradition of the best-selling Longitude, Parallax charts the historical path of observational astronomy's most daunting challenge: measuring the distance to a star. The greatest scientific minds applied themselves in vain to the problem across the millennia, beginning with the ancient Greeks. Not until the nineteenth century would three astronomers, armed with the best telescopes of the age, race to conquer this astronomical Everest—their contest ending in a virtual dead heat. Against a sweeping backdrop filled with kidnappings, dramatic rescue, swordplay, madness, and bitter rivalry, Alan Hirshfeld brings to life the heroes of this remarkable story. Meet the destitute boy plucked from a collapsed building who becomes the greatest telescope maker the world has ever seen; the hot-tempered Dane whose nose is lopped off in a duel over mathematics; the merchant's apprentice forced to choose between the lure of money and his passion for astronomy; and the musician who astounds the world by discovering a new planet from his own backyard. Generously illustrated with diagrams, period engravings, and paintings, Parallax is an unforgettable tale that illuminates the distinctly human side of science.


Darkness At Night

Author by : Edward Robert Harrison
Languange : en
Publisher by : Harvard University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 37
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Description : Traces the development of theories to explain why the night sky is dark, looks at modern theories of cosmology, and includes brief profiles of past astronomers


Channel Flow Ductile Extrusion And Exhumation In Continental Collision Zones

Author by : Richard D. Law
Languange : en
Publisher by : Geological Society of London
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 41
Total Download : 265
File Size : 42,7 Mb
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Description : This collection of 27 review and research papers provides an overview of the geodynamic concepts of channel flow and ductile extrusion in continental collision zones. The focal point for this volume is the proposal that the middle or lower crust acts as a ductile, partially molten channel flowing out from beneath areas of over-thickened crust, such as the Tibetan plateau, towards the topographic surface at plateau margins. This controversial proposal explains many features related to the geodynamic evolution of the plateau and, for example, extrusion and exhumation of the crystalline core of the Himalayan mountain chain to the south. In this volume thermal-mechanical models for channel flow, extrusion and exhumation are presented, and geological and geophysical evidence both for and against the applicability of such models to the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau system, as well as older continental collision zones such as the Hellenides, the Appalachians and the Canadian Cordillera, are discussed.


British University Observatories 1772 1939

Author by : Roger Hutchins
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 63
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Description : British University Observatories fills a gap in the historiography of British astronomy by offering the histories of observatories identified as a group by their shared characteristics. The first full histories of the Oxford and Cambridge observatories are here central to an explanatory history of each of the six that undertook research before World War II - Oxford, Dunsink, Cambridge, Durham, Glasgow and London. Each struggled to evolve in the middle ground between the royal observatories and those of the 'Grand Amateurs' in the nineteenth century. Fundamental issues are how and why astronomy came into the universities, how research was reconciled with teaching, lack of endowment, and response to the challenge of astrophysics. One organizing theme is the central importance of the individual professor-directors in determining the fortunes of these observatories, the community of assistants, and their role in institutional politics sometimes of the murkiest kind, patronage networks and discipline shaping coteries. The use of many primary sources illustrates personal motivations and experience. This book will intrigue anyone interested in the history of astronomy, of telescopes, of scientific institutions, and of the history of universities. The history of each individual observatory can easily be followed from foundation to 1939, or compared to experience elsewhere across the period. Astronomy is competitive and international, and the British experience is contextualised by comparison for the first time to those in Germany, France, Italy and the USA.


Astrophysical Formulae

Author by : Kenneth R. Lang
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Total Read : 64
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Description : This second edition contains corrections of misprints and errors found by the author, as well as those suggested during the Russian translation of the first printing. The Russian editors and translators who kindly supplied this material include V. E. CHERTOPRUD, A. G. DOROSHKEVICH, V. L. HOHLOVA, M. Yu. KHLOPOV, D. K. NADIOZHIN, L. M. ÜZERNOI, I. G. PERSIANTSEV, L. A. POKROVSKII, A. V. ZASOV, and Yu. K. ZEMTSOV. Supplemental references for the period 1974 to 1980 have also been added as appendix where they are included under the headings of general references and specific references for each chapter. Although specialized references come mainly from American journals, references to reviews and books are also included to help guide the reader to other sources. The author encourages suggestions for additions and corrections to possible future editions of this volume. KENNETH R. LANG Department of Physics, Tufts University Medford, Massachusetts January, 1980 Preface This book is meant to be a reference source for the fundamental formulae of astrophysics. Wherever possible, the original source of the material being pre sented is referenced, together with references to more recent modifications and applications. More accessible reprints and translations of the early papers are also referenced. In this way the reader is provided with the often ignored his torical context together with an orientation to the more recent literature.


Cosmic Discovery

Author by : Martin Harwit
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 86
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Description : Originally published: New York: Basic Books, 1981.


Spacecraft Attitude Determination And Control

Author by : J.R. Wertz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 74
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File Size : 48,5 Mb
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Description : Roger D. Werking Head, Attitude Determination and Control Section National Aeronautics and Space Administration/ Goddard Space Flight Center Extensiye work has been done for many years in the areas of attitude determination, attitude prediction, and attitude control. During this time, it has been difficult to obtain reference material that provided a comprehensive overview of attitude support activities. This lack of reference material has made it difficult for those not intimately involved in attitude functions to become acquainted with the ideas and activities which are essential to understanding the various aspects of spacecraft attitude support. As a result, I felt the need for a document which could be used by a variety of persons to obtain an understanding of the work which has been done in support of spacecraft attitude objectives. It is believed that this book, prepared by the Computer Sciences Corporation under the able direction of Dr. James Wertz, provides this type of reference. This book can serve as a reference for individuals involved in mission planning, attitude determination, and attitude dynamics; an introductory textbook for stu dents and professionals starting in this field; an information source for experimen ters or others involved in spacecraft-related work who need information on spacecraft orientation and how it is determined, but who have neither the time nor the resources to pursue the varied literature on this subject; and a tool for encouraging those who could expand this discipline to do so, because much remains to be done to satisfy future needs.


Pluto Confidential

Author by : Laurence A. Marschall
Languange : en
Publisher by : BenBella Books
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
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Description : When the International Astronomical Union adopted a new definition of the word 'planet' in August 2006, Pluto officially became a dwarf planet, but the controversy surrounding its status continued, pitting scientist against scientist and arousing public debate. Written by two renowned astronomers on opposing sides of the debate, Pluto Confidential leaves no perspective out and no asteroid unturned.


Star Hopping

Author by : Robert A. Garfinkle
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 37
Total Download : 644
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Description : Learn all about the starry skies and ancient myths through the star-hopping technique.


Explorer Of The Universe A Biography Of George Ellery Hale

Author by : Helen Wright
Languange : en
Publisher by : Plunkett Lake Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 81
Total Download : 392
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Description : “George Ellery Hale [1868-1938] is the subject of this impressive biography... Wright charts Hale’s steady progress towards leadership in the nascent field of astrophysics from his childhood experiments at home in Chicago, through student days at MIT, to his first observatory at Kenwood, all of which demonstrate his passion for unravelling the secrets of nature through the then new medium of spectroscopy. This enthusiasm led him into contact with most of his peers both in America and beyond (Lockyer, Huggins, Pickering, Rowland, and many more), many of whom remained close associates and correspondents for years after. Probably this sense of community made Hale so active in the organization of science, including the formation of the AAS [American Astronomical Society], the IAU [International Astronomical Union], and ICSU [International Council of Scientific Unions]. It also gave him the contacts to give the Astrophysical Journal such a good start in 1895. Perhaps the greatest debt we owe Hale is for his relentless drive towards the creation of ever bigger and better facilities, starting with the still unsurpassed Yerkes refractor, continuing with the solar telescopes on Mt. Wilson and then the 60- and 100-inch telescopes on the same peak, and concluding with the 200-inch [at Mt. Palomar]... Scientifically, Hale’s lifelong affair with the Sun brought him success in the detection of magnetic fields and early studies of surface activity by means of the spectroheliograph he developed, and for which he was duly fêted, and the frustrations of trying to record the corona. But these were early successes and as astropolitics and finance took an ever increasing share of his time, he was able to contribute less than he would have liked. Part of the problem was the illness, with both physical and mental symptoms, which progressively plagued the life of this hyperactive polymath; it is sad to note his decline which prevented him playing a fuller part in the creation of what was to become his memorial... this [biography] is something of a classic on one of astronomy’s giants.” — David Strickland, The Observatory “This important biography is well written and is highly recommended.” — A. E. Covington, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada “[An] outstanding biography of this most remarkable man... Helen Wright has done a superb job of tracing Hale’s development not only of new and powerful instruments and of his important discoveries of sunspot magnetic fields and the law of reversing polarities, but also of the embryonic state of American science in the early days of this century... an authoritative biography of one of the most influential men of science this country has produced. The hook will bring to contemporary scientists and historians the story of this unique astronomer whose life is of such special interest to the Caltech community.” — Allan Sandage, Caltech Magazine (formerly Engineering and Science) “Helen Wright gives a detailed account of the life and almost frantic activities of this remarkable scientific leader... In summarizing astrophysical events of the years 1880 to 1950... Wright has provided a useful and fascinating account of scientific development that led to the preeminence of the United States.” — Thornton Page, Science “In writing the story of Hale’s origins, career and bequest to posterity Helen Wright has richly served her fellow astronomers. No one else could have done so well. Her account preserves an admirable balance in presenting Hale not only as a doer but also as a dreamer... Miss Wright’s excellent biography covers the highlights of his career... Miss Wright’s book is highly authentic.” — Harlow Shapley, Scientific American Published under license from Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature


The Immortal Fire Within

Author by : William Sheehan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 24
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Description : A full-length biography of Barnard, one of the leading astronomers of the late nineteenth century.