Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Sensation Perception and Attention

Stevens  Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience  Sensation  Perception  and Attention
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 992
Release: 2018-02-12
ISBN: 1119174155
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Sensation Perception and Attention Book Excerpt:

II. Sensation, Perception & Attention: John Serences (Volume Editor) (Topics covered include taste; visual object recognition; touch; depth perception; motor control; perceptual learning; the interface theory of perception; vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic contributions to spatial orientation; olfaction; audition; time perception; attention; perception and interactive technology; music perception; multisensory integration; motion perception; vision; perceptual rhythms; perceptual organization; color vision; perception for action; visual search; visual cognition/working memory.)

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Language and Thought

Stevens  Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience  Language and Thought
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 672
Release: 2018-02-01
ISBN: 1119170737
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Language and Thought Book Excerpt:

III. Language & Thought: Sharon Thompson-Schill (Volume Editor) (Topics covered include embodied cognition; discourse and dialogue; reading; creativity; speech production; concepts and categorization; culture and cognition; reasoning; sentence processing; bilingualism; speech perception; spatial cognition; word processing; semantic memory; moral reasoning.)

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Methodology

Stevens  Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience  Methodology
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 848
Release: 2018-02-12
ISBN: 111917015X
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Methodology Book Excerpt:

V. Methodology: E. J. Wagenmakers (Volume Editor) Topics covered include methods and models in categorization; cultural consensus theory; network models for clinical psychology; response time modeling; analyzing neural time series data; models and methods for reinforcement learning; convergent methods of memory research; theories for discriminating signal from noise; bayesian cognitive modeling; mathematical modeling in cognition and cognitive neuroscience; the stop-signal paradigm; hypothesis testing and statistical inference; model comparison in psychology; fmri; neural recordings; open science; neural networks and neurocomputational modeling; serial versus parallel processing; methods in psychophysics.

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Learning and Memory

Stevens  Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience  Learning and Memory
Author: John T. Wixted,Lila Davachi
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 624
Release: 2018-03-13
ISBN: 111917001X
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Learning and Memory Book Excerpt:

I. Learning & Memory: Elizabeth Phelps & Lila Davachi (Volume Editors) Topics covered include working memory; fear learning; education and memory; memory and future imagining; sleep and memory; emotion and memory; motivation and memory; inhibition in memory; attention and memory; aging and memory; autobiographical memory; eyewitness memory; and category learning.

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Developmental and Social Psychology

Stevens  Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience  Developmental and Social Psychology
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 672
Release: 2018-02-01
ISBN: 1119170060
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Developmental and Social Psychology Book Excerpt:

IV. Developmental & Social Psychology: Simona Ghetti (Volume Editor) (Topics covered include development of visual attention; self-evaluation; moral development; emotion-cognition interactions; person perception; memory; implicit social cognition; motivation group processes; development of scientific thinking; language acquisition; development of mathematical reasoning; emotion regulation; emotional development; development of theory of mind; category and conceptual development; attitudes; executive function.)

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience 5 Volume Set

Stevens  Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience    5 Volume Set
Author: John T. Wixted
Publsiher: Wiley
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2018-02-12
ISBN: 9781119170167
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience 5 Volume Set Book Excerpt:

Since the first edition was published in 1951, The Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology has been recognized as the standard reference in the field. The most recent (3rd) edition of the handbook was published in 2004, and it was a success by any measure. But the field of experimental psychology has changed in dramatic ways since then. Throughout the first 3 editions of the handbook, the changes in the field were mainly quantitative in nature. That is, the size and scope of the field grew steadily from 1951 to 2004, a trend that was reflected in the growing size of the handbook itself: the 1-volume first edition (1951) was succeeded by a 2-volume second edition (1988) and then by a 4-volume third edition (2004). Since 2004, however, this still-growing field has also changed qualitatively in the sense that, in virtually every subdomain of experimental psychology, theories of the mind have evolved into theories of the brain. Research methods in experimental psychology have changed accordingly and now include not only venerable EEG recordings (long a staple of research in psycholinguistics) but also MEG, fMRI, TMS, and single-unit recording. The trend towards neuroscience is an absolutely dramatic, worldwide phenomenon that is unlikely to ever be reversed. Thus, the era of purely behavioral experimental psychology is already long gone, even though not everyone has noticed. Experimental psychology and "cognitive neuroscience" (an umbrella term that includes behavioral neuroscience, social neuroscience and developmental neuroscience) are now inextricably intertwined. Nearly every major psychology department in the country has added cognitive neuroscientists to its ranks in recent years, and that trend is still growing. A viable handbook of experimental psychology should reflect the new reality on the ground. There is no handbook in existence today that combines basic experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience, this despite the fact that the two fields are interrelated – and even interdependent – because they are concerned with the same issues (e.g., memory, perception, language, development, etc.). Almost all neuroscience-oriented research takes as its starting point what has been learned using behavioral methods in experimental psychology. In addition, nowadays, psychological theories increasingly take into account what has been learned about the brain (e.g., psychological models increasingly need to be neurologically plausible). These considerations explain why this edition of: The Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology is now called The Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience. The title serves as a reminder that the two fields go together and as an announcement that the Stevens' Handbook covers it all. The 4th edition of the Stevens’ Handbook is a 5-volume set structured as follows: I. Learning & Memory: Elizabeth Phelps & Lila Davachi (Volume Editors) Topics include fear learning; time perception; working memory; visual object recognition; memory and future imagining; sleep and memory; emotion and memory; attention and memory; motivation and memory; inhibition in memory; education and memory; aging and memory; autobiographical memory; eyewitness memory; and category learning. II. Sensation, Perception & Attention: John Serences (Volume Editor) Topics include attention; vision; color vision; visual search; depth perception; taste; touch; olfaction; motor control; perceptual learning; audition; music perception; multisensory integration; vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic contributions to spatial orientation; motion perception; perceptual rhythms; the interface theory of perception; perceptual organization; perception and interactive technology; perception for action. III. Language & Thought: Sharon Thompson-Schill (Volume Editor) Topics include reading; discourse and dialogue; speech production; sentence processing; bilingualism; concepts and categorization; culture and cognition; embodied cognition; creativity; reasoning; speech perception; spatial cognition; word processing; semantic memory; moral reasoning. IV. Developmental & Social Psychology: Simona Ghetti (Volume Editor) Topics include development of visual attention; self-evaluation; moral development; emotion-cognition interactions; person perception; memory; implicit social cognition; motivation group processes; development of scientific thinking; language acquisition; category and conceptual development; development of mathematical reasoning; emotion regulation; emotional development; development of theory of mind; attitudes; executive function. V. Methodology: E. J. Wagenmakers (Volume Editor) Topics include hypothesis testing and statistical inference; model comparison in psychology; mathematical modeling in cognition and cognitive neuroscience; methods and models in categorization; serial versus parallel processing; theories for discriminating signal from noise; Bayesian cognitive modeling; response time modeling; neural networks and neurocomputational modeling; methods in psychophysics analyzing neural time series data; convergent methods of memory research; models and methods for reinforcement learning; cultural consensus theory; network models for clinical psychology; the stop-signal paradigm; fmri; neural recordings; open science.

Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive Psychology
Author: Michael W. Eysenck,Mark T. Keane
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 948
Release: 2020-03-09
ISBN: 1351058509
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognitive Psychology Book Excerpt:

The fully updated eighth edition of Cognitive Psychology: A Student’s Handbook provides comprehensive yet accessible coverage of all the key areas in the field ranging from visual perception and attention through to memory and language. Each chapter is complete with key definitions, practical real-life applications, chapter summaries and suggested further reading to help students develop an understanding of this fascinating but complex field. The new edition includes: an increased emphasis on neuroscience updated references to reflect the latest research applied ‘in the real world’ case studies and examples. Widely regarded as the leading undergraduate textbook in the field of cognitive psychology, this new edition comes complete with an enhanced accompanying companion website. The website includes a suite of learning resources including simulation experiments, multiple-choice questions, and access to Primal Pictures’ interactive 3D atlas of the brain. The companion website can be accessed at: www.routledge.com/cw/eysenck.

Physics of the Human Temporality

Physics of the Human Temporality
Author: Ihor Lubashevsky,Natalie Plavinska
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 641
Release: 2021-11-22
ISBN: 3030826120
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physics of the Human Temporality Book Excerpt:

This book presents a novel account of the human temporal dimension called the “human temporality” and develops a special mathematical formalism for describing such an object as the human mind. One of the characteristic features of the human mind is its temporal extent. For objects of physical reality, only the present exists, which may be conceived as a point-like moment in time. In the human temporality, the past retained in the memory, the imaginary future, and the present coexist and are closely intertwined and impact one another. This book focuses on one of the fragments of the human temporality called the complex present. A detailed analysis of the classical and modern concepts has enabled the authors to put forward the idea of the multi-component structure of the present. For the concept of the complex present, the authors proposed a novel account that involves a qualitative description and a special mathematical formalism. This formalism takes into account human goal-oriented behavior and uncertainty in human perception. The present book can be interesting for theoreticians, physicists dealing with modeling systems where the human factor plays a crucial role, philosophers who are interested in applying philosophical concepts to constructing mathematical models, and psychologists whose research is related to modeling mental processes.

Untitled

Untitled
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN: 1442276029
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Untitled Book Excerpt:

Congress Volume Aberdeen 2019

Congress Volume Aberdeen 2019
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: BRILL
Total Pages: 544
Release: 2022-06-08
ISBN: 9004515100
Category: Religion
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Congress Volume Aberdeen 2019 Book Excerpt:

This volume presents the main lectures of the 23rd Congress of the International Organization for the Study of the Old Testament (IOSOT) held in Aberdeen, United Kingdom, in August 2019.

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology Sensation and Perception

Stevens  Handbook of Experimental Psychology  Sensation and Perception
Author: Steven Yantis
Publsiher: John Wiley and Sons
Total Pages: 816
Release: 2004-02-05
ISBN: 9780471650140
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology Sensation and Perception Book Excerpt:

Now available in paperback. This revised and updated edition of the definitive resource for experimental psychology offers comprehensive coverage of the latest findings in the field, as well as the most recent contributions in methodology and the explosion of research in neuroscience. Volume One: Sensation and Perception focuses on sensory experience and complex learned perceptions through modalities such as vision, touch, smell, and hearing.

Programming Visual Illusions for Everyone

Programming Visual Illusions for Everyone
Author: Marco Bertamini
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 221
Release: 2017-08-08
ISBN: 3319640666
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Programming Visual Illusions for Everyone Book Excerpt:

If you find visual illusions fascinating Programming Visual Illusions for Everyone is a book for you. It has some background, some history and some theories about visual illusions, and it describes in some detail twelve illusions. Some are about surfaces, some are about apparent size of objects, some are about colour and some involve movement. This is only one aspect of the book. The other is to show you how you can create these effects on any computer. The book includes a brief introduction to a powerful programming language called Python. No previous experience with programming is necessary. There is also an introduction to a package called PsychoPy that makes it easy to draw on a computer screen. It is perfectly ok if you have never heard the names Python or PsychoPy before. Python is a modern and easy-to-read language, and PsychoPy takes care of all the graphical aspects of drawing on a screen and also interacting with a computer. By the way, both Python and PsychoPy are absolutely free. Is this a book about illusions or about programming? It is both!

The Senses A Comprehensive Reference

The Senses  A Comprehensive Reference
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 5208
Release: 2020-09-30
ISBN: 0128054093
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Senses A Comprehensive Reference Book Excerpt:

The Senses: A Comprehensive Reference, Second Edition, is a comprehensive reference work covering the range of topics that constitute current knowledge of the neural mechanisms underlying the different senses. This important work provides the most up-to-date, cutting-edge, comprehensive reference combining volumes on all major sensory modalities in one set. Offering 264 chapters from a distinguished team of international experts, The Senses lays out current knowledge on the anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology of sensory organs, in a collection of comprehensive chapters spanning 4 volumes. Topics covered include the perception, psychophysics, and higher order processing of sensory information, as well as disorders and new diagnostic and treatment methods. Written for a wide audience, this reference work provides students, scholars, medical doctors, as well as anyone interested in neuroscience, a comprehensive overview of the knowledge accumulated on the function of sense organs, sensory systems, and how the brain processes sensory input. As with the first edition, contributions from leading scholars from around the world will ensure The Senses offers a truly international portrait of sensory physiology. The set is the definitive reference on sensory neuroscience and provides the ultimate entry point into the review and original literature in Sensory Neuroscience enabling students and scientists to delve into the subject and deepen their knowledge. All-inclusive coverage of topics: updated edition offers readers the only current reference available covering neurobiology, physiology, anatomy, and molecular biology of sense organs and the processing of sensory information in the brain Authoritative content: world-leading contributors provide readers with a reputable, dynamic and authoritative account of the topics under discussion Comprehensive-style content: in-depth, complex coverage of topics offers students at upper undergraduate level and above full insight into topics under discussion

Body Am I

Body Am I
Author: Moheb Costandi
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 215
Release: 2022-10-04
ISBN: 0262368706
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Body Am I Book Excerpt:

How the way we perceive our bodies plays a critical role in the way we perceive ourselves: stories of phantom limbs, rubber hands, anorexia, and other phenomena. The body is central to our sense of identity. It can be a canvas for self-expression, decorated with clothing, jewelry, cosmetics, tattoos, and piercings. But the body is more than that. Bodily awareness, says scientist-writer Moheb Costandi, is key to self-consciousness. In Body Am I, Costandi examines how the brain perceives the body, how that perception translates into our conscious experience of the body, and how that experience contributes to our sense of self. Along the way, he explores what can happen when the mechanisms of bodily awareness are disturbed, leading to such phenomena as phantom limbs, alien hands, and amputee fetishes. Costandi explains that the brain generates maps and models of the body that guide how we perceive and use it, and that these maps and models are repeatedly modified and reconstructed. Drawing on recent bodily awareness research, the new science of self-consciousness, and historical milestones in neurology, he describes a range of psychiatric and neurological disorders that result when body and brain are out of sync, including not only the well-known phantom limb syndrome but also phantom breast and phantom penis syndromes; body integrity identity disorder, which compels a person to disown and then amputate a healthy arm or leg; and such eating disorders as anorexia. Wide-ranging and meticulously researched, Body Am I (the title comes from Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra) offers new insight into self-consciousness by describing it in terms of bodily awareness.

Designing Organization Design

Designing Organization Design
Author: Rodrigo Magalhães
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2020-10-16
ISBN: 0192637207
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Designing Organization Design Book Excerpt:

As a topic, organization design is poorly understood. While it is featured in most management books as a chapter dedicated to organizational structures, it is unclear whether organization design is a one-off event or an ongoing process. Thus, it has traditionally been understood to be the same as an organizational configuration, with neat lines of communication and distribution of responsibilities following pre-set typologies. Yet what can be said to constitute organizational structure in this first half of the 21st century? The extraordinary growth of digital communications, the decreasing relevance of hierarchical bureaucracies, and the general demise of command-and-control have all but decimated the traditional notion of organizational structure. Organization design needs a theoretical revamping. Using a mix of design and social science theories and concepts, Rodrigo Magalhães outlines a new human-centric interpretation of design, design principles, and design culture. He puts forward a paradigm where the organization, for purposes of its design, is considered to be a social actor in a permanent state of transformation, with significant repercussions for social and economic life. He also proposes a model of 'leaderful organization design', distinguished as practice-based, guided by values of democratic participation, and driven by design logics which places meaning-making and meaning-taking at the center of organizational life and can be adopted and adapted to suit different environments.

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology Sensation and Perception

Stevens  Handbook of Experimental Psychology  Sensation and Perception
Author: Stanley Smith Stevens,Hal Pashler,Steven Yantis
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
Total Pages: 828
Release: 2002-02-28
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology Sensation and Perception Book Excerpt:

"This revised and updated edition of the definitive resource for experimental psychology offers comprehensive coverage of the latest findings in the field, as well as the explosion of research in neuroscience. Volume Four: Methodology in Experimental Psychology, organized by topic, focuses on the comparative research methods used to measure psychological, social, behavioral, and cognitive processes in human development."--Publisher's website.

The Cognitive Neurosciences fifth edition

The Cognitive Neurosciences  fifth edition
Author: Michael S. Gazzaniga,George R. Mangun
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 1128
Release: 2014-10-24
ISBN: 0262027771
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Cognitive Neurosciences fifth edition Book Excerpt:

The fifth edition of a work that defines the field of cognitive neuroscience, with entirely new material that reflects recent advances in the field. Each edition of this classic reference has proved to be a benchmark in the developing field of cognitive neuroscience. The fifth edition of The Cognitive Neurosciences continues to chart new directions in the study of the biological underpinnings of complex cognition—the relationship between the structural and physiological mechanisms of the nervous system and the psychological reality of the mind. It offers entirely new material, reflecting recent advances in the field. Many of the developments in cognitive neuroscience have been shaped by the introduction of novel tools and methodologies, and a new section is devoted to methods that promise to guide the field into the future—from sophisticated models of causality in brain function to the application of network theory to massive data sets. Another new section treats neuroscience and society, considering some of the moral and political quandaries posed by current neuroscientific methods. Other sections describe, among other things, new research that draws on developmental imaging to study the changing structure and function of the brain over the lifespan; progress in establishing increasingly precise models of memory; research that confirms the study of emotion and social cognition as a core area in cognitive neuroscience; and new findings that cast doubt on the so-called neural correlates of consciousness.

Handbook of Cognition

Handbook of Cognition
Author: Koen Lamberts,Robert L. Goldstone
Publsiher: SAGE
Total Pages: 455
Release: 2005
ISBN: 9780761972778
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Cognition Book Excerpt:

The Handbook of Cognition provides a definitive synthesis of the most up-to-date and advanced work in cognitive psychology in a single volume. The editors have gathered together a team of world-leading researchers in specialist areas of the field, both traditional and `hot' new areas, to present a benchmark - in terms of theoretical insight and advances in methodology - of the discipline. This book contains a thorough overview of the most significant and current research in cognitive psychology that will serve this academic community like no other volume.

Data Science New Issues Challenges and Applications

Data Science  New Issues  Challenges and Applications
Author: Gintautas Dzemyda,Jolita Bernatavičienė,Janusz Kacprzyk
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 313
Release: 2020-02-13
ISBN: 3030392503
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Data Science New Issues Challenges and Applications Book Excerpt:

This book contains 16 chapters by researchers working in various fields of data science. They focus on theory and applications in language technologies, optimization, computational thinking, intelligent decision support systems, decomposition of signals, model-driven development methodologies, interoperability of enterprise applications, anomaly detection in financial markets, 3D virtual reality, monitoring of environmental data, convolutional neural networks, knowledge storage, data stream classification, and security in social networking. The respective papers highlight a wealth of issues in, and applications of, data science. Modern technologies allow us to store and transfer large amounts of data quickly. They can be very diverse - images, numbers, streaming, related to human behavior and physiological parameters, etc. Whether the data is just raw numbers, crude images, or will help solve current problems and predict future developments, depends on whether we can effectively process and analyze it. Data science is evolving rapidly. However, it is still a very young field. In particular, data science is concerned with visualizations, statistics, pattern recognition, neurocomputing, image analysis, machine learning, artificial intelligence, databases and data processing, data mining, big data analytics, and knowledge discovery in databases. It also has many interfaces with optimization, block chaining, cyber-social and cyber-physical systems, Internet of Things (IoT), social computing, high-performance computing, in-memory key-value stores, cloud computing, social computing, data feeds, overlay networks, cognitive computing, crowdsource analysis, log analysis, container-based virtualization, and lifetime value modeling. Again, all of these areas are highly interrelated. In addition, data science is now expanding to new fields of application: chemical engineering, biotechnology, building energy management, materials microscopy, geographic research, learning analytics, radiology, metal design, ecosystem homeostasis investigation, and many others.

The Oxford Handbook of Event Related Potential Components

The Oxford Handbook of Event Related Potential Components
Author: Steven J. Luck,Emily S. Kappenman
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 664
Release: 2011-12-15
ISBN: 0199705879
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Handbook of Event Related Potential Components Book Excerpt:

Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used for decades to study perception, cognition, emotion, neurological and psychiatric disorders, and lifespan development. ERPs consist of multiple components and reflect a specific neurocognitive process. In the past, there was no single source that could be consulted to learn about all the major ERP components; learning about a single ERP component required reading dozens or even hundreds of separate journal articles and book chapters. The Oxford Handbook of Event-Related Potential Components fills this longstanding void with a detailed and comprehensive review of the major ERP components. Comprising 22 chapters by the field's founders and leading researchers, this volume offers extensive coverage of all relevant topics: - the fundamental nature of ERP components, including essential information about how ERP components are defined and isolated - individual components, such as the N170, P300, and ERN - groups of related components within specific research domains, such as language, emotion, and memory - ERP components in special populations, including children, the elderly, nonhuman primates, and patients with neurological disorders, affective disorders, and schizophrenia While undeniably broad in scope, these chapters are accessible to novices while remaining informative and engaging to experts. The Oxford Handbook of Event-Related Potential Components is a unique and valuable resource for students and researchers throughout the brain sciences.