Stratigraphy Timescales

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
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Description : Stratigraphy and Timescales covers current research across a wide range of stratigraphic disciplines, providing information on recent developments for the geoscientific research community. This fully commissioned review publication aims to foster and convey progress in stratigraphy, including geochronology, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, event-stratigraphy, isotope stratigraphy, astrochronology, climatostratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, ice core chronology, cyclostratigraphy, palaeoceanography, sequence stratigraphy, and more. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field Aims to foster and convey progress in stratigraphy, including geochronology, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, event-stratigraphy, and more


Advances In Sequence Stratigraphy

Author by : Michael Montenari
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 76
Total Download : 572
File Size : 48,5 Mb
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Description : Advances in Sequence Stratigraphy, Volume Two covers current research across a wide range of stratigraphic disciplines, providing information on the most recent developments for the geoscientific research community. Chapters in this volume include Sequence Stratigraphy - Oman, Sequence Stratigraphy and diagenesis, Sequence Stratigraphy of Siliciclastic Systems, Upper Devonian Biostratigraphy, Event Stratigraphy and Late Fransian Kellwasser Extinction Bio-events in the Iowa Basin: Western Euramerica, Sea-level change and Sequence Stratigraphy, Sequence Stratigraphy: A Material-based Approach Versus A Time-Based Approach, and Anisian-Ladinian marker horizon: Implications for sequence stratigraphy and intra-tethyan correlation. This fully commissioned review publication aims to foster and convey progress in stratigraphy, including geochronology, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, event-stratigraphy, isotope stratigraphy, astrochronology, climatostratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, ice core chronology, cyclostratigraphy, palaeoceanography, sequence stratigraphy, and more. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field Aims to foster and convey progress in stratigraphy, including geochronology, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, event-stratigraphy, and more


Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy

Author by : Michael Montenari
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 66
Total Download : 602
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Description : Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy, Volume Five in the Advances in Sequence Stratigraphy series, covers research in stratigraphic disciplines, including the most recent developments in the geosciences. This fully commissioned review publication aims to foster and convey progress in stratigraphy with its inclusion of a variety of topics, including Carbon isotope stratigraphy - principles and applications, Interpreting Phanerozoic δ13C patterns as periodic glacio-eustatic sequences, Stable carbon isotopes in archaeological plant remains, Review of the Upper Ediacaran-Lower Cambrian Detrital Series in Central and North Iberia: NE Africa as possible Source Area, Calibrating δ13C and δ18O chemostratigraphic correlations across Cambrian strata of SW, and much more. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field Aims to foster and convey progress in stratigraphy, including geochronology, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, event-stratigraphy, and more


Stratigraphy

Author by : Wang Naiwen
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
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Total Read : 85
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Description : This volume presents the proceedings of Symposium I "Stratigraphy" of the 30th International Geological Congress at Beijing. The proceedings aim to present a view of contemporary geology and should be of interest to researchers in the geological sciences.


Stratigraphy

Author by : Jacques Rey
Languange : en
Publisher by : Editions TECHNIP
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 50
Total Download : 598
File Size : 40,7 Mb
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Description : This book, written by 33 stratigraphic experts, presents various processes available which will enable the location in time of all rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, plutonic, and eruptive, whether they are in outcrop or at subsurface. The terminology and the appropriate practices for each method are presented in separate chapters and illustrated with concrete examples. The order of the chapters is modeled on the progression of the stratigraphic process, from the descriptive to the interpretative, from the methods of the geometric stratigraphy (lithostratigraphy and genetic stratigraphy, chemostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy) to the chronological stratigraphy (biostratigraphy), followed by the chronometric stratigraphy (isotopic geochronology). The final two chapters are dedicated to chronostratigraphic units and correlations which combine the contributions of various methods and to the presentation of the 2007 version of the Geological Time Scale. The definitions of stratigraphic terms can be found in a glossary at the end of the work. The book is addressed to all professional geologists, from the industrial sector as well as those in universities, including teachers and researchers who would like to deepen their knowledge of the vocabulary, the concepts, the methods and the practical applications of different approaches of stratigraphy, a reference discipline for the entirety of the geological sciences.


The Geologic Time Scale 2012

Author by : F M Gradstein
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 51
Total Download : 246
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Description : The Geologic Time Scale 2012, winner of a 2012 PROSE Award Honorable Mention for Best Multi-volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers, is the framework for deciphering the history of our planet Earth. The authors have been at the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives to create an international geologic time scale for many years, and the charts in this book present the most up-to-date, international standard, as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. This 2012 geologic time scale is an enhanced, improved and expanded version of the GTS2004, including chapters on planetary scales, the Cryogenian-Ediacaran periods/systems, a prehistory scale of human development, a survey of sequence stratigraphy, and an extensive compilation of stable-isotope chemostratigraphy. This book is an essential reference for all geoscientists, including researchers, students, and petroleum and mining professionals. The presentation is non-technical and illustrated with numerous colour charts, maps and photographs. The book also includes a detachable wall chart of the complete time scale for use as a handy reference in the office, laboratory or field. The most detailed international geologic time scale available that contextualizes information in one single reference for quick desktop access Gives insights in the construction, strengths, and limitations of the geological time scale that greatly enhances its function and its utility Aids understanding by combining with the mathematical and statistical methods to scaled composites of global succession of events Meets the needs of a range of users at various points in the workflow (researchers extracting linear time from rock records, students recognizing the geologic stage by their content)


Stratigraphy A Modern Synthesis

Author by : Andrew D. Miall
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
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Description : A Comprehensive review of modern stratigraphic methods. The stratigraphic record is the major repository of information about the geological history of Earth, a record stretching back for nearly 4 billion years. Stratigraphic studies fill out our planet’s plate-tectonic history with the details of paleogeography, past climates, and the record of evolution, and stratigraphy is at the heart of the effort to find and exploit fossil fuel resources. Modern stratigraphic methods are now able to provide insights into past geological events and processes on time scales with unprecedented accuracy and precision, and have added much to our understanding of global tectonic and climatic processes. It has taken 200 years and a modern revolution to bring all the necessary developments together to create the modern, dynamic science that this book sets out to describe. Stratigraphy now consists of a suite of integrated concepts and methods, several of which have considerable predictive and interpretive power. The new, integrated, dynamic science that Stratigraphy has become is now inseparable from what were its component parts, including sedimentology, chronostratigraphy, and the broader aspects of basin analysis.


A Geologic Time Scale 2004

Author by : Felix M. Gradstein
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 84
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Description : A new detailed international geologic time scale, including methodology and a wallchart.


A Concise Geologic Time Scale

Author by : J G Ogg
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
Total Download : 329
File Size : 47,6 Mb
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Description : A Concise Geologic Time Scale: 2016 presents a summary of Earth's history over the past 4.5 billion years, as well as a brief overview of contemporaneous events on the Moon, Mars, and Venus. The authors have been at the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives to create an international geologic time scale for many years, and the charts in this book present the most up-to-date international standard, as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. This book is an essential reference for all geoscientists, including researchers, students, and petroleum and mining professionals. The presentation is non-technical and illustrated with numerous colour charts, maps and photographs. The book also includes a detachable laminated card of the complete time scale for use as a handy reference in the office, laboratory, or field. Presents a summary of Earth's history over the past 4.5 billion years Includes a brief overview of contemporaneous events on the Moon, Mars, and Venus Includes full-color figures including charts, stratigraphic profiles, and photographs to enhance understanding of each geologic period Correlates regional geologic stages to the standard definitions approved by the International Commission on Stratigraphy Offers an explanation of the methods used to create the time scale


Cyclostratigraphy And Astrochronology

Author by : Michael Montenari
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 33
Total Download : 209
File Size : 49,9 Mb
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Description : Stratigraphy and Time Scale, Volume Three in the Advances in Sequence Stratigraphy series, covers current research across many stratigraphic disciplines, providing information on the most recent developments for the geoscientific research community. This fully commissioned review publication aims to foster and convey progress in stratigraphy, including geochronology, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, event-stratigraphy, isotope stratigraphy, astrochronology, climatostratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, ice core chronology, cyclostratigraphy, palaeoceanography, sequence stratigraphy, and more. Updated chapters include topics such as the Cyclostratigraphy of shallow-water carbonates – limitations and opportunities, Muschelkalk ramp cycles, Orbital Control on Paleozoic Source Rock Formation, and Cyclostratigraphy in different Jurassic carbonate ramps (Iberian Basin, NE Spain). Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field Aims to foster and convey progress in stratigraphy, including geochronology, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, event-stratigraphy, and more


Advances In Sequence Stratigraphy

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 91
Total Download : 195
File Size : 51,7 Mb
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Description : Advances in Sequence Stratigraphy, Volume Two covers current research across a wide range of stratigraphic disciplines, providing information on the most recent developments for the geoscientific research community. Chapters in this volume include Sequence Stratigraphy – Oman, Sequence Stratigraphy and diagenesis, Sequence Stratigraphy of Siliciclastic Systems, Upper Devonian Biostratigraphy, Event Stratigraphy and Late Fransian Kellwasser Extinction Bio-events in the Iowa Basin: Western Euramerica, Sea-level change and Sequence Stratigraphy, Sequence Stratigraphy: A Material-based Approach Versus A Time-Based Approach, and Anisian-Ladinian marker horizon: Implications for sequence stratigraphy and intra-tethyan correlation. This fully commissioned review publication aims to foster and convey progress in stratigraphy, including geochronology, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, event-stratigraphy, isotope stratigraphy, astrochronology, climatostratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, ice core chronology, cyclostratigraphy, palaeoceanography, sequence stratigraphy, and more. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field Aims to foster and convey progress in stratigraphy, including geochronology, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, event-stratigraphy, and more


Case Studies In Isotope Stratigraphy

Author by : Michael Montenari
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 36
Total Download : 533
File Size : 44,5 Mb
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Description : Case Studies in Isotope Stratigraphy, Volume Four in the Advances in Sequence Stratigraphy series, covers current research across many stratigraphic disciplines, providing information on the most recent developments for the geoscientific research community. This fully commissioned review publication aims to foster and convey progress in stratigraphy, including geochronology, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, event-stratigraphy, isotope stratigraphy, astrochronology, climatostratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, ice core chronology, cyclostratigraphy, paleoceanography, sequence stratigraphy, and more. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field Aims to foster and convey progress in stratigraphy, including geochronology, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, event-stratigraphy, and more


Magnetic Stratigraphy

Author by : Meil D. Opdyke
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
Total Download : 904
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Description : Magnetic Stratigraphy is the most comprehensive book written in the English language on the subject of magnetic polarity stratigraphy and time scales. This volume presents the entirety of the known geomagneticrecord, which now extends back about 300 million years. The book includes the results of current research on sea floor spreading, magnetic stratigraphy of the Pliocene and Pleistocene, and postulations on the Paleozoic. Also included are both historicalbackground and applications of magnetostratigraphy. Individual chapters on correlation are presented, using changes in magnetic properties and secular variation. Key Features * Discusses pioneering work in the use of marine sediments to investigate the Earths magnetic field * Serves as a guide for students wishing to begin studies in magnetostratigraphy * Provides a comprehensive guide to magnetic polarity stratigraphy including up-to-date geomagnetic polarity time scales * Correlates magnetic stratigraphics from marine and non-marine Cenozoic sequences * Details reversal history of the magnetic field for the last 350 million years * Discusses correlation using magnetic dipole intensity changes * Up-to-date correlation of biostratigraphy with magnetic stratigraphy through the late Jurassic


Applied Stratigraphy

Author by : Eduardo A.M. Koutsoukos
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 49
Total Download : 170
File Size : 47,6 Mb
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Description : Stratigraphy has come to be indispensable to nearly all branches of the earth sciences, assisting such endeavors as charting the course of evolution, understanding ancient ecosystems, and furnishing data pivotal to finding strategic mineral resources. This book focuses on traditional and innovative stratigraphy techniques and how these can be used to reconstruct the geological history of sedimentary basins and in solving manifold geological problems and phenomena.


Seismic And Sequence Stratigraphy And Integrated Stratigraphy

Author by : Gemma Aiello
Languange : en
Publisher by : BoD – Books on Demand
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 52
Total Download : 312
File Size : 45,8 Mb
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Description : This book contains six chapters dealing with the investigation of seismic and sequence stratigraphy and integrated stratigraphy, including the stratigraphic unconformities, in different geological settings and using several techniques and methods, including the seismostratigraphic and the sequence stratigraphic analysis, the field geological survey, the well log stratigraphic interpretation, and the lithologic and paleobotanical data. Book chapters are separated into two main sections: (i) seismic and sequence stratigraphy and (ii) integrated stratigraphy. There are three chapters in the first section, including the application of sequence and seismic stratigraphy to the fine-grained shales, to the fluvial facies and depositional environments, and to the Late Miocene geological structures offshore of Taiwan. In the second section, there are three chapters dealing with the integrated stratigraphic investigation of Jurassic deposits of the southern Siberian platform, with the stratigraphic unconformities, reviewing the related geological concepts and studying examples from Middle-Upper Paleozoic successions; and, finally, with the integrated stratigraphy of the Cenozoic deposits of the Andean foreland basin (northwestern Argentina).


The Geology Of Stratigraphic Sequences

Author by : Andrew D. Miall
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 10
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Description : It has been more than a decade since the appearance of the First Edition of this book. Much progress has been made, but some controversies remain. The original ideas of Sloss and of Vail (building on the early work of Blackwelder, Grabau, Ulrich, Levorsen and others) that the stratigraphic record could be subdivided into sequences, and that these sequences store essential information about basin-forming and subsidence processes, remains as powerful an idea as when it was first formulated. The definition and mapping of sequences has become a standard part of the basin analysis process. The main purpose of this book remains the same as it was for the first edition, that is, to situate sequences within the broader context of geological processes, and to answer the question: why do sequences form? Geoscientists might thereby be better equipped to extract the maximum information from the record of sequences in a given basin or region. Tectonic, climatic and other mechanisms are the generating mechanisms for sequences ranging over a wide range of times scales, from hundreds of millions of years to the high-frequency sequences formed by cyclic processes lasting a few tens of thousands of years


Geologic Time Scale 2020

Author by : Felix M. Gradstein
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 46
Total Download : 509
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Description : Geologic Time Scale 2020 (2 volume set) contains contributions from 80+ leading scientists who present syntheses in an easy-to-understand format that includes numerous color charts, maps and photographs. In addition to detailed overviews of chronostratigraphy, evolution, geochemistry, sequence stratigraphy and planetary geology, the GTS2020 volumes have separate chapters on each geologic period with compilations of the history of divisions, the current GSSPs (global boundary stratotypes), detailed bio-geochem-sequence correlation charts, and derivation of the age models. The authors are on the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives surrounding the creation of an international geologic time scale. The included charts display the most up-to-date, international standard as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. As the framework for deciphering the history of our planet Earth, this book is essential for practicing Earth Scientists and academics. • Completely updated geologic time scale • Provides the most detailed integrated geologic time scale available that compiles and synthesize information in one reference • Gives insights on the construction, strengths and limitations of the geological time scale that greatly enhances its function and its utility


The Triassic Timescale

Author by : Spencer G. Lucas
Languange : en
Publisher by : Geological Society of London
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 16
Total Download : 495
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Description : The Mesozoic Era begins with the approximately 50-million-year-long Triassic Period, a major juncture in Earth history when the vast Pangaean supercontinent completed its assembly and began its fragmentation, and the global biota diversified and modern-ized after the end-Permian mass extinction, the most extensive biotic decimation of the Phanerozoic. The temporal ordering of geological and biotic events during Triassic time thus is critical to the interpretation of some unique and pivotal events in Earth his-tory. This temporal ordering is mostly based on the Triassic time-scale, which has been developed and refined for nearly two centu-ries. This book reviews the state of the art of the Triassic timescale and includes comprehensive analyses of Triassic radio-isotopic ages, magnetostratigraphy, isotope-based and cyclostratigraphic correlations and timescale -relevant marine and non-marine bio-stratigraphy.


The Permian Timescale

Author by : S.G. Lucas
Languange : en
Publisher by : Geological Society of London
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 41
Total Download : 489
File Size : 43,8 Mb
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Description : This volume brings together state-of-the-art reviews of the non-biostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data that are used to define and correlate Permian time intervals. It includes analyses of Permian radio-isotopic ages, magnetostratigraphy, isotope-based stratigraphy and timescale-relevant biostratigraphy. It is the first book devoted to this subject and represents the cutting edge of Permian time-scale research.


Scientific Ocean Drilling

Author by : National Research Council
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 37
Total Download : 177
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Description : Through direct exploration of the subseafloor, U.S.-supported scientific ocean drilling programs have significantly contributed to a broad range of scientific accomplishments in Earth science disciplines, shaping understanding of Earth systems and enabling new fields of inquiry. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges reviews the scientific accomplishments of U.S.-supported scientific ocean drilling over the past four decades. The book evaluates how the programs (Deep Sea Drilling Project [DSDP], 1968-1983, Ocean Drilling Program [ODP], 1984-2003, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP], 2003-2013) have shaped understanding of Earth systems and Earth history and assessed the role of scientific ocean drilling in enabling new fields of inquiry. This book also assesses the potential for transformative discoveries for the next proposed phase of scientific ocean drilling, which is scheduled to run from 2013 to 2023. The programs' technological innovations have played a strong role in these accomplishments. The science plan for the proposed 2013-2023 program presents a strong case for the continuation of scientific ocean drilling. Each of the plan's four themes identifies compelling challenges with potential for transformative science that could only be addressed through scientific ocean drilling, although some challenges appear to have greater potential than others. Prioritizing science plan challenges and integrating multiple objectives into single expeditions would help use resources more effectively, while encouraging technological innovations would continue to increase the potential for groundbreaking science.


A Geologic Time Scale 1989

Author by : W. Brian Harland
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 72
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Description : This is a concentrated review of the time scales used in geology in order to date stratigraphic sequences and to define geological epochs. The text presents, discusses and evaluates the state of chronostratigraphic, chronometric and other scales. The book is the planned successor to A Geologic Timescale by Harland et al (CUP, 1982). It adopts the same style and employs similar methods, but it has been entirely reworked. The work develops and assesses a new calibration of the geologic timescale employing a new data base that will provide a source of reference destined to serve for some years. The new scale will provide an invaluable reference work for all serious geologists, both students and professionals.


Introducing Stratigraphy

Author by : Paul Lyle
Languange : en
Publisher by : Dunedin Academic Press Ltd
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 22
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Description : Stratigraphy is the branch of geology which studies rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification). Stratigraphy deals primarily with sedimentary rocks but also embraces layered igneous rocks where layers result from successive lava flows. A common goal of stratigraphic studies is the interpretation of sequences of rock strata, thus understanding the time relationships involved, and correlating units of the sequence with rock strata elsewhere. Nicholas Steno described four principles of stratigraphy in the seventeenth century, including the law of superposition which states that states that, in undeformed stratigraphic sequences, the oldest strata will be at the bottom of the sequence. These ideas still underpin modern stratigraphy which is governed by The International Commission on Stratigraphy. Its primary objective is to precisely define global units (systems, series, and stages) of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart that, in turn, are the basis for the units (periods, epochs, and age) of the International Geologic Time Scale. Stratigraphy has application in many scientific fields, including archaeology, palaeontology and in the search for natural resources. This succinct and accessible introduction to stratigraphy will prove helpful to students and amateur geologists alike.


Stone

Author by : Mick R. Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Geological Society of London
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 83
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Description :


Texas

Author by : A. Ray Stephens
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Oklahoma Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 56
Total Download : 112
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Description : For twenty years the Historical Atlas of Texas stood as a trusted resource for students and aficionados of the state. Now this key reference has been thoroughly updated and expanded—and even rechristened. Texas: A Historical Atlas more accurately reflects the Lone Star State at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Its 86 entries feature 175 newly designed maps—more than twice the number in the original volume—illustrating the most significant aspects of the state’s history, geography, and current affairs. The heart of the book is its wealth of historical information. Sections devoted to indigenous peoples of Texas and its exploration and settlement offer more than 45 entries with visual depictions of everything from the routes of Spanish explorers to empresario grants to cattle trails. In another 31 articles, coverage of modern and contemporary Texas takes in hurricanes and highways, power plants and population trends. Practically everything about this atlas is new. All of the essays have been updated to reflect recent scholarship, while more than 30 appear for the first time, addressing such subjects as the Texas Declaration of Independence, early roads, slavery, the Civil War and Reconstruction, Texas-Oklahoma boundary disputes, and the tideland oil controversy. A dozen new entries for “Contemporary Texas” alone chart aspects of industry, agriculture, and minority demographics. Nearly all of the expanded essays are accompanied by multiple maps—everyone in full color. The most comprehensive, state-of-the-art work of its kind, Texas: A Historical Atlas is more than just a reference. It is a striking visual introduction to the Lone Star State.


Strata And Time

Author by : D.G. Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Geological Society of London
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 62
Total Download : 708
File Size : 48,5 Mb
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Description : This Special Publication explores the relationship between the preserved strata of the rock record and the passage of time. It covers the controls on preservation of strata in the record, through the qualitative and statistical properties of statigraphic data, to the implications for analysis, interpretation, modelling and prediction.