Summary Of World Broadcasts

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Summary Of World Broadcasts

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Summary Of World Broadcasts

Author by : British Broadcasting Corporation. Monitoring Service
Languange : en
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Summary Of World Broadcasts

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Summary Of World Broadcasts

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Summary Of World Broadcasts

Author by : British Broadcasting Corporation. Monitoring Service. Information Bureau
Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Summary Of World Broadcasts

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Amnesty Human Rights And Political Transitions

Author by : Louise Mallinder
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury Publishing
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Description : Amnesty laws are political tools used since ancient times by states wishing to quell dissent, introduce reforms, or achieve peaceful relationships with their enemies. In recent years, they have become contentious due to a perception that they violate international law, particularly the rights of victims, and contribute to further violence. This view is disputed by political negotiators who often argue that amnesty is a necessary price to pay in order to achieve a stable, peaceful, and equitable system of government. This book aims to investigate whether an amnesty necessarily entails a violation of a state's international obligations, or whether an amnesty, accompanied by alternative justice mechanisms, can in fact contribute positively to both peace and justice. This study began by constructing an extensive Amnesty Law Database that contains information on 506 amnesty processes in 130 countries introduced since the Second World War. The database and chapter structure were designed to correspond with the key aspects of an amnesty: why it was introduced, who benefited from its protection, which crimes it covered, and whether it was conditional. In assessing conditional amnesties, related transitional justice processes such as selective prosecutions, truth commissions, community-based justice mechanisms, lustration, and reparations programmes were considered. Subsequently, the jurisprudence relating to amnesty from national courts, international tribunals, and courts in third states was addressed. The information gathered revealed considerable disparity in state practice relating to amnesties, with some aiming to provide victims with a remedy, and others seeking to create complete impunity for perpetrators. To date, few legal trends relating to amnesty laws are emerging, although it appears that amnesties offering blanket, unconditional immunity for state agents have declined. Overall, amnesties have increased in popularity since the 1990s and consequently, rather than trying to dissuade states from using this tool of transitional justice, this book argues that international actors should instead work to limit the more negative forms of amnesty by encouraging states to make them conditional and to introduce complementary programmes to repair the harm and prevent a repetition of the crimes. David Dyzenhaus "This is one of the best accounts in the truth and reconciliation literature I've read and certainly the best piece of work on amnesty I've seen." Diane Orentlicher "Ms Mallinder's ambitious project provides the kind of empirical treatment that those of us who have worked on the issue of amnesties in international law have long awaited. I have no doubt that her book will be a much-valued and widely-cited resource."


Eu Russia Relations 1999 2015

Author by : Anna-Sophie Maass
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : This book traces the development of EU-Russia relations in recent years. It argues that a major factor influencing the relationship is the changing internal dynamics of both parties, in Russia’s case an increasingly authoritarian state, in the case of the EU an increasing coherence in its foreign policy as applied to former Soviet countries which Russia regarded as interference in its own sphere. The book considers the impact of conflicts in Kosovo, Chechnya, Georgia and Ukraine, discusses the changing internal situation in both Russia and the EU, including the difficulties in overcoming fragmentation in EU policy-making, and concludes by assessing how the situation is likely to develop.


Balkan Babel

Author by : Sabrina Petra Ramet
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : The fourth edition of this critically acclaimed work includes a new chapter, a new epilogue, and revisions throughout the book. Sabrina Ramet, a veteran observer of the Yugoslav scene, traces the steady deterioration of Yugoslavia's political and social fabric in the years since 1980, arguing that, while the federal system and multiethnic fabric laid down fault lines, the final crisis was sown in the failure to resolve the legitimacy question, triggered by economic deterioration, and pushed forward toward war by Serbian politicians bent on power - either within a centralized Yugoslavia or within an 'ethnically cleansed' Greater Serbia. With her detailed knowledge of the area and extensive fieldwork, Ramet paints a strikingly original picture of Yugoslavia's demise and the emergence of the Yugoslav successor states.


North Korea In The New World Order

Author by : Kevin Magill
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Description : This book offers several perspectives on the contemporary position of North Korea. It examines, in the context of the post-Cold War order, US, European Union and British foreign policy to North Korea, and North Korean responses. It investigates the tensions that could develop in North Korean state and society as the country faces an increasingly market-oriented capitalist world and identifies the historical, political and ideological foundations of North Korean society and culture. The book is the work of a multidisciplinary team of scholars from Britain and the United States who work in the fields of anthropology, economics, history, international relations, social geography and sociology, most of whom have conducted first-hand research in North Korea. The book also contains contributions from policy-makers who have helped to form western policy towards North Korea.


Coercive Sanctions And International Conflicts

Author by : Mark Daniel Jaeger
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : Perhaps the most common question raised in the literature on coercive international sanctions is: "Do sanctions work?" Unsurprisingly, the answer to such a sweeping question remains inconclusive. However, even the widely-presumed logic of coercive sanctions – that economic impact translates into effective political pressure – is not the primary driver of conflict developments. Furthermore, existing rationalist-economistic approaches neglect one of the most striking differences seen across sanctions conflicts: the occurrence of positive sanctions or their combination with negative sanctions, implicitly taking them as logically indifferent. Instead of asking whether sanctions work, this book addresses a more basic question: How do coercive international sanctions work, and more substantially, what are the social conditions within sanctions conflicts that are conducive to either cooperation or non-cooperation? Arguing that coercive sanctions and international conflicts are relational, socially-constructed facts, the author explores the (de-)escalation of sanctions conflicts from a sociological perspective. Whether sanctions are conducive to either cooperation or non-cooperation depends on the one hand on the meaning they acquire for opponents as inducing decisions upon mutual conflict. On the other hand, negative sanctions, positive sanctions, or their combination each contribute differently to the way in which opponents perceive conflict, and to its potential transformation. Thus, it is premature to ‘predict’ the political effectiveness of sanctions simply based on economic impact. The book presents analyses of the sanctions conflicts between China and Taiwan and over Iran’s nuclear program, illustrating how negative sanctions, positive sanctions, and their combination made a distinct contribution to conflict development and prospects for cooperation. It will be of great interest to researchers, postgraduates and academics in the fields of international relations, sanctions, international security and international political sociology.


The Pflp S Changing Role In The Middle East

Author by : Harold M. Cubert
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : This is a history of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), a violent Marxist faction within the Palestinian national movement. Cubert explores the group's background and provides an analysis of its aims, methods, structures and the factors responsible for its decline.


Stopping Wars

Author by : James D D Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : This is an attempt to catalogue the reasons why some wars are so difficult to stop - even when both sides want the fighting to end. Through detailed case studies, the book assesses the obstacles and points toward solutions for ending wars more quickly. Each chapter is devoted to a specific obstacle which the author analyzes and then illustrates with case studies, drawing on such conflicts as the Iran-Iraq War, the Gulf War and the Yugoslav wars. He assesses the role of third parties in trying to persuade people to stop fighting and examines what happens when obstacles to a cease-fire cannot be overcome.


Cascade Of Arms

Author by : Andrew J. Pierre
Languange : en
Publisher by : Brookings Institution Press
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Description : With the post-cold war emphasis on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the neglected dimension has been the spread of advanced conventional arms. Yet these are the arms most likely to be used in conflict. They present the greatest diversion from economic and social development, and are the centerpiece of regional security balances. This book examines the policies and practices of the major arms-supplying nations, looks at the impact of weapons purchases on the principal recipient regions and the possibilities for regional arms control, and dissects the economics of arms exports for the producer nations in both the developing and industrialized worlds. The book thoroughly discusses the opportunities for, and obstacles to, achieving multilateral restraint on arms. In addition to the editor, contributors are Ian Anthony, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute; Nicole Ball, Overseas Development Council; Julian Cooper, University of Birmingham; Lawrence Freedman and Martin Navias, King's College, London; Rodney Jones, Policy Architects International; Ethan Kapstein, University of Minnesota; Michael Klare, Five College Program in Peace and World Security Studies; Andrew Mack, Australian National University; Abdel Monem Said Aly, Center for Political and Strategic Studies, Cairo; Janne Nolan, Brookings Institution; Andrew Ross, Naval War College; Gerald Segal, International Institute for Strategic Studies; and Gerald Steinberg, Bar-Ilan University, Israel. Copublished with the World Peace Foundation


Vanguard Of The Imam

Author by : Afshon Ostovar
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : Iran's Revolutionary Guards are one of the most important forces in the Middle East today. As the appointed defender of Iran's revolution, the Guards have evolved into a pillar of the Islamic Republic and the spearhead of its influence. Their sway has spread across the Middle East, where the Guards have overseen loyalist support to Bashar al-Assad in Syria and been a staunch backer in Iraq's war against ISIS-bringing its own troops, Lebanon's Hezbollah, and Shiite militias to the fight. Links to terrorism, human rights abuses, and the suppression of popular democracy have shrouded the Revolutionary Guards in controversy. In spite of their prominence, the Guards remain poorly understood to outside observers. In Vanguard of the Imam, Afshon Ostovar has written the first comprehensive history of the organization. Situating the rise of the Guards in the larger contexts of Shiite Islam, modern Iranian history, and international affairs, Ostovar takes a multifaceted approach in demystifying the organization and detailing its evolution since 1979. Politics, power, and religion collide in this story, wherein the Revolutionary Guards transform from a rag-tag militia established in the midst of revolutionary upheaval into a military and covert force with a global reach. The Guards have been fundamental to the success of the Islamic revolution. The symbiotic relationship between them and Iran's clerical rulers underpins the regime's nearly unshakeable system of power. The Guards have used their privileged position at home to export Iran's revolution beyond its borders, establishing client armies in their image and extending Iran's strategic footprint in the process. Ostovar tenaciously documents the Guards' transformation into a power-player and explores why the group matters now more than ever to regional and global affairs. The book simultaneously serves as a history of modern Iran, and provides a crucial and engrossing entryway into the complex world of war, politics, and identity in the Middle East.


China S Arms Acquisitions From Abroad

Author by : Bates Gill
Languange : en
Publisher by : Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
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Description : The People's Republic of China seeks to attain military strength commensurate with its growing regional and international influence and to close the military-technological gap which has long separated it from the other major powers. To achieve its military modernization goals, China will continue its efforts to import the critical weapons and technologies it requires. Yet, for reasons rooted in both historical and contemporary contexts, China faces many difficulties and setbacks in this quest. China's Arms Acquisitions from Abroad documents and analyses the 150-year effort by China to strengthen its military forces through arms imports. Based on an historical understanding of this process, the report focuses mainly on contemporary transfers of weapons and technologies to China, particularly those from the Soviet Union and Russia, but also including imports from Israel, France, the United Kingdom, the United States and other suppliers. Relying on primary sources as well as on the most comprehensive collection of open-source data and information available on the subject, the report provides extensive documentation and a balanced assessment of past, current and likely future developments regarding Chinese arms imports. This unique study will prove useful to experts and officials concerned with security and regional affairs in East Asia.


Shaping The Current Islamic Reformation

Author by : B.A. Roberson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : The essays that comprise this study eschew stereotypical representations of a politicized Islam in the Mediterranean Region. The contributors consider the reality that lies behind current issues in the area and the role that an embedded Islam has played or may play in the region.


Chinese Grand Strategy And Maritime Power

Author by : Thomas M. Kane
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 47
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Description : This challenging new book argues that the People's Republic of China is pursuing a long-term strategy to extend its national power by sea.


The Taliban And The Crisis Of Afghanistan

Author by : Robert D. Crews
Languange : en
Publisher by : Harvard University Press
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Description : The Taliban remain one of the most elusive forces in modern history. A ragtag collection of clerics and madrasa students, this obscure movement emerged out of the rubble of the Cold War to shock the world with their draconian Islamic order. The Taliban refused to surrender their vision even when confronted by the United States after September 11, 2001. Reinventing themselves as part of a broad insurgency that destabilized Afghanistan, they pledged to drive out the Americans, NATO, and their allies and restore their "Islamic Emirate." The Taliban and the Crisis of Afghanistan explores the paradox at the center of this challenging phenomenon: how has a seemingly anachronistic band of religious zealots managed to retain a tenacious foothold in the struggle for Afghanistan's future? Grounding their analysis in a deep understanding of the country's past, leading scholars of Afghan history, politics, society, and culture show how the Taliban was less an attempt to revive a medieval theocracy than a dynamic, complex, and adaptive force rooted in the history of Afghanistan and shaped by modern international politics. Shunning journalistic accounts of its conspiratorial origins, the essays investigate broader questions relating to the character of the Taliban, its evolution over time, and its capacity to affect the future of the region. Offering an invaluable guide to "what went wrong" with the American reconstruction project in Afghanistan, this book accounts for the persistence of a powerful and enigmatic movement while simultaneously mapping Afghanistan's enduring political crisis.


Bosnia Remade

Author by : Gerard Toal
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : Bosnia Remade is an authoritative account of ethnic cleansing and its partial undoing in the Bosnian wars from 1990 to the present. The two authors, both political geographers, combine a bird's-eye view of the entire war from onset to aftermath with a micro-level account of three towns that underwent ethnic cleansing and - later - the return of refugees. Through the lens of critical geopolitics, which highlights the power of both geopolitical discourse and spatial strategies, O Tuathail and Dahlman focus on the two attempts to remake the ethnic structure of Bosnia since 1991. The first attempt was by ascendant ethnonationalist forces that tried to eradicate the mixed ethnic structures of Bosnia's towns, villages and communities. While these forces destroyed tens of thousands of homes and lives, they failed to destroy Bosnia-Herzegovina as a polity. The second attempt followed the war. The international community, in league with Bosnian officials, tried to undo the demographicconsequences of ethnic cleansing. This latter effort has moved in fits and starts, but as the authors show, it has re-made Bosnia, producing a country that has moved beyond the stark segregationist geography created by ethnic cleansing. By showing how ethnic cleansing can be reversed, O Tuathail and Dahlman offer more than just a comprehensive narrative of Europe's worst political crisis in the past two decades. They also offer lessons for addressing an enduring global problem.


Nihil Obstat

Author by : Sabrina P. Ramet
Languange : en
Publisher by : Duke University Press
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Description : Politics, religion, and social change in the post-communist world of Eastern Europe and Russia.


Global Governance

Author by : Lisa Martin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 9
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Description : As economic, social and environmental connections among states have grown stronger and denser in the last decades, new levels and types of governance have emerged. The process of globalization, while not entirely new, has created new challenges for policymakers attempting to reap its benefits and manage its effects. This volume pulls together work on global governance that examines these challenges and looks at the patterns of governance that emerge. The work is organized into six sections. The first introduces concepts crucial to the analysis of global governance, including representation, efficiency, and hierarchy. The next two sections turn to specific patterns of governance in two realms, security and economic affairs respectively. The fourth section examines legal dimensions of governance. The fifth section concentrates on the impact of global governance on domestic politics, while the sixth looks at how concepts of norms and legitimacy structure our understanding of governance. Overall, this collection reveals a rich scholarly understanding of globalization, governance, and institutions that builds on deep theoretical roots while shedding light on major policy issues.


Central Asia

Author by : Tom Everett-Heath
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 73
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Description : The five central Asian States of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan stand at the crossroads of world civilization. Influenced by South Asia, Iran, China and Russia, this region which has recently burst onto the world stage once again, guards a distinct identity. This collection by established experts on the area covers the dramatic Soviet interventions of the early twentieth century, and details the role of ethnicity and the contribution made by Islamic impulses in the process of building the modern nation states.


Lithuania

Author by : Alexandra Ashbourne
Languange : en
Publisher by : Lexington Books
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Total Read : 9
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Description : In 1990, the tiny Soviet Republic of Lithuania declared independence and began restoring the mechanisms of independent government and democracy that had been suppressed by its Soviet invaders for half a century. Lithuania examines the first years of this rebirth in the face of the legacy of the Soviet occupation. In addition to chronicling the lively chain of events leading to and stemming from the declaration of independence, Alexandra Ashbourne studies the essential components of rebirth: the creation of domestic, foreign, and security policies and the revitalization of an independent economy. Drawing from the personal testimony of Lithuanians closely connected to these events, Ashbourne appraises Lithuania's attempts to rejoin the international community and acquire an effective security guarantee. She concludes that the damage caused by fifty years of Soviet domination created obstacles to the process of rebirth, obstacles that are proving difficult and even impossible to overcome. Readers of Lithuania will find its discussions applicable to most former Soviet republics and Eastern Bloc states. The book will be invaluable to students and scholars of Lithuania, Soviet history, and international political policy.


State In India Pakistan Russia And Central Asia

Author by : Rakesh Gupta
Languange : en
Publisher by : Gyan Publishing House
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Total Read : 49
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Description : The book is a product of teaching interests and deals with the four significant case studies of post-communist and developing states in historical, theoretical and empirical dimensions. The focus has been to look at their nature from the point of view of regime types and class essence, in other words on the margins of different social science perspectives. Theories dealing with state centric and society centric views have been examined in the historical internal and the international contexts. Speaking relatively, the State in India stands taller than Russia, peripheral Central Asia and authoritarian Pakistan with regard to its ontos and performance despite of emergency and current threats to its polity, if the latter does not mature. Militarism of Pakistan has been examined with reference to its lineages and international linkages. Unlike other case studies Pakistan is unique in representing a case apart on this score. Scholars, students and the ordinary reader will find this useful as a reading and as a input into further pursuits of issues of the nature of Statehood under the phase of globalisation. In that context again we notice that India has been able to deal with the related issues with more care to both autonomy within and sovereignty abroad. Challenges from the ordinary people, regional groupings and ethnicity have been highlighted. A book like this is always timely and need of the hour. It does not claim to offer the road map of the future except indicating the need of responding to the demands of the ordinary people.


Asad Of Syria

Author by : Patrick Seale
Languange : en
Publisher by : Univ of California Press
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Total Read : 25
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Description : Traces the life and political career of President Asad, discusses his role in the history of Syria, and shares his vision of the future of the region.


Cuba Annual Report

Author by : Voice of America-Radio Marti Program
Languange : en
Publisher by : Transaction Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
Total Download : 364
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