Description : During the past decade, high-speed railways have become one of the most advanced and fast-developing branches of transportation. Unfortunately, when train speeds increase, the intensity of railway-generated noise and vibration generally become higher, presenting major environmental problems. Since operating train speeds are gradually increasing in all countries and this trend is likely to continue in the future, the knowledge and understanding of possible noise and vibration effects is vital to undertake possible mitigation measures. Noise and vibration from high-speed trains is a definitive reference work on this subject covering the numerous theoretical and practical questions that need to be answered. This comprehensive new book provides the reader with the most recent experimental data, combining, informative illustrations and authoritative information. It represents in one volume the views of leading international experts on the problem of noise and vibration from high-speed trains and suggests possible ways of reducing its environmental impact.Noise and vibration from high-speed trains is essential reading for all scientists and engineers working on prediction and remediation of railway noise and vibration. It is written specifically for environmental consultants, local authorities and designers of new railway lines and will also be an invaluable reference tool for university students and anybody concerned with topical environmental issues.
Description : Sense organs serve as a kind of biological interface between the environment and the organism. Therefore, the relationship between sensory systems and ecology is very close and its knowledge of fundamental importance for an understanding of animal behavior. The sixteen chapters of this book exemplify the diversity of the constraints and opportunities associated with the sensation of stimuli representing different forms of energy. The book stresses the events taking place in the sensory periphery where the animal is exposed to and gets in touch with its natural habitat and acquires the information needed to organize its interaction with its environment. Ecology of Sensing brings together the leading experts in the field.
Description : Plants use the Sun´s energy to synthesize the basic biomolecules that make up all the organic matter of all organisms of terrestrial ecosystems, including ourselves. Therefore, understanding their adaptive mechanisms to variations of environmental factors, both biotic and abiotic, is fundamental, and particularly relevant in the current context of rapid climate change. Some of the most important adaptive mechanisms of plants are the electrical and chemical signaling systems for the exchange of information between proximally and distally located cells. These signalling systems allow plants to dynamically coordinate the activities of all cells under a diversity of situations. In this Research Topic, we present eight articles that bring up new hypothesis and data to understand the mechanisms of systemic electrical signaling and the central role that it plays in adapting the whole plant to different stresses, as well as new findings on intracellular calcium and nitric oxide-based signaling pathways under stress, which could be extrapolated to non-plant research.
Description : An effective text must be well balanced and thorough in its approach to a topic as expansive as vibration, and Mechanical Vibration is just such a textbook. Written for both senior undergraduate and graduate course levels, this updated and expanded second edition integrates uncertainty and control into the discussion of vibration, outlining basic concepts before delving into the mathematical rigors of modeling and analysis. Mechanical Vibration: Analysis, Uncertainties, and Control, Second Edition provides example problems, end-of-chapter exercises, and an up-to-date set of mini-projects to enhance students' computational abilities and includes abundant references for further study or more in-depth information. The author provides a MATLAB® primer on an accompanying CD-ROM, which contains original programs that can be used to solve complex problems and test solutions. The book is self-contained, covering both basic and more advanced topics such as stochastic processes and variational approaches. It concludes with a completely new chapter on nonlinear vibration and stability. Professors will find that the logical sequence of material is ideal for tailoring individualized syllabi, and students will benefit from the abundance of problems and MATLAB programs provided in the text and on the accompanying CD-ROM, respectively. A solutions manual is also available with qualifying course adoptions.
Description : Issues in Biomedical Engineering Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Biomedical Engineering Research and Application. The editors have built Issues in Biomedical Engineering Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Biomedical Engineering Research and Application in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Biomedical Engineering Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Description : Eight years ago, four psychologists with varying backgrounds but a common in terest in the impact of environmental stress on behavior and health met to plan a study of the effects of aircraft noise on children. The impetus for the study was an article in the Los Angeles Times about architectural interventions that were planned for several noise-impacted schools under the air corridor of Los Angeles Interna tional Airport. These interventions created an opportunity to study the same chil dren during noise exposure and then later after the exposure had been attenuated. The study was designed to test the generality of several noise effects that had been well established in laboratory experimental studies. It focused on three areas: the relationship between noise and personal control, noise and attention, and noise and cardiovascular response. Two years later, a second study, designed to replicate and extend findings from the first, was conducted.
Description : The engineering community generally accepts that there exists only a small set of closed-form solutions for simple cases of bars, beams, columns, and plates. Despite the advances in powerful computing and advanced numerical techniques, closed-form solutions remain important for engineering; these include uses for preliminary design, for evaluation