Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and or Supercritical Fluids

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and or Supercritical Fluids
Author: Can Erkey,Michael Turk
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 282
Release: 2021-12-08
ISBN: 0444640908
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and or Supercritical Fluids Book Excerpt:

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and/or Supercritical Fluids: Methods, Fundamentals and Modeling offers a comprehensive review of the current status of research, development and insights on promising future directions, covering the synthesis of nanostructured materials using supercritical fluid-based processes. The book presents fundamental aspects such as high-pressure phase behavior of complex mixtures, thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption from supercritical solutions, mechanisms of particle formation phenomena in supercritical fluid-based processes, and models for further development. It bridges the gap between theory and application, and is a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and students alike. Includes thermodynamic and mass transfer data necessary for industrial plant design Explains the mechanisms of reactions in a supercritical fluid environment Lists numerous industrial processes for the production of many consumer products

Foaming with Supercritical Fluids

Foaming with Supercritical Fluids
Author: Ernesto Di Maio,Salvatore Iannace,Giuseppe Mensitieri
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 484
Release: 2021-11-06
ISBN: 0444637362
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Foaming with Supercritical Fluids Book Excerpt:

Foaming with Supercritical Fluids, Volume Nine provides a comprehensive description of the use of supercritical fluids as blowing agents in polymer foaming. To this aim, the fundamental issues on which the proper design and control of this process are rooted are discussed in detail, with specific attention devoted to the theoretical and experimental aspects of sorption thermodynamics of a blowing agent within a polymer, the effect of the absorbed blowing agent on the thermal, interfacial and rheological properties of the expanding matter, and the phase separation of the gaseous phase, and of the related bubble nucleation and growth phenomena. Several foaming technologies based on the use of supercritical blowing agents are then described, addressing the main issues in the light of the underlying chemical-physical phenomena. Offers strong fundamentals on polymer properties important on foaming Outlines the use of supercritical fluids for foaming Covers theoretical points-of-view, including foam formation of the polymer/gas solution to the setting of the final foam Discusses the several processing technologies and applications

Synthesis of Nanomaterials

Synthesis of Nanomaterials
Author: S. Noor Mohammad
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 446
Release: 2020-10-27
ISBN: 3030575853
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Synthesis of Nanomaterials Book Excerpt:

This book deals with the synthesis of nanomaterials with a strong focus on the underlying reaction kinetics and various synthesis mechanisms. It gives a detailed description of all major synthesis routes of many types of novel nanomaterials including nanowires, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor nanotubes, carbon nanobelts, nanofibers, nanorings, nanodots and quantum dots. In addition, it articulates the fundamental mechanisms of nanomaterials synthesis via vapor-phase, liquid-phase and solid-phase processes, highlighting the various strengths and weaknesses of each mechanism. This monograph provides the reader with a thorough review of the known state-of-the-art, along with a detailed comparison and analysis of all possible nanomaterials synthesis mechanisms. An important element of the book is how to obtain critical knowledge for controlling the morphology of nanomaterials and thereby fine tune their materials properties. The book is an ideal guide for graduate students and researchers new to the field seeking to establish or enhance their understanding of the physical and chemical fundamentals of nanomaterials synthesis mechanisms.

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds
Author: Can Erkey
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 248
Release: 2011-10-27
ISBN: 0080914489
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds Book Excerpt:

Organometallic compounds are utilized as reagents in the preparation and processing of advanced nanostructured materials, as catalysts in the production of a wide variety of specialty chemicals and polymers, and as drugs. Supercritical fluid science and technology has a wide variety of applications ranging from extraction of pharmaceutically active compounds to the synthesis of advanced materials. The combination of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids has significant potential. This book covers the fundamental aspects and related applications in this rapidly growing area. Covers the preparation of nanostructured composite materials using supercritical fluids Focuses on the intersection of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids Addresses the behavior of organometallic compounds in supercritical fluid environments

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology
Author: Concepcion Domingo Pascual,Pascale Subra-Paternault
Publsiher: Pan Stanford
Total Pages: 450
Release: 2015-05-31
ISBN: 9789814613408
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology Book Excerpt:

The environmental and climate program demands technological solutions in the chemical industry that incorporate prevention of pollution. Major advances are needed to reduce the use of organic solvents, such as methanol, toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and dichloromethane, which account for 27 percent of total toxics release inventory chemicals. The replacement of those solvents is a key point to enable the transition from classical synthesis to green chemistry and nanotechnology concepts, i.e., to sustainability. The first radical option to achieve this goal is to completely avoid the use of solvents, as occurs in mechanochemical processes. A wide-range synthesis prospect is given by identifying between known solvents those with less negative environmental impact. This book concerns the analysis of the advantages of using compressed CO2 to produce not only improved materials in a better way, but also new nanoproducts. Recovering and using CO2, otherwise released into the atmosphere, is a means of recycling emissions resulting from other users. The use of supercritical CO2 is a complex option from a conceptual point of view requiring enhanced technical preparation.

Organometallic Flow Chemistry

Organometallic Flow Chemistry
Author: Timothy Noël
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 267
Release: 2016-04-22
ISBN: 3319332430
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Organometallic Flow Chemistry Book Excerpt:

The series Topics in Organometallic Chemistry presents critical overviews of research results in organometallic chemistry. As our understanding of organometallic structure, properties and mechanisms increases, new ways are opened for the design of organometallic compounds and reactions tailored to the needs of such diverse areas as organic synthesis, medical research, biology and materials science. Thus the scope of coverage includes a broad range of topics of pure and applied organometallic chemistry, where new breakthroughs are being achieved that are of significance to a larger scientific audience. The individual volumes of Topics in Organometallic Chemistry are thematic. Review articles are generally invited by the volume editors. All chapters from Topics in Organometallic Chemistry are published OnlineFirst with an individual DOI. In references, Topics in Organometallic Chemistry is abbreviated as Top Organomet Chem and cited as a journal

Advances in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials

Advances in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials
Author: Rafael Huirache Acuña
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 124
Release: 2020-07-15
ISBN: 1838807551
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials Book Excerpt:

Nowadays, microporous and mesoporous materials are versatile solids of great interest due to their structures and pore sizes, which allow their application in many areas. Accordingly, with IUPAC, materials with pore sizes smaller than 2 nm are called microporous and with pore sizes between 2 and 50 nm are called mesoporous. The pore size has an important impact on the material properties and affects their applications. In addition, high surface area, and their ability to incorporate functional groups on the framework are of great relevance for commercial and science applications. This book intends to provide readers with a comprehensive overview of recent improvements in the microporous and mesoporous materials field.

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials by Etching in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials by Etching in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 228
Release: 2009
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials by Etching in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Book Excerpt:

Supercritical CO2(scCO2) is emerging as a viable and environmentally sustainable platform for nanomaterials synthesis due to its tunable solvent properties combined with low surface tension and viscosity, which allow rapid, non-destructive wetting within small features. However, to advance the utility of this fluid, a more thorough understanding of surface chemistry at high pressures is needed. In this study, the behavior of reactive solids in scCO2was examined by etching thin dielectric, metal, and alloy films to determine the fundamental mechanisms controlling the reactions. Models were developed to describe the etching processes and to benchmark scCO2with conventional methods. Dielectric SiOxNyfilms were etched with an HF/pyridine complex dissolved in scCO2. The anhydrous etching process resulted in formation of a residual (NH4)2SiF6layer that limited transport of reactants to the film and caused a drop in reaction order. Partial removal of the salt was accomplished by sublimation under vacuum. Etching of thin CuO films with hexafluoroacetylacetone (hfacH) in scCO2was studied and found to occur via a 3-step Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction sequence. The kinetic model showed that lower scCO2densities favored hfacH adsorption on the CuO surface and that scCO2solvation forces lowered the activation barrier for the rate-limiting step. Adding up to 10 & times the molar ratio of pure H2O to hfacH nearly doubled theetching rate through formation of a hydrogen-bonded hfacH complex. Both bulk and thin film AgCu alloys were selectively etched in scCO2to generatenanoporous Ag structures. As Cu was preferentially removed through selective oxidation and chelation, the Ag atoms conglomerated into successively larger clusters similar to mechanisms reported in aqueous phase dealloying. Supercritical dealloying was observed at Cu compositions below typical parting limits, suggesting enhanced fluid transport in the evolving pores. When using in situ oxidation, the etching reaction was limited by decomposition of H2O2. Inverse space image analysis of samples with initial phase domain sizes between 250 - 1000 nm showed that below a threshold of approximately 500 nm, the dealloyed feature size mimicked the starting microstructure. Larger phase domains prohibited surface diffusion of Ag between phases producing a mixture of large and small Ag nanostructures.

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications
Author: Vladimir Anikeev,Maohong Fan I
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 284
Release: 2013-12-21
ISBN: 0444626972
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications Book Excerpt:

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds
Author: Can Erkey
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 233
Release: 2011
ISBN: 0080453295
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds Book Excerpt:

Organometallic compounds are utilized as reagents in the preparation and processing of advanced nanostructured materials, as catalysts in the production of a wide variety of specialty chemicals and polymers, and as drugs. Supercritical fluid science and technology has a wide variety of applications ranging from extraction of pharmaceutically active compounds to the synthesis of advanced materials. The combination of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids has significant potential. This book covers the fundamental aspects and related applications in this rapidly growing area. Covers the preparation of nanostructured composite materials using supercritical fluids Focuses on the intersection of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids Addresses the behavior of organometallic compounds in supercritical fluid environments

Nanostructured Materials

Nanostructured Materials
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2001-12-18
ISBN: 0080493505
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanostructured Materials Book Excerpt:

This thematic volume of Advances in Chemical Engineering presents the latest advances in the exciting interdisciplinary field of nanostructured materials. Written by chemical engineers, chemists, physicists, materials scientists, and bioengineers, this volume focuses on the molecular engineering of materials at the nanometer scale for unique size-dependent properties. It describes a "bottom-up" approach to designing nanostructured systems for a variety of chemical, physical, and biological applications.

Environment Energy and Climate Change I

Environment  Energy and Climate Change I
Author: Elena Jiménez,Beatriz Cabañas,Gilles Lefebvre
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2015-01-16
ISBN: 3319129074
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environment Energy and Climate Change I Book Excerpt:

This volume offers a comprehensive overview of advanced research in the field of environmental green chemistry for air, soil and water pollutants, and presents emerging technologies on the chemical treatment of polluted sites and wastes. The 15 chapters, prepared by internationally respected experts, address the following topics: (1) monitoring of indoor and outdoor air pollutants; (2) atmospheric degradation processes and formation mechanisms of secondary pollutants; (3) the environmental assessment and impacts of soils polluted by heavy metals and hydrocarbons; (4) sustainable and emerging technologies for the chemical treatment of organic and animal wastes and wastewaters; (5) photocatalytic CO2 conversion methods for the mitigation of greenhouse effects; and (6) non-conventional methods in green chemistry synthesis. Lastly, the authors outline the future perspectives of each topic. Given its multidisciplinary approach, combining environmental analysis and engineering, the book offers a valuable resource for all researchers and students interested in environmental chemistry and engineering.

Advanced Nanotechnology and Application of Supercritical Fluids

Advanced Nanotechnology and Application of Supercritical Fluids
Author: Inamuddin,Abdullah M. Asiri
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 245
Release: 2020-07-27
ISBN: 303044984X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Nanotechnology and Application of Supercritical Fluids Book Excerpt:

Globalization and industrialization involve a number of reactions, products, extractions, and separations that require the use of organic solvents. These solvents are responsible for a number of ecological concerns, including atmospheric and land toxicity. Conventional organic solvents are regarded as volatile organic compounds; some are even limited due to their potential for ozone layer depletion. While supercritical liquids exhibit physical properties that could make them ideal substitutes for these volatile compounds, there is particular interest in the use of carbon dioxide as a solvent of crude material. In particular, carbon dioxide has apparent ‘green’ properties, like its noncombustible nature, the fact that it is generally nonpoisonous, and its relative inertness. Thus, the use of supercritical carbon dioxide can provide practical improvements to the sustainability of industrial products and processes. This book provides in-depth literature in the area of industrial green processes, focusing on the separation, purification, and extraction of compounds utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide as a green solvent.

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids
Author: Michael Türk
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2014-11-06
ISBN: 0444594434
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids Book Excerpt:

Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions. The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics. Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines. Focuses on the general principles of particle formation in supercritical fluids Considers high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria, fluid dynamics and nucleation theory Discusses the underlying physical and chemical phenomena needed to understand the different applications, pointing out the relationship between process conditions and product properties

Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Author: James A. Schwarz,Cristian I. Contescu,Karol Putyera
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 4014
Release: 2004
ISBN: 9780824750497
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Book Excerpt:

Nanomaterials in Catalysis

Nanomaterials in Catalysis
Author: Philippe Serp,Karine Philippot
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 516
Release: 2012-11-15
ISBN: 3527656898
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanomaterials in Catalysis Book Excerpt:

Nanocatalysis has emerged as a field at the interface between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and offers unique solutions to the demanding requirements for catalyst improvement. Heterogeneous catalysis represents one of the oldest commercial applications of nanoscience and nanoparticles of metals, semiconductors, oxides, and other compounds have been widely used for important chemical reactions. The main focus of this fi eld is the development of well-defined catalysts, which may include both metal nanoparticles and a nanomaterial as the support. These nanocatalysts should display the benefits of both homogenous and heterogeneous catalysts, such as high efficiency and selectivity, stability and easy recovery/recycling. The concept of nanocatalysis is outlined in this book and, in particular, it provides a comprehensive overview of the science of colloidal nanoparticles. A broad range of topics, from the fundamentals to applications in catalysis, are covered, without excluding micelles, nanoparticles in ionic liquids, dendrimers, nanotubes, and nanooxides, as well as modeling, and the characterization of nanocatalysts, making it an indispensable reference for both researchers at universities and professionals in industry.

Functionalized Nanomaterials

Functionalized Nanomaterials
Author: Vineet Kumar,Praveen Guleria,Nandita Dasgupta,Shivendu Ranjan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2021-07-28
ISBN: 1000367207
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Functionalized Nanomaterials Book Excerpt:

Nanomaterials contain some unique properties due to their nanometric size and surface functionalization. Nanomaterial functionalization also affects their compatibility to biocompatibility and toxicity behaviors. environment and living organism. This makes functionalized nanomaterials a material with huge scope and few challenges. This book provides detailed information about the nanomaterial functionalization and their application. Recent advancements, challenges and opportunities in the preparation and applications of functionalized nanomaterials are also highlighted. This book can serve as a reference book for scientific investigators, doctoral and post-doctoral scholars; undergrad and grad. This book is very useful for multidisciplinary researchers, industry personnel’s, journalists, and policy makers. Features: Covers all aspects of Nanomaterial functionalization and its applications Describes and methods of functionalized nanomaterials synthesis for different applications Discusses the challenges, recent findings, and cutting-edge global research trends on functionalization of nanomaterials and its applications It discusses the regulatory frameworks for the safe use of functionalized nanomaterials. It contains contributions from international experts from multiple disciplines.

Functionalized Nanomaterials II

Functionalized Nanomaterials II
Author: Vineet Kumar,Praveen Guleria,Nandita Dasgupta,Shivendu Ranjan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 260
Release: 2021-04-12
ISBN: 1351021370
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Functionalized Nanomaterials II Book Excerpt:

The functionalization of nanomaterials provides them with some unique properties, making the same nanomaterial amenable for various applications by simply manipulating functional components. However, functionalized nanomaterials also face some challenges, along with some encouraging new applications in the future. This book provides a detailed account of applications of the functionalization of nanomaterials. This book can serve as a reference book for scientific investigators, including doctoral and post-doctoral scholars and undergraduate and graduate students, in context with the scope of applications of functionalized nanomaterials. It also highlights recent advances, challenges, and opportunities in the application of nanomaterials. This book will provide critical and comparative data for nanotechnologists. It may also be beneficial for multidisciplinary researchers, industry personnel, journalists, policy makers, and the common public to understand the scope of functionalized nanomaterials in detail and in depth. Features: This book covers various applications of functionalized nanomaterials. It discusses recent global research trends and future applications of functionalized nanomaterials. It highlights the need for more rigorous regulatory frameworks for the safe use of functionalized nanomaterials. It contains contributions from international experts and will be a valuable resource for researchers.

Nanomaterials Synthesis

Nanomaterials Synthesis
Author: Yasir Beeran Pottathara,Sabu Thomas,Nandakumar Kalarikkal,Yves Grohens,Vanja Kokol
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 594
Release: 2019-05-29
ISBN: 0128157526
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanomaterials Synthesis Book Excerpt:

Nanomaterials Synthesis: Design, Fabrication and Applications combines the present and emerging trends of synthesis routes of nanomaterials with the incorporation of various technologies. The book covers the new trends and challenges in the synthesis and surface engineering of a wide range of nanomaterials, including emerging technologies used for their synthesis. Significant properties, safety and sustainability and environmental impacts of the synthesis routes are explored. This book is an important information source that will help materials scientists and engineers who want to learn more about how different classes of nanomaterials are designed. Highlights recent developments in, and opportunities created by, new nanomaterials synthesis methods Explains major synthesis techniques for different types of nanomaterials Discusses the challenges of using a variety of synthesis methods

CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology

CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology
Author: Boris Ildusovich Kharisov,Oxana Vasilievna Kharissova,Ubaldo Ortiz-Mendez
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1212
Release: 2016-01-06
ISBN: 1466580895
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology Book Excerpt:

The CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it is a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to nanotechnology.The book examines the design, application, and utilization of devices, techniques, and technologies critical to research at the