Systems Biomedicine

Systems Biomedicine
Author: Edison T. Liu,Douglas A. Lauffenburger
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 448
Release: 2009-09-17
ISBN: 9780080919836
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Systems Biomedicine Book Excerpt:

Systems biology is a critical emerging field that quantifies and annotates the complexity of biological systems in order to construct algorithmic models to predict outcomes from component input. Applications in medicine are revolutionizing our understanding of biological processes and systems. Systems Biomedicine is organized around foundations, computational modeling, network biology, and integrative biology, with the extension of examples from human biology and pharmacology, to focus on the applications of systems approaches to medical problems. An integrative approach to the underlying genomic, proteomic, and computational biology principles provides researchers with guidance in the use of qualitative systems and hypothesis generators. To reflect the highly interdisciplinary nature of the field, careful detail has been extended to ensure explanations of complex mathematical and biological principles are clear with minimum technical jargon. Organized to reflect the important distinguishing characteristics of systems strategies in experimental biology and medicine Provides precise and comprehensive measurement tools for constructing a model of the system and tools for defining complexity as an experimental dependent variable Includes a thorough discussion of the applications of quantitative principles to biomedical problems

Comprehensive Systems Biomedicine

Comprehensive Systems Biomedicine
Author: Pietro Lio,Enrico Capobianco
Publsiher: Frontiers E-books
Total Pages: 113
Release: 2014-12-03
ISBN: 2889193748
Category: Genetics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Comprehensive Systems Biomedicine Book Excerpt:

Systems Biomedicine is a field in perpetual development. By definition a translational discipline, it emphasizes the role of quantitative systems approaches in biomedicine and aims to offer solutions to many emerging problems characterized by levels and types of complexity and uncertainty unmet before. Many factors, including technological and societal ones, need to be considered. In particular, new technologies are providing researchers with the data deluge whose management and exploitation requires a reinvention of cross-disciplinary team efforts. The advent of “omics” and high-content imaging are examples of advances de facto establishing the necessity of systems approaches. Hypothesis-driven models and in silico validation tools in support to all the varieties of experimental applications call for a profound revision. The focus on phases like mining and assimilating the data has substantially increased so to allow for interpretable knowledge to be inferred. Notably, to be able to tackle the newly generated data dimensionality, heterogeneity and complexity, model-free and data-driven intensive applications are increasingly shaping the computational pipelines and architectures that quant specialists set aside of the high-throughput genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics platforms. As for the societal aspects, in many advanced societies health care needs now more than in the past to address the problem of managing ageing populations and their complex morbidity patterns. In parallel, there is a growing research interest on the impact that cross-disciplinary clinical, epidemiological and quantitative modelling studies can have in relation to outcomes potentially affecting the quality of life of many people. Complex systems, including those characterizing biomedicine, are assessed in both their functionality and stability, and also relatively to the capacity of generating information from diversity, variation, and complexity. Due to the combined interactions and effects, such systems embed prediction power available for instance in both target identification or marker discovery, or more generally for conducting inference about patients’ pathological states, i.e. normal versus disease, diagnostic or prognostic analysis, and preventive assessment (e.g., risk evaluation). The ultimate goal, personalized medicine, will be achieved based on the confluence of the system’s predictive power to patient-specific profiling.

New Challenges for Cancer Systems Biomedicine

New Challenges for Cancer Systems Biomedicine
Author: Alberto D'Onofrio,Paola Cerrai,Alberto Gandolfi
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 399
Release: 2013-01-25
ISBN: 8847025710
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Challenges for Cancer Systems Biomedicine Book Excerpt:

The future of oncology seems to lie in Molecular Medicine (MM). MM is a new science based on three pillars. Two of them are evident in its very name and are well known: medical science and molecular biology. However, there is a general unawareness that MM is firmly based on a third, and equally important, pillar: Systems Biomedicine. Currently, this term denotes multilevel, hierarchical models integrating key factors at the molecular, cellular, tissue, through phenotype levels, analyzed to reveal the global behavior of the biological process under consideration. It becomes increasingly evident that the tools to construct such complex models include, not only bioinformatics and modern applied statistics, as is unanimously agreed, but also other interdisciplinary fields of science, notably, Mathematical Oncology, Systems Biology and Theoretical Biophysics.

Biomedicine and Alternative Healing Systems in America

Biomedicine and Alternative Healing Systems in America
Author: Hans A. Baer
Publsiher: Univ of Wisconsin Press
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2001
ISBN: 9780299166946
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomedicine and Alternative Healing Systems in America Book Excerpt:

Examining medical pluralism in the United States from the Revolutionary War period through the end of the twentieth century, Hans Baer brings together in one convenient reference a vast array of information on healing systems as diverse as Christian Science, osteopathy, acupuncture, evangelical faith healing, Santeria, southern Appalachian herbalism, and Navajo healing. In a country where the dominant paradigm of biomedicine (medical schools, research hospitals, clinics staffed by M.D.s and R.N.s) has been long established and supported by laws and regulations, the continuing appeal of other medical systems and subsystems bears careful consideration. Distinctions of class, Baer emphasizes, as well as differences in race, ethnicity, and gender, are fundamental to the diversity of beliefs, techniques, and social organizations represented in the phenomenon of medical pluralism. Baer traces the simultaneous emergence in the nineteenth century of formalized biomedicine and of homeopathy, botanic medicine, hydropathy, Christian Science, osteopathy, and chiropractic. He examines present-day osteopathic medicine as a system parallel to biomedicine; chiropractic, naturopathy, and acupunctur

The African Transformation of Western Medicine and the Dynamics of Global Cultural Exchange

The African Transformation of Western Medicine and the Dynamics of Global Cultural Exchange
Author: David Baronov
Publsiher: Temple University Press
Total Pages: 259
Release: 2010-05-14
ISBN: 1592139167
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The African Transformation of Western Medicine and the Dynamics of Global Cultural Exchange Book Excerpt:

Beginning with the colonial era, Western biomedicine has radically transformed African medical beliefs and practices. Conversely, in using Western biomedicine, Africans have also transformed it. The African Transformation of Western Medicine and the Dynamics of Global Cultural Exchange contends that contemporary African medical systems—no less “biomedical” than Western medicine—in fact greatly enrich and expand the notion of biomedicine, reframing it as a global cultural form deployed across global networks of cultural exchange. The book analyzes biomedicine as a complex and dynamic sociocultural form, the conceptual premises of which make it necessarily subject to ongoing change and development as it travels the globe. David Baronov captures the complexities of this cultural exchange by using world-systems analysis in a way that places global cultural processes on equal footing with political and economic processes. In doing so, he both allows the story of Africa’s transformation of “Western” biomedicine to be told and offers new insights into the capitalist world system.

Highly Mutable Animal RNA Viruses Adaptation and Evolution

Highly Mutable Animal RNA Viruses  Adaptation and Evolution
Author: Akio Adachi,Masako Nomaguchi
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2017-11-30
ISBN: 2889453480
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Highly Mutable Animal RNA Viruses Adaptation and Evolution Book Excerpt:

Viruses are widely present in nature, and numerous viral species with a variety of unique characteristics have been identified so far. Even now, new emerging or re-emerging viruses are being found or re-found as novel viral classes or as quasi-species. Indeed, viruses are everywhere. Of note, viruses are pivotal as targets and tools of basic and applied sciences. On one hand, portions of the viruses are infectious for animals including humans, and cause various diseases in infected hosts by distinct mechanisms and at a different level of severity. While many of viruses are known to co-exist quietly with their hosts, pathogenic viruses certainly affect and threaten our society as well as individuals to provoke serious medical or economic attention. We should act against certain dreadful and highly infectious viruses as a global problem. Animal RNA viruses can readily mutate to adapt themselves in their hostile environments for their survival. Resultant viruses may sometimes show essentially altered phenotypes from the original parental strains. This fundamental and general property of animal RNA viruses represents major extensive issues of scientific, medical, and/or economic importance. In this Research Topic, we have focused on the high mutability of animal RNA viruses, and selected relevant articles on animal viruses of broad-ranges such as primate lentiviruses, influenza viruses, paramyxoviruses, flaviviruses, rabies virus, norovirus, picornaviruses, and picobirnavirus. Each article has taken up intriguing aspects of the subject viruses. We are sure that readers acquire important information on virus mutation, adaptation, diversification, and evolution, and hope that researchers in the field related to virology gain some solid hints from the reported articles for further virological and /or medical studies. Finally, we thank all the contributing researchers in this Research Topic, entitled “Highly Mutable Animal RNA Viruses: Adaptation and Evolution”, for their elegant and interesting works.

Patterns of Dynamics

Patterns of Dynamics
Author: Pavel Gurevich,Juliette Hell,Björn Sandstede,Arnd Scheel
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2018-02-07
ISBN: 3319641735
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Patterns of Dynamics Book Excerpt:

Theoretical advances in dynamical-systems theory and their applications to pattern-forming processes in the sciences and engineering are discussed in this volume that resulted from the conference Patterns in Dynamics held in honor of Bernold Fiedler, in Berlin, July 25-29, 2016.The contributions build and develop mathematical techniques, and use mathematical approaches for prediction and control of complex systems. The underlying mathematical theories help extract structures from experimental observations and, conversely, shed light on the formation, dynamics, and control of spatio-temporal patterns in applications. Theoretical areas covered include geometric analysis, spatial dynamics, spectral theory, traveling-wave theory, and topological data analysis; also discussed are their applications to chemotaxis, self-organization at interfaces, neuroscience, and transport processes.

The Anthropology of Latin America and the Caribbean

The Anthropology of Latin America and the Caribbean
Author: Harry Sanabria
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 448
Release: 2015-09-16
ISBN: 1317350243
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Anthropology of Latin America and the Caribbean Book Excerpt:

The first single-authored comprehensive introduction to major contemporary research trends, issues, and debates on the anthropology of Latin America and the Caribbean. The text provides wide and historically informed coverage of key facets of Latin American and Caribbean societies and their cultural and historical development as well as the roles of power and inequality. Cymeme Howe, Visiting Assistant Professor of Cornell University writes, “The text moves well and builds over time, paying close attention to balancing both the Caribbean and Latin America as geographic regions, Spanish and non-Spanish speaking countries, and historical and contemporary issues in the field. I found the geographic breadth to be especially impressive.” Jeffrey W. Mantz of California State University, Stanislaus, notes that the contents “reflect the insights of an anthropologist who knows Latin America intimately and extensively.”

Routledge Handbook of Contemporary India

Routledge Handbook of Contemporary India
Author: Knut A. Jacobsen
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 506
Release: 2015-08-11
ISBN: 1317403576
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Routledge Handbook of Contemporary India Book Excerpt:

India is the second largest country in the world with regard to population, the world’s largest democracy and by far the largest country in South Asia, and one of the most diverse and pluralistic nations in the world in terms of official languages, cultures, religions and social identities. Indians have for centuries exchanged ideas with other cultures globally and some traditions have been transformed in those transnational and transcultural encounters and become successful innovations with an extraordinary global popularity. India is an emerging global power in terms of economy, but in spite of India’s impressive economic growth over the last decades, some of the most serious problems of Indian society such as poverty, repression of women, inequality both in terms of living conditions and of opportunities such as access to education, employment, and the economic resources of the state persist and do not seem to go away. This Handbook contains chapters by the field’s foremost scholars dealing with fundamental issues in India’s current cultural and social transformation and concentrates on India as it emerged after the economic reforms and the new economic policy of the 1980s and 1990s and as it develops in the twenty-first century. Following an introduction by the editor, the book is divided into five parts: Part I: Foundation Part II: India and the world Part III: Society, class, caste and gender Part IV: Religion and diversity Part V: Cultural change and innovations Exploring the cultural changes and innovations relating a number of contexts in contemporary India, this Handbook is essential reading for students and scholars interested in Indian and South Asian culture, politics and society.

The New Blackwell Companion to Medical Sociology

The New Blackwell Companion to Medical Sociology
Author: William C. Cockerham
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 616
Release: 2010-01-29
ISBN: 1444314793
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The New Blackwell Companion to Medical Sociology Book Excerpt:

An authoritative, topical, and comprehensive reference to the keyconcepts and most important traditional and contemporary issues inmedical sociology. Contains 35 chapters by recognized experts in the field, bothestablished and rising young scholars Covers standard topics in the field as well as new and engagingissues such as bioterrorism, bioethics, and infectious disease Chapters are thematically arranged to cover the major issues ofthe sub-discipline Global range of contributors and an internationalperspective

Fundamentals of Complementary Alternative and Integrative Medicine E Book

Fundamentals of Complementary  Alternative  and Integrative Medicine   E Book
Author: Marc S. Micozzi
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 736
Release: 2018-10-08
ISBN: 0323510825
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Complementary Alternative and Integrative Medicine E Book Book Excerpt:

Get a solid, global foundation of the therapies and evidence-based clinical applications of CAI. Fundamentals of Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Medicine, 6th Edition is filled with the most up-to-date information on scientific theory and research of holistic medicine from experts around the world. The 6th edition of this acclaimed text includes all new content on quantum biology and biofields in health and nursing, integrative mental health care, and homeopathic medicine. Its wide range of topics explores therapies most commonly seen in the U.S., such as energy medicine, mind-body therapies, and reflexology along with traditional medicine and practices from around the world. With detailed coverage of historic and contemporary applications, this text is a solid resource for all practitioners in the medical, health, and science fields! Coverage of CAI therapies and systems includes those most commonly encountered or growing in popularity, so you can carefully evaluate each treatment. An evidence-based approach focuses on treatments best supported by clinical trials and scientific evidence. Observations from mechanisms of action to evidence of clinical efficacy answers questions of how, why, and when CAM therapies work. A unique synthesis of information, including historical usage, cultural and social analysis, current basic science theory and research, and a wide range of clinical investigations and observations, makes this text a focused, authoritative resource. Global coverage includes discussions of traditional healing arts from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Clinical guides for selecting therapies, and new advances for matching the appropriate therapy to the individual patient, enables you to offer and/or recommend individualized patient care. Expert contributors include well-known writers such as Kevin Ergil, Patch Adams, Joseph Pizzorno, and Marc Micozzi. A unique history of CAI traces CAM therapies from their beginnings to present day practices. Suggested readings and references on the companion website list the best resources for further research and study. NEW! Added chapters offer fresh perspective on quantum biology and biofields in health and nursing, integrative mental health care, and homeopathic medicine. NEW! Updated chapters feature new content and topics, including: challenges in integrative medicine, legal issues, CAI in the community, psychometric evaluation, placebo effect, stress management, and much more! NEW! Updated guides on common herbal remedies in clinical practice, East and Southeast Asia, and native North and South America deliver the latest information. NEW! Basic science content and new theory and research studies cover a wide range of sciences such as biophysics, biology and ecology, ethnomedicine, psychometrics, neurosciences, and systems theory. NEW! Expanded global ethnomedical systems includes new content on Shamanism and Neo-Shamanism, Central and North Asia, Southeast Asia, Nepal and Tibet, Hawaii and South Pacific, Alaska and Pacific Northwest, and contemporary global healthcare.

Big Data Analytics in Bioinformatics and Healthcare

Big Data Analytics in Bioinformatics and Healthcare
Author: Wang, Baoying
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 528
Release: 2014-10-31
ISBN: 1466666129
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Big Data Analytics in Bioinformatics and Healthcare Book Excerpt:

As technology evolves and electronic data becomes more complex, digital medical record management and analysis becomes a challenge. In order to discover patterns and make relevant predictions based on large data sets, researchers and medical professionals must find new methods to analyze and extract relevant health information. Big Data Analytics in Bioinformatics and Healthcare merges the fields of biology, technology, and medicine in order to present a comprehensive study on the emerging information processing applications necessary in the field of electronic medical record management. Complete with interdisciplinary research resources, this publication is an essential reference source for researchers, practitioners, and students interested in the fields of biological computation, database management, and health information technology, with a special focus on the methodologies and tools to manage massive and complex electronic information.

Bioinformatics for Diagnosis Prognosis and Treatment of Complex Diseases

Bioinformatics for Diagnosis  Prognosis and Treatment of Complex Diseases
Author: Bairong Shen
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 220
Release: 2013-11-25
ISBN: 9400779755
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioinformatics for Diagnosis Prognosis and Treatment of Complex Diseases Book Excerpt:

The book introduces the bioinformatics tools, databases and strategies for the translational research, focuses on the biomarker discovery based on integrative data analysis and systems biological network reconstruction. With the coming of personal genomics era, the biomedical data will be accumulated fast and then it will become reality for the personalized and accurate diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of complex diseases. The book covers both state of the art of bioinformatics methodologies and the examples for the identification of simple or network biomarkers. In addition, bioinformatics software tools and scripts are provided to the practical application in the study of complex diseases. The present state, the future challenges and perspectives were discussed. The book is written for biologists, biomedical informatics scientists and clinicians, etc. Dr. Bairong Shen is Professor and Director of Center for Systems Biology, Soochow University; he is also Director of Taicang Center for Translational Bioinformatics.

Neural Information Processing

Neural Information Processing
Author: Tingwen Huang,Zhigang Zeng,Chuandong Li,Chi Sing Leung
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 756
Release: 2012-11-05
ISBN: 364234500X
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neural Information Processing Book Excerpt:

The five volume set LNCS 7663, LNCS 7664, LNCS 7665, LNCS 7666 and LNCS 7667 constitutes the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Neural Information Processing, ICONIP 2012, held in Doha, Qatar, in November 2012. The 423 regular session papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. These papers cover all major topics of theoretical research, empirical study and applications of neural information processing research. The 5 volumes represent 5 topical sections containing articles on theoretical analysis, neural modeling, algorithms, applications, as well as simulation and synthesis.

Pediatric Pharmacotherapy

Pediatric Pharmacotherapy
Author: Wieland Kiess,Matthias Schwab,Johannes van den Anker
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 538
Release: 2020-07-15
ISBN: 3030504948
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pediatric Pharmacotherapy Book Excerpt:

This volume provides readers with the most updated scientific information on the efficacy and safety of medicines for children and adolescents. The book enriches the understanding of pediatric pharmacotherapy for health professionals, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and learned societies. It contains important information on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drugs. It summarizes the latest investigations on the effects of pharmacological treatments in relation to and dependent on age, gender, fat mass and disease status. Therefore and importantly, this volume reviews the latest data on how pharmacotherapy has to be adjusted and personalized in regards to stages of development and during the pediatric lifespan from neonate through adolescence. In addition, the topic of rare diseases and special challenges for pharmacotherapy will be included and will provide readers with the necessary knowledge to handle complex diseases and treatment strategies especially in relation to pharmacotherapy of rare and orphan diseases.

Basic Research And Industrial Innovation In China

Basic Research And Industrial Innovation In China
Author: Xielin Liu,Yubing He,Peng Cheng
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 536
Release: 2018-10-31
ISBN: 9813236574
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Basic Research And Industrial Innovation In China Book Excerpt:

Chinese enterprises have relied on importing technology and imitation as their main technology strategies in the past. Based on analysis of cross-countries' case studies and the history of industrial innovation, the authors proposed the concept of industry-driven basic research and expounds the important role of scientific discovery in industrial technological innovation. They are convinced that both the government and enterprises should focus on industry-driven basic research in order to bridge the gap between the government's target and what enterprises actually do in China. The challenge remains to be seen if China can transform Science and technology investment into real industrial innovation capability.

Generic

Generic
Author: Jeremy A. Greene
Publsiher: Johns Hopkins University Press
Total Pages: 376
Release: 2016-09-01
ISBN: 142142164X
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Generic Book Excerpt:

Greene’s history sheds light on the controversies shadowing the success of generics: problems with the generalizability of medical knowledge, the fragile role of science in public policy, and the increasing role of industry, marketing, and consumer logics in late-twentieth-century and early twenty-first century health care.

A Handbook of Practicing Anthropology

A Handbook of Practicing Anthropology
Author: Riall Nolan
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2013-01-16
ISBN: 1118484347
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Handbook of Practicing Anthropology Book Excerpt:

An essential career-planning resource, A Handbook ofPracticing Anthropology presents a comprehensive account ofcontemporary anthropological practice written primarily byanthropological practitioners Engagingly written and instructive accounts ofpractice by anthropological professionals working in corporations,governmental, entrepreneurial, and educational settings Provides essential guidance on applying anthropologicalprinciples on the job: what works well and what must belearned Emphasizes the value of collaboration, teamwork, and continuouslearning as key elements to success in non-academic careers Highlights the range of successful career options forpractitioners , describes significant sectors of professionalactivity, and discusses key issues, concerns, and controversies inthe field Chapters examine key practice sectors such as freelancing,managing a consulting firm, working for government, non-profits,and corporations, and the domains of health, industry, education,international development, and the military

Kidney

Kidney
Author: Sang Geon Kim
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 234
Release: 2013-09-11
ISBN: 1466588128
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Kidney Book Excerpt:

Bridging the gap between advances in basic biology and chemistry and technological applications in the field of toxicity assessments, this book describes major areas of progress in the laboratory and clinic. In the first section, aspects of cellular organelles are discussed. The second section covers the basic principles and applications of modern toxicological tools such as transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic approaches. In the third section, the recent developments on molecular modeling and systems biology are described with an eye on the future establishment of virtual cell technology. Finally, the book discusses clinical implications of acute and chronic renal toxicity.

Immune Rebalancing

Immune Rebalancing
Author: Diana Boraschi,Giselle Penton-Rol
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 298
Release: 2016-01-25
ISBN: 0128033363
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Immune Rebalancing Book Excerpt:

Immune Rebalancing: The Future of Immunosuppression summarizes the most promising perspectives of immunopharmacology, in particular in the area of immunosuppression by considering molecular pathways, personalized medicine, microbiome and nanomedicine. Modulation of immune responses for therapeutic purposes is a particularly relevant area, given the central role of anomalous immunity in diseases. These diseases vary from the most typically immune-related syndromes (autoimmune diseases, allergy and asthma, immunodeficiencies) to those in which altered immunity and inflammation define the pathological outcomes (chronic infections, tumours, chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases, metabolic disorders, etc. Visits immunosuppression from a modern point of view of signalling mechanisms at the light of the current knowledge of signalling mechanisms and regulatory networks allows the reader to formulate new ideas and concepts on how to use immunosuppression the therapeutic purposes Encourages researchers to engage into exploring the field of pharmacological modulation of immune responses in depth, and with the new knowledge and tools available, designs more effective therapeutic strategies to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, cancer, degenerative diseases and infections Examines the link between molecular pathways associated to immune-suppression and the new immunopharmacology approaches Provides information on the new strategies for drug development in this field Considers the role of microbes in the development of the mammalian immune system and immune responses, which will widen the reader’s strategy for addressing therapeutic immune modulations